Publications by authors named "Min Cao"

356 Publications

Ca/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinases in Leukemia Development.

J Cell Immunol 2021 ;3(3):144-150

Center for Precision Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Missouri, 1 Hospital Drive, Columbia, Missouri 65212, USA.

Ca/calmodulin (CaM) signaling is important for a wide range of cellular functions. It is not surprised the role of this signaling has been recognized in tumor progressions, such as proliferation, invasion, and migration. However, its role in leukemia has not been well appreciated. The multifunctional Ca/CaM-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are critical intermediates of this signaling and play key roles in cancer development. The most investigated CaMKs in leukemia, especially myeloid leukemia, are CaMKI, CaMKII, and CaMKIV. The function and mechanism of these kinases in leukemia development are summarized in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33696/immunology.3.091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276974PMC
January 2021

Differential gene expression patterns during gametophyte development provide insights into sex differentiation in the dioicous kelp Saccharina japonica.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jul 14;21(1):335. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

National Engineering Science Research & Development Center of Algae and Sea Cucumbers of China, Provincial Key Laboratory of Genetic Improvement & Efficient Culture of Marine Algae of Shandong, Shandong Oriental Ocean Sci-Tech Co., Ltd., Yantai, 264003, China.

Background: In brown algae, dioicy is the prevalent sexual system, and phenotypic differences between male and female gametophytes have been found in many dioicous species. Saccharina japonica show remarkable sexual dimorphism in gametophytes before gametogenesis. A higher level of phenotypic differentiation was also found in female and male gametes after gametogenesis. However, the patterns of differential gene expression throughout gametophyte development and how these changes might relate to sex-specific fitness at the gamete stage in S. japonica are not well known.

Results: In this study, differences in gene expression between male and female gametophytes in different developmental stages were investigated using comparative transcriptome analysis. Among the 20,151 genes expressed in the haploid gametophyte generation, 37.53% were sex-biased. The abundance of sex-biased genes in mature gametophytes was much higher than that in immature gametophytes, and more male-biased than female-biased genes were observed in the mature stage. The predicted functions of most sex-biased genes were closely related to the sex-specific characteristics of gametes, including cell wall biosynthesis, sperm motility, and sperm and egg recognition. In addition, 51 genes were specifically expressed in males in both stages, showing great potential as candidate male sex-determining region (SDR) genes.

Conclusions: This study describes a thorough investigation into differential gene expression between male and female gametophytes in the dioicous kelp S. japonica. A large number of sex-biased genes in mature gametophytes may be associated with the divergence of phenotypic traits and physiological functions between female gametes (eggs) and male gametes (sperm) during sexual differentiation. These genes may mainly come from new sex-biased genes that have recently evolved in the S. japonica lineage. The duplication of sex-biased genes was detected, which may increase the number of sex-biased genes after gametogenesis in S. japonica to some extent. The excess of male-biased genes over female-biased genes in the mature stage may reflect the different levels of sexual selection across sexes. This study deepens our understanding of the regulation of sex development and differentiation in the dioicous kelp S. japonica.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03117-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278619PMC
July 2021

Long non‑coding RNA XIST promotes cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by modulating miR‑27a‑3p/FOXO3 signaling.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Aug 13;24(2). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, China Resources & WISCO General Hospital (CR & WISCO General Hospital Affiliated to Wuhan University of Science and Technology), Wuhan, Hubei 430080, P.R. China.

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to neuronal damage, which may cause disability and even mortality. Multiple studies have revealed that long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of cerebral I/R injury. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether the lncRNA X inactivate‑specific transcript (XIST) protects neuronal cells from cerebral I/R injury. In the present study, reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR demonstrated that XIST expression was upregulated in the brain tissues of an I/R mouse model and in oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)‑treated Neuro‑2a (N2a) cells. Knockdown of XIST alleviated cerebral injury, as well as reduced N2a cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Additionally, luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays identified that XIST could bind with microRNA (miR)‑27a‑3p. It was found that miR‑27a‑3p expression was downregulated in the brain tissues of an I/R mouse model and in OGD/R‑induced N2a cells. In addition, miR‑27a‑3p overexpression attenuated I/R‑induced cerebral injury, and inhibited the apoptosis and ROS production of N2a cells. miR‑27a‑3p was found to target FOXO3. Silencing of FOXO3 alleviated cerebral injury, as well as inhibited N2a cell apoptosis and ROS production. Collectively, these findings indicated that XIST aggravated cerebral I/R injury by regulating miR‑27a‑3p/FOXO3 signaling, which may provide a novel insight into the treatment of cerebral I/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201472PMC
August 2021

CXC chemokines and their receptors in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii): Characterization, evolution analyses, and expression pattern after Aeromonas salmonicida infection.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 7;186:109-124. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China. Electronic address:

Chemokines are crucial regulators of cell mobilization for development, homeostasis, and immunity. Chemokines signal through binding to chemokine receptors, a superfamily of seven-transmembrane domain G-coupled receptors. In the present study, seventeen CXC chemokine ligands (SsCXCLs) and nine CXC chemokine receptors (SsCXCRs) were systematically identified from Sebastes schlegelii genome. Phylogeny, synteny, and evolutionary analyses were performed to annotate these genes, indicating that the tandem duplications (CXCL8, CXCL11, CXCL32, CXCR2, and CXCR3), the whole genome duplications (CXCL8, CXCL12, CXCL18, and CXCR4), and the teleost-specific members (CXCL18, CXCL19, and CXCL32) led to the expansion of SsCXCLs and SsCXCRs. In addition, SsCXCLs and SsCXCRs were ubiquitously expressed in nine examined healthy tissues, with high expression levels observed in head kidney, liver, gill and spleen. Moreover, most SsCXCLs and SsCXCRs were significantly differentially expressed in head kidney, liver, and gill after Aeromonas salmonicida infection, and exhibited tissue-specific and time-dependent manner. Finally, protein-protein interaction network (PPI) analysis indicated that SsCXCLs and SsCXCRs interacted with a few immune-related genes such as interleukins, cathepsins, CD genes, and TLRs, etc. These results should be valuable for comparative immunological studies and provide insights for further functional characterization of chemokines and receptors in teleost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.014DOI Listing
July 2021

Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate idiopathic pneumonia syndrome by modulating T cell function through CCR2-CCL2 axis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 07 2;12(1):378. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Hematology, Peking University First Hospital, No. 8 Xishiku Street, Beijing, 100034, China.

