Publications by authors named "Milton Rocha Moraes"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of pre-dialysis resistance training on sarcopenia, inflammatory profile, and anemia biomarkers in older community-dwelling patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled trial.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Background: Sarcopenia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been associated with negative outcomes in older people, including inflammatory profile and anemia biomarkers.

Aims: To investigate the effects of pre-dialysis resistance training (RT) on sarcopenia, inflammatory profile, and anemia biomarkers in older patients with CKD.

Methods: A total of 107 patients with CKD (65.4 ± 3.7 years) were randomly allocated into four groups: sarcopenic RT (n = 37), non-sarcopenic RT (n = 20), sarcopenic control (n = 28), and non-sarcopenic control (n = 22). DXA and handgrip strength were used to classify sarcopenia according to EWGSOP-2. Treatment groups underwent a 24-week intervention with RT before each dialysis session, three times per week. Blood sample analysis for ferritin, hepcidin, iron availability, and inflammatory profile (TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10) was conducted. All-cause mortality was recorded over 5 years.

Results: Sarcopenic RT group increased iron availability after the intervention, while their counterparts decreased. Ferritin and hepcidin significantly decreased in sarcopenic RT group. RT elicited a reduction in both TNFα and IL-6, while increasing IL-10 in both intervention groups. The rate of sarcopenic subjects substantially decreased after the intervention period (from 37 to 17 in the RT group; p = 0.01). The proportion of deaths was higher (P = 0.033) for sarcopenic subjects (Controls 35.7% vs RT 29.7%) when compared to non-sarcopenic subjects (Controls 18% vs RT 10%). The proportion of deaths decreased according to the randomization group (X2 = 8.704; P < 0.1).

Conclusions: The 24-week RT intervention elicited a better sarcopenia status, better inflammatory profile, and improved anemia biomarkers. Sarcopenia was associated with higher mortality rate in older patients with CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-021-02799-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction prevent renal function decline: The role of the redox balance, angiotensin 1-7 and vasopressin.

Physiol Behav 2021 Mar 16;230:113295. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Post-Graduate Program of Physical Education of Catholic University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil-71966-700. Electronic address:

Aims: We sought to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) and low-load RT with moderate blood flow restriction (RT+BFR) on blood pressure, exercise pressor response, redox balance and vasoactive peptides, body composition and muscle strength in patients with stage two of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: We conducted a 6-month randomized controlled exercise intervention in 90 male and female hypertensive CKD patients (58±9 years with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; of 66.1 ± 1.2 mL/kg/1.73m). Participants were randomized to one of three groups (n = 30/group); control group (CTL), RT, and RT+BFR. RT and RT+BFR performed three weekly training sessions using similar periodization for six months (two-month mesocycles), but of different intensities.

Results: There was similarly effects between RT and RT+BFR in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure during daytime and 24hour period (RT: 10.4%; RT+BFR: 10.3% of decrease), fat mass, F-isoprostanes, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and vasopressin (p<0.05 pre-vs post). Also promoted the increase of angiotensin 1-7, nitric oxide (NO), catalase, Trolox equivalent and muscle strength (p<0.05). Both training models attenuated the decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (p<0.0001 vs CTL). However, only RT+BFR was associated with lower discomfort during exercise (p<0.0001 pre-vs post). Statistical significance was considered with p < 0.05.

Conclusion: These findings suggest low-load RT+BFR as a promising non-pharmacological strategy to control blood pressure, oxidative stress, vasoactive peptides, and consequently, attenuate the decrease of the eGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113295DOI Listing
March 2021

Biomarkers and Redox Balance in Aging Rats after Dynamic and Isometric Resistance Training.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Mar 18;42(3):283-290. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Aging muscle is prone to sarcopenia and its associated telomere shortening and increased oxidative stress. Telomeres are protected by a shelterin protein complex, proteins expressed in response to DNA damage. Aerobic exercise training has shown to positively modulate these proteins while aging, but the effects of resistance training are less clear. This investigation was to examine the role of dynamic and isometric RT on markers of senescence and muscle apoptosis: checkpoint kinase 2, 53 kDa protein, shelterin telomere repeat binding 1 and 2, DNA repair, telomere length and redox state in the quadriceps muscle. Fifteen 49-week-old male rats were divided into three groups: control, dynamic resistance training, and isometric resistance training. Dynamic and isometric groups completed five sessions per week during 16 weeks at low to moderate intensity (20-70% maximal load). Only dynamic group decreased expression of 53 kDa protein, proteins from shelterin complex, oxidative stress, and improved antioxidant defense. There was no difference among groups regarding telomere length. In conclusion, dynamic resistance training was more effective than isometric in reducing markers of aging and muscle apoptosis in elderly rats. This modality should be considered as valuable tool do counteract the deleterious effects of aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1231-5410DOI Listing
March 2021

Obese elderly with diabetes experience more pain and reduced quality of life compared to obese elderly with hypertension.