Background: Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a non-infectious fatal complication characterized by a massive infiltration of leukocytes in lungs and diffuse pulmonary injury after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Conventional immunosuppressive treatments for IPS have poor therapeutic effects. Safe and effective treatments are not yet available and under explorations. Our previous study demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can alleviate IPS, but the mechanisms remain unclear.

Methods: Co-cultured pre-activated T cells and MSCs in vitro to observe the changes in the CCR2-CCL2 axis. By establishing an IPS mouse model and administering MSCs to further verify the results of in vitro experiments.

Results: Co-culture of pre-activated T cells with MSCs in vitro modulated the CCR2-CCL2 axis, resulting in quiescent T cells and polarization toward CCR2CD4 T cell subsets. Blocking CCR2-CCL2 interaction abolished the immunoregulatory effect of MSCs, leading to re-activation of T cells and partial reversion of polarizing toward CCR2CD4 T cells. In IPS mouse model, application of MSCs prolonged the survival and reduced the pathological damage and T cell infiltration into lung tissue. Activation of CCR2-CCL2 axis and production of CCR2CD4 T cells were observed in the lungs treated with MSCs. The prophylactic effect of MSCs on IPS was significantly attenuated by the administration of CCR2 or CCL2 antagonist in MSC-treated mice.

Conclusions: We demonstrated an important role of CCR2-CCL2 axis in modulating T cell function which is one of the mechanisms of the prophylactic effect of MSCs on IPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02459-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254317PMC
July 2021

Effect of using Celosia argentea grown from seeds treated with a magnetic field to conduct Cd phytoremediation in drought stress conditions.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 3;280:130724. Epub 2021 May 3.

College of Resources and Environment, Yangtze University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

The mechanisms of the stimulatory effect of external magnetic fields on plant growth have been revealed; however, the role of magnetic fields in the efficiency of phytoremediation with Celosia argentea grown under drought stress which results in detrimental influences on food security has not been reported. Therefore, this study evaluated the physiological responses of C. argentea to the interactions between exposure to a magnetic field and drought stress. Compared with a control, a drought treatment negatively affected the dry weight, transpiration rate, and Cd extraction efficiency of the species and caused oxidative damage in plant cells, as manifested by the increase in malondialdehyde levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. The biomass production, pigment levels, Cd content, and phytoremediation efficiency of the plant were positively affected by all magnetic field treatments compared to the control. All magnetic treatments, except those at 30 mT, alleviated the detrimental effects induced by a 10-day irrigation regime by enhancing the dry weight, chlorophyll content, and activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of the plant. In terms of the interaction between pre-sowing magnetic field seed treatment and drought stress, a 100 mT treatment increased most of the measured parameters, particularly under a 3-day irrigation regime; this corresponded to the optimal phytoremediation efficiency. The results suggest that magnetic field treatment is a novel, economical, and practicable strategy by which to increase the efficiency of phytoremediation using C. argentea under drought stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130724DOI Listing
October 2021

Comparative analysis of the miRNA-mRNA regulation networks in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) following Vibrio anguillarum infection.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 12;124:104164. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs could not only regulate posttranscriptional silencing of target genes in eukaryotic organisms, but also have positive effect on their target genes as well. These microRNAs have been reported to be involved in mucosal immune responses to pathogen infection in teleost. Therefore, we constructed the immune-related miRNA-mRNA networks in turbot intestine following Vibrio anguillarum infection. In our results, 1550 differentially expressed (DE) genes and 167 DE miRNAs were identified. 113 DE miRNAs targeting 89 DE mRNAs related to immune response were used to construct miRNA-mRNA interaction networks. Functional analysis showed that target genes were associated with synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, mucin type O-Glycan biosynthesis, homologous recombination, biotin metabolism, and intestinal immune network for IgA production that were equivalent to the function of IgT and IgM in fish intestine. Finally, 10 DE miRNAs and 7 DE mRNAs were selected for validating the accuracy of high-throughput sequencing results by qRT-PCR. The results of this study will provide valuable information for the elucidation of the regulation mechanisms of miRNA-mRNA interactions involved in disease resistance in teleost mucosal immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2021.104164DOI Listing
June 2021

Will Healthcare Workers Accept a COVID-19 Vaccine When It Becomes Available? A Cross-Sectional Study in China.

Front Public Health 2021;9:664905. Epub 2021 May 20.

Emergency Department, The Third People's Hospital of Chengdu, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Jiaotong University, The Second Affiliated Hospital Chengdu Clinical College of Chongqing Medical University, Chengdu, China.

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is currently available. This timely survey was conducted to provide insight into on the willingness of healthcare workers (HCWs)to receive the vaccine and determine the influencing factors. This was a cross-sectional online survey. An online questionnaire was provided to all participants and they were asked if they would accept a free vaccine. The questionnaire gathered general demographic information, and included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12); Myers-Briggs Type Indicator questionnaire (MBTI); Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21); and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The data were collected automatically and electronically. Univariate analysis was done between all the variables and our dependent variable. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to examine and identify the associations between the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine with the associated variables. We collected 505 complete answers. The participants included 269 nurses (53.27%), 206 clinicians (40.79%), 15 administrative staff (2.97%), and 15 other staff (2.97%). Of these, 76.63% declared they would accept the vaccine. The major barriers were concerns about safety, effectiveness, and the rapid mutation in the virus. Moreover, four factors were significantly associated with the willingness to receive the vaccine: (a) "understanding of the vaccine" (odds ratio (OR):2.322; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.355 to 3.979); (b) "worried about experiencing COVID-19" (OR 1.987; 95% CI: 1.197-3.298); (c) "flu vaccination in 2020" (OR 4.730; 95% CI: 2.285 to 9.794); and (d) "living with elderly individuals" (OR 1.928; 95% CI: 1.074-3.462). During the vaccination period, there was still hesitation in receiving the vaccine. The results will provide a rationale for the design of future vaccination campaigns and education efforts concerning the vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.664905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172770PMC
June 2021

The CC and CXC chemokine receptors in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) and their response to Aeromonas salmonicida infection.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Oct 1;123:104155. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Chemokines are crucial regulators of cell mobilization for development, homeostasis, and immunity. Chemokines signal through binding to chemokine receptors, a superfamily of seven-transmembrane domain G-coupled receptors. In the present study, eleven CC chemokine receptors (CCRs) and seven CXC chemokine receptors (CXCRs) were identified from turbot genome. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses were performed to annotate these genes, indicating the closest relationship between the turbot chemokine receptors and their counterparts of Japanese flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus). Evolutionary analyses revealed that the tandem duplications of CCR8 and CXCR3, the whole genome duplications of CCR6, CCR9, CCR12, and CXCR4, and the teleost-specific CCR12 led to the expansion of turbot chemokine receptors. In addition, turbot chemokine receptors were ubiquitously expressed in nine examined healthy tissues, with high expression levels observed in spleen, gill, and head kidney. Moreover, most turbot chemokine receptors were significantly differentially expressed in spleen and gill after Aeromonas salmonicida infection, and exhibited general down-regulations at early time points and then gradually up-regulated. Finally, protein-protein interaction network (PPI) analyses indicated that chemokine receptors interacted with a few immune-related genes such as interleukins, Grk genes, CD genes, etc. These results should be valuable for comparative immunological studies and provide insights for further functional characterization of chemokine receptors in turbots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2021.104155DOI Listing
October 2021

The Potential Genes Mediate the Pathogenicity of Allogeneic CD4T Cell in aGVHD Mouse Model.

Biomed Res Int 2021 7;2021:9958745. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Hematology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a significant and severe complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Due to the occurrence of aGVHD, allo-HSCT significantly increases the mortality rate compared with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT). In this study, auto-HSCT and allo-HSCT aGVHD mouse models were built to detect the difference in CD4 lymphocyte in different tissues based on ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis. Clustering analysis, functional annotation, and pathway enrichment analysis were performed on differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was used to find hub genes. CD4T cells were activated by MLR and cytokine stimulation. Cells were sorted out by a flow cell sorter. The selected genes were verified by qRT-PCR, histology, and immunofluorescence staining. The GSE126518 GEO dataset was used to verify the hub genes. Enrichment analysis revealed four immune-related pathways that play an important role in aGVHD, including immunoregulatory interactions between a lymphoid and a nonlymphoid cell, chemokine receptors binding chemokines, cytokine and cytokine receptor interaction, and the chemokine signaling pathway. At the same time, with the PPI network, 11 novel hub genes that were most likely to participate in immunoregulation in aGVHD were identified, which were further validated by qRT-PCR and the GSE126518 dataset. Besides, the protein expression level of Cxcl7 was consistent with the sequencing results. In summary, this study revealed that immunoregulation-related DEGs and pathways played a vital role in the onset of aGVHD. These findings may provide some new clues for probing the pathogenesis and treatment of aGVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9958745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8121574PMC
May 2021

Arbuscular mycorrhizal trees influence the latitudinal beta-diversity gradient of tree communities in forests worldwide.

Nat Commun 2021 05 25;12(1):3137. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) associations are critical for host-tree performance. However, how mycorrhizal associations correlate with the latitudinal tree beta-diversity remains untested. Using a global dataset of 45 forest plots representing 2,804,270 trees across 3840 species, we test how AM and EcM trees contribute to total beta-diversity and its components (turnover and nestedness) of all trees. We find AM rather than EcM trees predominantly contribute to decreasing total beta-diversity and turnover and increasing nestedness with increasing latitude, probably because wide distributions of EcM trees do not generate strong compositional differences among localities. Environmental variables, especially temperature and precipitation, are strongly correlated with beta-diversity patterns for both AM trees and all trees rather than EcM trees. Results support our hypotheses that latitudinal beta-diversity patterns and environmental effects on these patterns are highly dependent on mycorrhizal types. Our findings highlight the importance of AM-dominated forests for conserving global forest biodiversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23236-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149669PMC
May 2021

Traits, strategies, and niches of liana species in a tropical seasonal rainforest.

Oecologia 2021 Jun 23;196(2):499-514. Epub 2021 May 23.

Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Plant functional traits and strategies hold the promise to explain species distribution, but few studies have linked multiple traits to multiple niche dimensions (i.e., light, water, and nutrients). Here, we analyzed for 29 liana species in a Chinese tropical seasonal rainforest how: (1) trait associations and trade-offs lead to different plant strategies; and (2) how these traits shape species' niche dimensions. Eighteen functional traits related to light, water, and nutrient use were measured and species niche dimensions were quantified using species distribution in a 20-ha plot combined with data on canopy gaps, topographic water availability, and soil nutrients. We found a tissue toughness spectrum ranging from soft to hard tissues along which species also varied from acquisitive to conservative water use, and a resource acquisition spectrum ranging from low to high light capture and nutrient use. Intriguingly, each spectrum partly reflected the conservative-acquisitive paradigm, but at the same time, the tissue toughness and the resource acquisition spectrum were uncoupled. Resource niche dimensions were better predicted by individual traits than by multivariate plant strategies. This suggests that trait components that underlie multivariate strategy axes, rather than the plant strategies themselves determine species distributions. Different traits were important for different niche dimensions. In conclusion, plant functional traits and strategies can indeed explain species distributions, but not in a simple and straight forward way. Although the identification of global plant strategies has significantly advanced the field, this research shows that global, multivariate generalizations are difficult to translate to local conditions, as different components of these strategies are important under different local conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-021-04937-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241640PMC
June 2021

Dynamic airway function during exercise in COPD assessed via impulse oscillometry before and after inhaled bronchodilators.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 07 20;131(1):326-338. Epub 2021 May 20.

Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Physiology and Medicine, The Lundquist Institute for Biomedical Innovation at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California.

Assessing airway function during exercise provides useful information regarding mechanical properties of the airways and the extent of ventilatory limitation in COPD. The primary aim of this study was to use impulse oscillometry (IOS) to assess dynamic changes in airway impedance across a range of exercise intensities in patients with GOLD 1-4, before and after albuterol administration. A secondary aim was to assess the reproducibility of IOS measures during exercise. Fifteen patients with COPD (8 males/7 females; age = 66 ± 8 yr; prebronchodilator FEV = 54.3 ± 23.6%Pred) performed incremental cycle ergometry before and 90 min after inhaled albuterol. Pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange were measured continuously, and IOS-derived indices of airway impedance were measured every 2 min immediately preceding inspiratory capacity maneuvers. Test-retest reproducibility of exercise IOS was assessed as mean difference between replicate tests in five healthy subjects (3 males/2 females). At rest and during incremental exercise, albuterol significantly increased airway reactance (X) and decreased airway resistance (R, R-R), impedance (Z), and end-expiratory lung volume (60% ± 12% vs. 58% ± 12% TLC, main effect = 0.003). At peak exercise, there were moderate-to-strong associations between IOS variables and IC, and between IOS variables and concavity in the expiratory limb of the spontaneous flow-volume curve. Exercise IOS exhibited moderate reproducibility in healthy subjects which was strongest with R (mean diff. = -0.01 ± 0.05 kPa/L/s; ICC = 0.68), R-R (mean diff. = -0.004 ± 0.028 kPa/L/s; ICC = 0.65), and Z (mean diff. = -0.006 ± 0.021 kPa/L/s; ICC = 0.69). In patients with COPD, exercise evoked increases in airway resistance and decreases in reactance that were ameliorated by inhaled bronchodilators. The technique of exercise IOS may aid in the clinical assessment of dynamic airway function during exercise. This study provides a novel, mechanistic insight into dynamic airway function during exercise in COPD, before and after inhaled bronchodilators. The use of impulse oscillometry (IOS) to evaluate airway function is unique among exercise studies. We show strong correlations among IOS variables, dynamic hyperinflation, and shape-changes in the spontaneous expiratory flow-volume curve. This approach may aid in the clinical assessment of airway function during exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00148.2021DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of resistance training on exercise ability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 18:e14373. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

Introduction: The resistance exercise effect on the exercise ability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subjects has drawn considerable attention. However, the relationship between resistance exercise and the exercise ability of COPD subjects is conflicting. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate this relationship.

Methods: A systematic-literature search up to July 2020 was performed in OVID, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Google scholar for randomised control trials reported relationships between resistance exercise and the exercise ability of COPD subjects, and 13 studies were detected with 1286 subjects at the baseline. Mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated comparing the resistance exercise and the exercise ability of COPD subjects using the continuous method with a random or fixed-effect model.

Results: A significantly higher 6-minutes walk test was observed in subjects performing resistance training (MD, 60.41; 95% CI, 39.97-80.85, P < .001) compared with non-resistance training subjects. However, no significant difference was observed between COPD subjects performing resistance exercise compared with non-resistance training COPD subjects in constant work rate cycle endurance test (MD, 1.59; 95% CI, 0.03-3.15, P = .05), unsupported upper extremity exercise test (MD, 48.77; 95% CI, -1.20 to 98.75, P < .06) and quality of life questionnaires (MD, -0.62; 95% CI, -2.49 to 1.245, P < .51).

Conclusions: The resistance exercise significantly increases the 6-minutes walk test in COPD subjects. However, resistance exercise did not significantly affect the constant work rate cycle endurance test, unsupported upper extremity exercise test and quality of life questionnaires. This relationship forces us to recommend the resistance exercise to improve the 6-minutes walk test as a simple and easy evaluation of functional exercise ability in COPD subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14373DOI Listing
May 2021

A self-supervised feature-standardization-block for cross-domain lung disease classification.