J Clin Transl Res 2020 Jun 12;5(5):253-259. Epub 2020 May 12.

Graduation Program in Gerontology and Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil.

Background And Aim: Growth of elderly population is a worldwide phenomenon that impacts public health. The objective of this study was to compare the pain levels, strength, and quality of life among elderly obese with diabetes or hypertension.

Materials And Methods: The study cohort comprised 52 obese elderly subjects with hypertension (n = 35) and diabetes (n = 17). The parameters measured were anthropometric features, handgrip strength, visual analog scale for pain, and quality of life using the World Health Organization questionnaire.

Results: The level of pain reported by obese hypertensive elderly subjects (5.3 ± 3.4) was lower than reported by obese diabetic elderly subjects (7.4 ± 2.4). Obese hypertensive elderly scored higher on quality of life (sensory functioning and past, present, and future [PPF] activities) than obese diabetic elderly. No differences were observed for the other parameters. Strength, pain, anthropometrics, and hemodynamics were not correlated to quality of life.

Conclusions: Obese elderly diabetics exhibit worse pain scores, sensorial abilities, and PPF activities than obese hypertensive elderly individuals.

Relevance For Patients: The difference in pain and quality of life aspects between obese elderly individuals with hypertension and diabetes should be accounted for in health-care programs designed for these individuals.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453806PMC
June 2020

Blood Flow Restriction Training Blunts Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Humans.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 02;53(2):249-257

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, BRAZIL.

Purpose: This study aimed to verify the effect of 6 months of periodized resistance training (RT) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) in patients with stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), uremic parameters, cytokines, and klotho-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) axis.

Methods: A total of 105 subjects were randomized in three groups of 35 each: control (CTL), RT, and RT + BFR. A first visit was required for an anamnesis to evaluate the number of medications and anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, and body mass index). Muscle strength (one-repetition maximum) was assessed. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and after 6 months of training in all patients for the analysis of markers of renal function and integrity, as well as for the determination of the inflammatory profile. Statistical significances were adopted with P < 0.05.

Results: Both training therapies attenuated the decline of GFR (P < 0.05). The majority of CTL patients declined to stage 3 CKD (88.5%), whereas fewer incidents were noted with RT (25.7%) and RT + BFR (17.1%). Improved uremic parameters as well as inflammation (IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17a, IL-18, and TNF-α) and klotho-FGF23 axis in RT and RT + BFR (P < 0.05) were observed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 was not changed (P > 0.05) but presented a large effect size (Cohen's d), demonstrating a propensity for improvement.

Conclusion: Six months of periodized RT with and without BFR in patients with stage 2 CKD attenuated the progression of the disease by maintaining GFR, improving uremic parameters, cytokine profile regulation, and klotho-FGF23 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002465DOI Listing
February 2021

Resistance training improves sleep quality, redox balance and inflammatory profile in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2020 07 16;10(1):11708. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Graduate Program of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (USB), EPTC, QS07, LT1 s/n. Bloco G Sala 117, Águas Claras, Taguatinga, Brasília, DF, 71966-700, Brazil.

Patients in maintenance hemodialisys (HD) present sleep disorders, increased inflammation, unbalanced redox profiles, and elevated biomarkers representing endothelial dysfunction. Resistance training (RT) has shown to mitigate the loss of muscle mass, strength, improve inflammatory profiles, and endothelial function while decreasing oxidative stress for those in HD. However, the relation between those factors and sleep quality are inadequately described. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of 3 months of RT on sleep quality, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, inflammation profile, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients undergoing HD. Our primary goal was to describe the role of RT on sleep quality. Our secondary goal was to evaluate the effect of RT on NO, metabolism markers, and inflammatory and redox profiles as potential mechanisms to explain RT-induced sleep quality changes. Fifty-five men undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were randomized into either a control (CTL, n = 25) and RT group (RTG; n = 30). Participants in the RT group demonstrated an improvement in sleep pattern, redox, inflammatory profiles, and biomarkers of endothelial function (NO and ADMA). This group also increased muscle strength (total workload in RT exercises of upper and lower limbs). These findings support that RT may improve the clinical status of HD patients by improving their sleep quality, oxidative and inflammatory parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68602-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367305PMC
July 2020

Effects of resistance training on hepcidin levels and iron bioavailability in older individuals with end-stage renal disease: A randomized controlled trial.