Methods 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Imaging Department, Fifth People's Hospital of Longgang District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

With the advance of deep learning technology, convolutional neural network (CNN) has been wildly used and achieved the state-of-the-art performances in the area of medical image classification. However, most existing medical image classification methods conduct their experiments on only one public dataset. When applying a well-trained model to a different dataset selected from different sources, the model usually shows large performance degradation and needs to be fine-tuned before it can be applied to the new dataset. The goal of this work is trying to solve the cross-domain image classification problem without using data from target domain. In this work, we designed a self-supervised plug-and-play feature-standardization-block (FSB) which consisting of image normalization (INB), contrast enhancement (CEB) and boundary detection blocks (BDB), to extract cross-domain robust feature maps for deep learning framework, and applied the network for chest x-ray-based lung diseases classification. Three classic deep networks, i.e. VGG, Xception and DenseNet and four chest x-ray lung diseases datasets were employed for evaluating the performance. The experimental result showed that when employing feature-standardization-block, all three networks showed better domain adaption performance. The image normalization, contrast enhancement and boundary detection blocks achieved in average 2%, 2% and 5% accuracy improvement, respectively. By combining all three blocks, feature-standardization-block achieved in average 6% accuracy improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2021.05.007DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of decapitated and root-pruned Sedum alfredii on the characterization of dissolved organic matter and enzymatic activity in rhizosphere soil during Cd phytoremediation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 09 8;417:125977. Epub 2021 May 8.

College of Resources and Environment, Yangtze University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Decapitation and root pruning, can impact plant morphological and physiological characteristics, which may determine the efficiency of phytoremediation. However, the effects of decapitated and root-pruned plants on the characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and enzymatic activity, which determine the bioavailability of soil pollutants, have rarely been reported. This study aims to characterize DOM and enzymatic activity in the rhizosphere soil of Sedum alfredii when treated by decapitation and root pruning. Decapitation, slight pruning (10% root cutting), and their combination stimulated S. alfredii to secrete more DOM in the rhizosphere soil compared with the control. Furthermore, the proportions of hydrophilic increased from 42.7% in the control to 57.1% in the decapitation and slight pruning combination. Soil urease, invertase, and neutral phosphatase activities were higher in the rhizosphere soil of decapitated and root-pruned S. alfredii, and the highest values were observed with their combination. DOM from the soils of decapitated and root-pruned S. alfredii had significantly higher Cd extraction ability compared with that of the untreated species. Based on the findings of this study, we suggest that decapitation and root pruning can improve the phytoremediation efficiency of S. alfredii by increasing the bioavailability of Cd in its rhizosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125977DOI Listing
September 2021

Relating leaf traits to seedling performance in a tropical forest: building a hierarchical functional framework.

Ecology 2021 07 9;102(7):e03385. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Eastern-Himalaya Biodiversity Research, Dali University, Dali, Yunnan, China.

Trait-based approaches have been extensively used in community ecology to provide a mechanistic understanding of the drivers of community assembly. However, a foundational assumption of the trait framework, traits relate to performance, has been mainly examined through univariate relationships that simplify the complex phenotypic integration of organisms. We evaluate a conceptual framework in which traits are organized hierarchically combining trait information at the individual- and species-level from biomass allocation and organ-level traits. We focus on photosynthetic traits and predict that the positive effects of increasing plant leaf mass on growth depend on species-level leaf traits. We modeled growth data on more than 1,500 seedlings from 97 seedling species from a tropical forest in China. We found that seedling growth increases with allocation to leaves (high leaf area ratio and leaf mass fraction) and this effect is accentuated for species with high specific leaf area and leaf area. Also, we found that light has a significant effect on growth, and this effect is additive with leaf allocation traits. Our work offers an approach to gain further understanding of the effects of traits on the whole plant-level growth via a hierarchical framework including organ-level and biomass allocation traits at species and individual levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3385DOI Listing
July 2021

Consequences of spatial patterns for coexistence in species-rich plant communities.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 3;5(7):965-973. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Ecological Modelling, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.

Ecology cannot yet fully explain why so many tree species coexist in natural communities such as tropical forests. A major difficulty is linking individual-level processes to community dynamics. We propose a combination of tree spatial data, spatial statistics and dynamical theory to reveal the relationship between spatial patterns and population-level interaction coefficients and their consequences for multispecies dynamics and coexistence. Here we show that the emerging population-level interaction coefficients have, for a broad range of circumstances, a simpler structure than their individual-level counterparts, which allows for an analytical treatment of equilibrium and stability conditions. Mechanisms such as animal seed dispersal, which result in clustering of recruits that is decoupled from parent locations, lead to a rare-species advantage and coexistence of otherwise neutral competitors. Linking spatial statistics with theories of community dynamics offers new avenues for explaining species coexistence and calls for rethinking community ecology through a spatial lens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-021-01440-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257505PMC
July 2021

Complement genes in black rockfish (Sebastods schlegelii): genome-wide identification, evolution and their potential functions in response to Vibrio anguillarum infection.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jul 28;114:119-131. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

As complex components of innate immune system, members of complement system play crucial roles during the process of defensing against pathogens. Black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) is one of the important aquaculture species in East Asian. However, studies of complement genes in black rockfish and its related immune activities are still lacking. Therefore, a total of 112 members of the complement genes were identified from the genome of black rockfish and were classified into five subgroups. According to their functional annotations, 30 genes belonged to pattern recognition, 6 genes belonged to proteases, 14 genes belonged to complement components, 36 genes belonged to receptors, and 26 genes belonged to regulators. It can be found that many complement genes evolved into multi-copies, especially in teleost, which may be influenced by whole-genome duplication or tandem duplication events. Complement genes were randomly distributed on 22 chromosomes. The number of introns of complement genes varied from 1 to 70. Results of the expression patterns of 10 randomly selected genes from 5 subtypes response to Vibrio anguillarum infection revealed that most of the members of the complement genes were induced in gill and skin. In contrast, most genes in intestine showed downregulation. This study systematically characterized and analyzed the complement genes in black rockfish and provided new insights into their functions responding to bacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2021.04.020DOI Listing
July 2021

The effect of long-acting dual bronchodilator therapy on exercise tolerance, dynamic hyperinflation, and dead space during constant work rate exercise in COPD.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 06 29;130(6):2009-2018. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

The Lundquist Institute for Biomedical Innovation at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California.

We investigated whether dual bronchodilator therapy (glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate; GFF; Bevespi Aerosphere) would increase exercise tolerance during a high-intensity constant work rate exercise test (CWRET) and the relative contributions of dead space ventilation (V/V) and dynamic hyperinflation (change in inspiratory capacity) to exercise limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In all, 48 patients with COPD (62.9 ± 7.6 yrs; 33 male; GOLD spirometry stage 1/2/3/4, = 2/35/11/0) performed a randomized, double blind, placebo (PL) controlled, two-period crossover, single-center trial. Gas exchange and inspiratory capacity (IC) were assessed during cycle ergometry at 80% incremental exercise peak work rate. Transcutaneous [Formula: see text] (Tc[Formula: see text]) measurement was used for V/V estimation. Baseline postalbuterol forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) was 1.86 ± 0.58 L (63.6% ± 13.9 predicted). GFF increased FEV by 0.18 ± 0.21 L relative to placebo (PL; < 0.001). CWRET endurance time was greater after GFF vs. PL (383 ± 184 s vs. 328 ± 115 s; difference 55 ± 125 s; = 0.013; confidence interval: 20-90 s), a 17% increase. IC on GFF was above placebo IC at all time points and fell less with GFF vs. PL ( ≤ 0.0001). Isotime tidal volume (1.54 ± 0.50 vs. 1.47 ± 0.45 L; = 0.022) and ventilation (52.9 ± 19.9 vs. 51.0 ± 18.9 L/min; = 0.011) were greater, and respiratory rate was unchanged (34.9 ± 9.2 vs. 35.1 ± 8.0 br/min, = 0.865). Isotime V/V did not differ between groups (GFF 0.28 ± 0.08 vs. PL 0.27 ± 0.09; = 0.926). GFF increased exercise tolerance in patients with COPD, and the increase was accompanied by attenuated dynamic hyperinflation without altering V/V. This study was a randomized clinical trial (NCT03081156) that collected detailed physiology data to investigate the effect of dual bronchodilator therapy on exercise tolerance in COPD, and additionally to determine the relative contributions of changes in dead space ventilation (V/V) and dynamic hyperinflation to alterations in exercise limitation. We utilized a unique noninvasive method to assess V/V (transcutaneous carbon dioxide, Tc[Formula: see text]) and found that dual bronchodilators yielded a moderate improvement in exercise tolerance. Importantly, attenuation of dynamic hyperinflation rather than change in dead space ventilation was the most important contributor to exercise tolerance improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00774.2020DOI Listing
June 2021

Species packing and the latitudinal gradient in beta-diversity.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 04 14;288(1948):20203045. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Center of Conservation Biology, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074.

The decline in species richness at higher latitudes is among the most fundamental patterns in ecology. Whether changes in species composition across space (beta-diversity) contribute to this gradient of overall species richness (gamma-diversity) remains hotly debated. Previous studies that failed to resolve the issue suffered from a well-known tendency for small samples in areas with high gamma-diversity to have inflated measures of beta-diversity. Here, we provide a novel analytical test, using beta-diversity metrics that correct the gamma-diversity and sampling biases, to compare beta-diversity and species packing across a latitudinal gradient in tree species richness of 21 large forest plots along a large environmental gradient in East Asia. We demonstrate that after accounting for topography and correcting the gamma-diversity bias, tropical forests still have higher beta-diversity than temperate analogues. This suggests that beta-diversity contributes to the latitudinal species richness gradient as a component of gamma-diversity. Moreover, both niche specialization and niche marginality (a measure of niche spacing along an environmental gradient) also increase towards the equator, after controlling for the effect of topographical heterogeneity. This supports the joint importance of tighter species packing and larger niche space in tropical forests while also demonstrating the importance of local processes in controlling beta-diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.3045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059527PMC
April 2021

Intercept of minute ventilation versus carbon dioxide output relationship as an index of ventilatory inefficiency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Mar;13(3):1553-1563

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Ventilatory inefficiency contributes to exercise intolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The intercept of the minute ventilation (V ) carbon dioxide output (V CO) plot is a key ventilatory inefficiency parameter. However, its relationships with lung hyperinflation (LH) and airflow limitation are not known. This study aimed to evaluate correlations between the V /V CO intercept and LH and airflow limitation to determine its physiological interpretation as an index of functional impairment in COPD.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from 53 COPD patients and 14 healthy controls who performed incremental cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) and resting pulmonary function assessment. Ventilatory inefficiency was represented by parameters reflecting the V /V CO nadir and slope (linear region) and the intercept of V /V CO plot. Their correlations with measures of LH and airflow limitation were evaluated.