Exp Gerontol 2020 10 4;139:111017. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Catholic University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil.

Anemia is an inherent complication of older individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that is associated with inflammation which in turn is an important factor in the activation of hepcidin that contributes to the decrease in serum iron. Athough resistance training (RT) seems to reduce inflammation in ESRD, its influence on hepcidin and iron availability in hemodialysis patients is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to exemine the effects of RT in on inflammatory profile, hepcidin, and iron status in older individuals with ESRD. End-stage renal disease patients (N: 157, age: 66.8 ± 3.6; body mass: 73 ± 15 body mass index:27 ± 3), were assigned to control (CTL n: 76) and exercise groups (RT n: 81). RT consisted of 24 weeks/3 days per week of a moderate intensity. There was an increase in the bioavailability of iron (ΔRT: 22.2; ΔCTL: -1 μg/dL, p < 0.0001), a decrease in hepcidin levels (ΔRT: -7.9; ΔCTL: 0.2 ng/mL, p < 0.0001),and an improvement of the inflammatory profile. These novel findings show that RT is a potential coadjuvant to reduce iron deficiency by decreasing the levels of hepcidin and pro-inflammatory markers in older patients undergoing hemodialysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111017DOI Listing
October 2020

Sprint and endurance training in relation to redox balance, inflammatory status and biomarkers of aging in master athletes.

Nitric Oxide 2020 09 18;102:42-51. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil. Electronic address:

Purpose: Studies have shown a positive influence of intense athletic training on several biomarkers of aging, but it remains unclear whether this influence is dependent of exercise-training-mode. This study compared redox balance, cytokine levels and biomarkers of aging between master sprinters and endurance athletes, as well as in young and middle-aged individuals as controls.

Methods: Participants were male master sprinters (SA, 50 ± 8.9yrs; n = 13) and endurance runners (EA, 53 ± 8.2yrs; n = 18) with remarkable athletic experience (~25yrs of practice), besides untrained young (YC, 22.7 ± 3.9yrs; n = 17) and age-matched controls (MC, 45.5 ± 9.8yrs; n = 12). Anamnesis, anthropometrics, biomarkers of aging, inflammation status and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in all participants.

Results: An increased pro-oxidant activity (elevated protein carbonyl; isoprostanes and 8-OHdG) was observed for MC in comparison to remaining groups (p < 0.05). However, SA presented a better antioxidant capacity than both MC and EA, while nitrite/nitrate (NO) availability was higher for EA and lower for the MC (p < 0.05). Both groups of athletes presented a better anti-inflammatory status than MC (increased IL-10 and lowered IL-6, sIL-6R, sTNF-RI), but worse than YC (increased TNF-α, sTNF-RI, and sIL-6R) (p < 0.05). Telomere length was shorter in MC, which also had lower levels of irisin and klotho, and elevated FGF-23 (p < 0.05). ADMA levels were higher in MC and SA, while irisin was lower in EA when compared to SA and YC (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Master athletes presented better redox balance and inflammatory status, with decreased biomarkers of aging compared to control. Regarding exercise mode, a better NO- profile, as a marker of endothelial function, was observed for EA, whereas SA had a better redox balance, cytokines profile and attenuated biomarkers of aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2020.05.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Faster and Healthier: Relationship between Telomere and Performance in Master Athletes.

Int J Sports Med 2020 May 11;41(5):339-344. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia - UCB, Brasília, Brazil.

Aging is associated with increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and decreased telomere length (TL). However, the lifestyle of master athletes can lead to a reduced risk of these conditions, and thus attenuates aging and performance deterioration. We aimed to analyze the relationships between TL and relative performance (RP), and their relation to adiposity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in endurance (END) and sprint/power (SPW) master athletes (MAs). Twenty-two world-class MAs visited the laboratory for anamnesis, anthropometrics, and blood sampling. Inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were assessed using commercial kits. Relative TL was determined in leukocytes through qPCR analyses. A positive association was observed between RP and TL in both groups (SPW: 0.641; END: 0.685) and the whole sample (0.594). The IL6/IL10 ratio presented an inverse correlation with RP in the whole sample (-0.580). Body mass index also demonstrated a negative correlation with TL for the END group (-0.690) and the whole sample analysis (-0.455). Moreover, the IL6/IL10 ratio was negatively associated with strength/power training hours (=-0.464), whereas the CAT/TBARS ratio was negatively associated with aerobic training hours (-0.482). In conclusion, TL of MAs was associated with RP regardless of the training model (endurance or sprint/power), and inflammation and adiposity were associated with shorter telomeres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1088-5279DOI Listing
May 2020

Isometric Exercise with Large Muscle Mass Improves Redox Balance and Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Adults.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2020 05;52(5):1187-1195

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, BRAZIL.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic, oxidative stress (OS), and nitric oxide (NO) responses to a submaximal isometric exercise session (IES) involving large muscle mass.