Results: Compared to control, the slope (30.58±3.62, P<0.001) and intercept (4.85±1.11 L/min, P<0.05) were higher in COPD, leading to a higher nadir (31.47±4.47, P<0.01). Despite an even higher intercept in COPD (7.16±1.41, P<0.001), the slope diminished with disease progression (from 30.58±3.62 in COPD to 26.84±4.96 in COPD, P<0.01). There was no difference in nadir among COPD groups and higher intercepts across all stages. The intercept was correlated with peak V /maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) (r=0.489, P<0.001) and peak V O/Watt (r=0.354, P=0.003). The intercept was positively correlated with residual volume (RV) % predicted (r=0.571, P<0.001), RV/total lung capacity (TLC) (r=0.588, P<0.001), peak tidal volume (V)/FEV (r=0.482, P<0.001) and negatively correlated with rest inspiratory capacity (IC)/TLC (r=-0.574, P<0.001), peak V/TLC (r=-0.585, P<0.001), airflow limitation forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) % predicted (r=-0.606, P<0.001), and FEV/forced vital capacity (FVC) (r=-0.629, P<0.001).

Conclusions: V /V CO intercept was consistently correlated with worsening static and dynamic LH, pulmonary gas exchange, and airflow limitation in COPD. The V /V CO intercept emerged as a useful index of ventilatory inefficiency in COPD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-2725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024855PMC
March 2021

Influence of Planting Density on the Phytoremediation Efficiency of Festuca arundinacea in cd-Polluted Soil.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jul 8;107(1):154-159. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Resources and Environment, Yangtze University, Wuhan, China.

Planting density can influence the biomass generation and element uptake capacity of various plants, which are two critical factors that determine the phytoremediation efficiency of plants. A series of 70 d experiments was performed to evaluate the influence of the planting density (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 g seeds·m, namely D10, D15, D20, D25, and D30, respectively) of Festuca arundinacea on the decontamination of Cd-polluted soils. The variations in the biomass yield, falling tissue (senescent and dead leaf tissues) proportion, and Cd extraction capacity of the species under different cultivation strategies were determined. The results showed that the biomass generation of the species per square meter increased as the planting density increased, reached a peak at D20, and then decreased significantly. In addition, planting density can change the proportions of different leaf types, and the highest amount of senescent and dead leaves which accumulated significantly more Cd compared with the emerging and mature leaf tissues was observed at D20. A suitable planting density can also drive the species to secrete more dissolved organic matter (DOM), especially hydrophilic fractionations in to the soil, activating more Cd. Therefore, the phytoremediation efficiency of the species was determined by the dry weight of the falling tissues, which contained more than 75% of the leaf Cd. A suitable planting density can enhance the Cd decontamination capacity of F. arundinacea, and the adjustment of the planting density is a practicable and economical method that can be performed in real fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03173-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Genome-wide identification of interleukin-17 (IL-17) / interleukin-17 receptor (IL- 17R) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and expression pattern analysis after Vibrio anguillarum infection.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Aug 21;121:104070. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a cytokine secreted by a variety of immune cells that plays an important role in host defense against pathogens. IL-17 usually activates downstream immune signaling pathway by binding to heterodimeric or homodimeric complex formed by IL-17 receptors (IL-17R). Describing the characteristics, tissue distribution of IL-17 and IL-17 receptor family members and their expression after pathogen infection will provide a reference for host defense against disease of turbot. In this study, six IL-17 family members and nine IL-17 receptor family members were identified by analyzing the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) genome. Different from other vertebrates, most members of the IL-17 receptor family own two copies. Protein structure analysis showed that the six IL-17 family members contained typical "IL-17" domains, and the nine IL-17 receptor family members contained typical "SEFIR domain" or "IL17_R_N domain". Syntenic analysis revealed that all IL-17s and IL-17Rs were chromosomally conserved compared with other fish. The phylogenetic analysis further confirmed the evolutionary conservatism of different copies of IL-17C and IL-17Rs. Tissue distribution results showed that IL-17 and IL-17R genes were highly expressed in immune-related tissues. The expression of IL-17C and its receptor in the mucosal immune tissues after infection with V. anguillarum were analyzed subsequently, which were significantly increased in the skin. The results are consistent with previous studies showing that IL-17 and IL-17 receptor play an important role in promoting innate immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2021.104070DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of decapitation and root cutting on phytoremediation efficiency of Celosia argentea.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 20;215:112162. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

College of Resources and Environment, Yangtze University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Decapitation and root cutting can influence plant physiological features, such as height, dry weight, and transpiration rate, which partly determine the success of phytoremediation. In this study, the effects of three root cutting intensities (10%, 25%, and 33%), decapitation, and their combination on the phytoremediation efficiency of Celosia argentea were evaluated. Decapitation increased the biomass yield of C. argentea roots and leaves and significantly improved the species' Cd decontamination ability. Root cutting, especially 33% cutting treatment, decreased the root dry weight. The 10% and 25% root cutting treatments increased the leaf biomass yield by 58.6% and 41.4%, respectively, compared with the untreated control, even compensating for the loss of roots, but 33% root cutting decreased the leaf dry weight. Low and moderate root cutting intensity (10% and 25%) increased the leaf Cd content by 33.4% and 24.9%, respectively, and was associated with improved transpiration rate. The highest root and leaf dry weights were observed for the combination of decapitation and 10% root cutting, which increased the biomass yield of underground and aerial parts by 109.9% and 286.2%, respectively. In addition, decapitation offset the negative effects of 33% root cutting on plant growth, indicated by the higher dry weight relative to the control. Decapitated C. argentea accumulated 11.0, 7.5, and 0.7 times more Cd with the 10%, 25%, and 33% root cutting treatments, respectively, compared with the control. The combination of root cutting and decapitation was a practicable and economical method of enhancing the Cd decontamination capacity of C. argentea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112162DOI Listing
June 2021

Cadmium subcellular distribution and chemical form in Festuca arundinacea in different intercropping systems during phytoremediation.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 10;276:130137. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