Methods: Fourteen hypertensive (HTG: age = 35.9 ± 8.1 yr, height = 1.73 ± 0.10 m, total body mass = 78.0 ± 15.8 kg) and 10 normotensive (NTG: age = 41.1 ± 9.4 yr, height = 1.71 ± 0.12 m, total body mass = 82.3 ± 22.4 kg) participants performed two experimental sessions in the leg press and bench press: (i) control session and (ii) 8 sets × 1 min contraction at 30% maximal voluntary isometric contraction with 2-min rest interval. Blood pressure (BP) was measured at rest and during 60 min postexercise. Blood samples were collected at rest, immediately after the session, and 60 min postexercise. NO was obtained through the Griess reaction method. OS parameters were analyzed using commercial kits. A repeated-measures ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test was used to analyze all dependent variables.

Results: A significant decrease in systolic BP was observed only for HTG at 45 and 60 min postexercise (baseline vs 45 min: P = 0.03, Δ% = 4.44%; vs 60 min: P = 0.018, Δ% = 5.58%). NO increased immediately postexercise only for HTG (P = 0.008, Δ% = 16.44%). Regarding OS parameters, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances presented a significant reduction 60 min after the IES for NTG and HTG; catalase increased in both groups.

Conclusions: The data showed that only 8 min of IES with a large muscle mass elicits an elevated pro-oxidant activity leading to a greater NO bioavailability, increases antioxidant reaction, and consequently reduces BP in hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002223DOI Listing
May 2020

l-Arginine supplementation blunts resistance exercise improvement in rats with chronic kidney disease.

Life Sci 2019 Sep 28;232:116604. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients present L-arginine (L-arg) deficiency and L-arg supplementation has been used as a treatment. In addition, sarcopenia is another common problem in CKD population, resistance training (RT) is one of the conservative strategies developed to prevent CKD progression, and however there are no evidences of a combination of these two strategies to treat CKD outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral L-arg supplementation combined with RT in an experimental model of CKD. Twenty-five Munich-Wistar male rats, 8-week-old were divided in 5 groups: Sham (sedentary control), Nx (CKD sedentary), Nx L-arg (CKD sedentary supplemented with 2% of L-arg), Nx RT (CKD exercised) Nx RT + L-arg (CKD exercised and supplemented with 2% of L-arg). CKD model was obtained by a subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy. RT was performed on a ladder climbing, three weekly sessions on non-consecutive days, with an intensity of 70% maximum carrying capacity. They were submitted to RT and/or L-arg supplementation for 10 weeks. There was a significant improvement in muscle strength, renal function, anti-inflammatory cytokines, arginase metabolism and renal fibrosis after RT. However, the combination of RT and L-arg impaired all the improvements promoted by RT alone. The L-arg supplementation alone did not impair renal fibrosis and renal function. In conclusion, RT improved inflammatory balance, muscle strength, renal function and consequently decreased renal fibrosis. Nevertheless, the association with L-arg supplementation prevented all these effects promoted by RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116604DOI Listing
September 2019

Heart rate cost of running in track estimates velocity associated with maximal oxygen uptake.

Physiol Behav 2019 06 22;205:33-38. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Running velocity associated with VOmax (vVOmax) is a parameter widely used for exercise prescription and is related to endurance performance. However, the vVOmax determination usually requires a maximal effort test and equipped laboratory for expired gas analysis, what make difficulty its assessment.

Objective: We aimed to test the validity of a simple method of vVOmax prediction through the heart rate cost of running (HRC) in a submaximal 6-min running test, both in treadmill and in a 400-meter track.