College of Resources and Environment, Yangtze University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Intercropping with Cicer arietinum L has been suggested to improve the Cd decontamination capacity of Festuca arundinacea. However, the mechanisms stimulating this effect have not been revealed. The current study was designed to evaluate the changes in the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in different leaf types of F. arundinacea intercropped with C. arietinum L under different schemes. The results indicated that more than half of the Cd was bound in the cell wall in plant organs under all planting schemes, showing that cell wall deposition is an important detoxication pathway for the metal. Relative to the monoculture scheme, coordinate and malposed intercropping schemes increased the Cd concentration deposited in the cytoplasm of below-ground tissues from 37.6% to 45.2% and 45.1%, respectively. Additionally, the proportion of inorganic and water-soluble Cd in the below-ground parts of F. arundinacea increased from 73.6% in the monoculture scheme to 80.6% and 84.7%, in the coordinate and malposed intercropping schemes, respectively. The results exhibited that intercropping schemes can activate the metal in below-ground tissues and move it to aerial parts. The present study revealed the promoting mechanism of intercropping schemes on the phytoremediation efficiency of F. arundinacea for Cd at a subcellular level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130137DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Provides Insights into Response of Ulva compressa to Fluctuating Salinity Conditions.

J Phycol 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

MOE Key Laboratory of Utilization and Conservation for Tropical Marine Bioresources, College of Fisheries and Life Science, Hainan Tropical Ocean University, Sanya, 572022, China.

Ulva compressa, a green tide-forming species, can adapt to hypo-salinity conditions, such as estuaries and brackish lakes. To understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of hypo-salinity stress tolerance, transcriptome-wide gene expression profiles in U. compressa were created using digital gene expression profiles. The RNA-seq data were analyzed based on the comparison of differently expressed genes involved in specific pathways under hypo-salinity and recovery conditions. The up-regulation of genes in photosynthesis and glycolysis pathways may contribute to the recovery of photosynthesis and energy metabolism, which could provide sufficient energy for the tolerance under long-term hyposaline stress. Multiple strategies, such as ion transportation and osmolytes metabolism, were performed to maintain the osmotic homeostasis. Additionally, several long noncoding RNA were differently expressed during the stress, which could play important roles in the osmotolerance. Our work will serve as an essential foundation for the understanding of the tolerance mechanism of U. compressa under the fluctuating salinity conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpy.13167DOI Listing
March 2021

Genome-wide identification of NOD-like receptors and their expression profiling in mucosal tissues of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) upon bacteria challenge.

Mol Immunol 2021 06 10;134:48-61. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

The innate immune system plays an important role in host defense against pathogenic infections. In the innate immune system, several families of innate pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, NOD-like receptors (NLRs), and DNA receptors (cytosolic sensors for DNA), are known to play vital roles in detecting and responding to various pathogens. In this study, we identified 29 NLRs in turbot including 4 NLRs from subfamily A: NOD1, NOD2, CIITA, NLRC5, 1 NLR from subfamily B: NLRB1, 21 NLRs from subfamily C: NLR-C3.1∼NLRC3.21, 1 from NLRX subfamily, and two that do not fall within these subfamilies: APAF1, NWD1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these NLR genes were clearly divided into five subfamilies. Protein-protein interaction network analysis showed that some of these NLR genes shared same interacting genes and might participate in signal transductions associated with immunity. The evolutionary pressure selection analysis showed that the Ka/Ks ratios for all detected NLR genes were much less than one, implying more synonymous changes than non-synonymous changes. In addition, tissue expression analysis showed that the relative higher expression levels were observed in gill, skin and intestine. Meanwhile, NLR genes expression after bacterial infection results showed that most NLR genes participated in the process of defense of V. anguillarum and A. salmonicida infections in mucosal tissues. Taken together, identification and expression profiling analysis of NLR genes can provide valuable information for further functional characterization of these genes in turbot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.02.003DOI Listing
June 2021

CTCF Mediates Replicative Senescence Through POLD1.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 22;9:618586. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Clinical Laboratory of Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

POLD1, the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase δ, plays a critical role in DNA synthesis and DNA repair processes. Moreover, POLD1 is downregulated in replicative senescence to mediate aging. In any case, the components of age-related downregulation of POLD1 expression have not been fully explained. In this article, we elucidate the mechanism of the regulation of POLD1 at the transcription level and found that the transcription factor CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) was bound to the POLD1 promoter area in two sites. The binding level of CTCF for the POLD1 promoter appeared to be related to aging and was confirmed to be positively controlled by the CTCF level. Additionally, cell senescence characteristics were detected within the cells transfected with short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-CTCF, pLenti-CMV-CTCF, shRNA-POLD1, and pLenti-CMV-POLD1, and the results showed that the CTCF may contribute to the altered expression of POLD1 in aging. In conclusion, the binding level of CTCF for the POLD1 promoter intervened by an age-related decrease in CTCF and downregulated the POLD1 expression in aging. Moreover, the decrease in CTCF-mediated POLD1 transcription accelerates the progression of cell aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.618586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937641PMC
February 2021

Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis confirmed by pathology: a case report.

J Int Med Res 2021 Feb;49(2):300060521992217

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

The case of a patient with cough and asthma after activity that each had a 1-month duration is reported. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed visceral pleural thickening in both upper lungs (especially the right lung), which was accompanied by fibrous strips and patches near the pleura, and these were accompanied by distraction bronchiectasis. Idiopathic pleuropulmonary elastosis was confirmed by thoracoscopic lung biopsy. The patient was treated with acetylcysteine, but their asthma worsened after activity and their lung function decreased significantly after 10 months. Idiopathic pleuroparenehymal fibroelastosis is a rare new type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, which has no effective treatment except for lung transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060521992217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917883PMC
February 2021
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