Methods: Male recreational runners (n = 16; 30.3 ± 8.0 years; VOmax of 46.2 ± 3.2 ml·kg·min) randomly underwent an incremental test in treadmill with gas analysis, and a 3000-m time trial in a track, to determine vVOmax. Before every maximal test, participants also performed a submaximal 6-min running (~85% HRmax), both in the treadmill and in a track, to assess HRC (bpmm·min) by dividing the submaximal running velocity by its respective HR. The vVOmax (km·h) was predicted by dividing the HRmax (bpm)/HRC (bpmm·min).

Results: No differences were verified (p > .05) among vVOmax determined both in the treadmill (13.8 ± 0.9 km·h) and track (13.6 ± 0.9 km·h) to those predicted by the HRC method both in treadmill (13.5 ± 0.8 km·h) and track (13.6 ± 1.0 km·h). The vVOmax measured directly with expired gas analysis was highly correlated with vVOmax estimated through HRC in treadmill and track (p < .05). Additionally, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman technique revealed good agreement and reliability classified with substantial agreement [ICC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.064-0.886; p = .019)] and almost perfect agreement [ICC = 0.870 (95% CI 0.628-0.955 p = .0001)] between methods to identify vVOmax, respectively.

Conclusion: A submaximal 6-min exercise test protocol to assess HRC of running was considered valid to estimate vVOmax of recreational runners both in treadmill and outdoor track.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.02.029DOI Listing
June 2019

Dynamic, Not Isometric Resistance Training Improves Muscle Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Hypertrophy in Rats.

Front Physiol 2019 22;10. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

This study aimed to compare the effects of dynamic (DRT) and isometric (IRT) resistance training on blood glucose, muscle redox capacity, inflammatory state, and muscle strength and hypertrophy. Fifteen 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups: control group (CTL), DRT, and IRT, = 5 animals per group. The animals were submitted to a maximal weight carried (MWC; every 15 days) and maximum isometric resistance (MIR; pre- and post-training) tests. Both training protocols were performed five times a week during 12 weeks, consisting of one set of eight uninterrupted climbs for 1 min with a 30% overload of MWC. The animals in the IRT group remained under isometry for 1 min. The DRT group experienced greater MWC from pre- to post-training compared to the CTL and IRT groups ( < 0.0001). The DRT and IRT groups displayed similar gains in MIR ( = 0.3658). The DRT group exhibited improved glycemic homeostasis ( = 0.0111), redox ( < 0.0001), and inflammatory ( < 0.0001) balance as compared with CTL and IRT groups. In addition, the improved glycemic profile was associated with an increase in muscle strength and hypertrophy, improvement in redox balance and inflammation status. We conclude that DRT was more effective than IRT on increasing cross-sectional area, but not muscle strength, in parallel to improved blood glucose, inflammatory status, and redox balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349781PMC
January 2019

Resistance training downregulates macrophages infiltration in the kidney of 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

Life Sci 2018 Nov 21;213:190-197. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Division of Nephrology, Medicine Department, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered a significant world health problem with elevated mortality rates. Patients with CKD are restricted to mild physical activity, present chronic inflammatory state and loss of muscle strength. Currently, the influence of resistance exercise (RE) on the progression of renal disease has not being fully elucidated.

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of RE on the progression of CKD in a remnant kidney model (5/6Nx) in rats.

Methods: Eight-week-old Wistar rats were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy and were divided into four groups: Sham sedentary (Sham SD); Sham RE (Sham RE); 5/6Nx SD and 5/6Nx RE. The animals were trained for 8 weeks in a vertical climbing ladder for 3 days per week, on non-consecutive days.

Results: As expected, 5/6Nx SD group presented a markedly loss of renal function, increased plasma inflammatory cytokines and increased oxidative stress with a reduced activity of nitric oxide. The higher macrophage infiltration and fibrosis confirmed these conditions. RE attenuated systolic blood pressure and renal function decrease and also improved serum lipid parameters in 5/6 Nx animals. It was evident the increase of muscle strength and mass in the trained groups while the sedentary group showed reduced muscle weight and strength compared to Sham SD.

Conclusions: RE implemented following 5/6Nx retard the progression of chronic kidney injury while simultaneously allowed the maintenance of skeletal muscle strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.10.037DOI Listing
November 2018

Resistance training attenuates inflammation and the progression of renal fibrosis in chronic renal disease.

Life Sci 2018 Aug 19;206:93-97. Epub 2018 May 19.

Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have progressive renal fibrosis, inflammation, and reduced muscle mass and strength. Resistance training (RT) has been suggested to mitigate the loss of muscle mass, of strength and the inflammation in CKD, but the mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of RT on renal fibrosis, renal cytokine expression, creatine kinase levels, and muscle mass and strength in CKD rats. A CKD model was obtained by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). Fifteen 8-week-old male rats were divided into 3 groups: Sham (control), Nx SED (CKD sedentary) and Nx RT (CKD trained). The RT consisted of ladder climbing at 70% of the animal's maximal carrying capacity for 10 weeks. Muscle strength, creatine kinase levels, renal fibrosis and mRNA interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were analyzed after the RT protocol. There was significant improvement in the muscle strength and creatine kinase levels in the Nx RT group. Moreover, renal fibrosis and inflammation were attenuated, with increased IL-4 and IL-10 expression and reduced IL-6 expression in the Nx RT group compared with that in the Nx SED group. No difference in muscle mass was observed among the groups. In conclusion, RT was effective in reducing fibrosis and inflammation, in addition to increasing muscle strength and creatine kinase levels, in rats with CKD, independent of muscle mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.05.034DOI Listing
August 2018

Acute metabolic responses following different resistance exercise protocols.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2018 Aug 20;43(8):838-843. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

a Graduate Program in Physical Education, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Taguatinga-DF, Brazil.

Resistance exercise (RE) can be an excellent modality for glycemic control. Studies have demonstrated that a single RE session can reduce glycemia in subjects with or without diabetes. Little is known about the dose-response effect of RE on glycemic control. This study aimed to investigate the acute metabolic responses after different RE protocols. Eighty-nine males were separated into six groups that completed RE protocols: 2 sets of 18 repetitions (2 × 18 at 50% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM); n = 19); 3 sets of 12 repetitions (3 × 12 at 70% of 1RM; n = 14); 4 sets of 9 repetitions (4 × 9 at 80% of 1RM; n = 13); 6 sets of 6 repetitions (6 × 6 at 90% of 1RM; n = 19); circuit (2 × 18 at 50% of 1RM; n = 12); and a control session (n = 12). The exercise sequence consisted of 8 exercises. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted with metabolic measurements immediately after each RE protocol and every 15 min until 120 min of recovery. All groups exhibited significantly lower values (p < 0.05) in the glucose area under the curve (AUC) when compared with control over a 120 min monitoring period. The 6 × 6 group showed a significantly lower glucose AUC versus the 3 × 12 and 4 × 9 groups (p = 0.004; p = 0.001, respectively). As for blood lactate, the control and 6 × 6 groups exhibited lower AUC values versus all other groups (p < 0.05), and AUC for glucose and lactate concentration showed a negative and significant correlation (r = -0.46; p < 0.0001). It appears that a combination of 9-12 repetitions per set and 3-4 sets per muscle group might be optimal for acute postprandial glucose control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2017-0771DOI Listing
August 2018

Contact Karate Promotes Post-Exercise Hypotension in Young Adult Males.

Asian J Sports Med 2016 Sep 28;7(3):e33850. Epub 2016 May 28.

Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Background: Worldwide, systemic arterial hypertension is a leading cause of death and non-communicable cardiovascular disease. A major factor contributing to this disease is a sedentary lifestyle. However, physical exercise, such as martial arts, may be an option for blood pressure (BP) control. The magnitude of post-exercise hypotension is associated with a prolonged decrease in BP in normotensive and hypertensive individuals.

Objectives: The present study aimed to verify the effects of a Contact Karate (CK) session on BP responses during a post-exercise recovery period in young adults.

Patients And Methods: Thirty-two male CK athletes volunteered (28.2 ± 6.7 years; 77.0 ± 5.7 kg; and 176.0 ± 4.7 cm) and underwent one CK session (50 minutes) and a control session in which no exercise was performed and the individuals remain seated during the whole time. BP was measured during rest (before sessions), as well as on the 15th, 30th, 45th, and 60th minutes of the post-exercise recovery.

Results: The systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly lower at the post-exercise period compared to pre-exercise rest (P < 0.05), with the largest reductions being observed at the 60th minutes of recovery [SBP (rest: 125.9 ± 4.7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 111.7 ± 5.4 mmHg); DBP (rest: 78.8 ± .7 vs. 60th minutes of recovery: 69.8 ± 2.7 mmHg)] and at the same periods of post-exercise recovery of the control session.

Conclusions: A single CK session can promote a decrease in BP for at least 60 minutes after performing this type of exercise in young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.33850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5098111PMC
September 2016

Resistance Training in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Severe Hypertension.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2016 Mar 2;106(3):201-9. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Background: Resistance training (RT) has been recommended as a non-pharmacological treatment for moderate hypertension. In spite of the important role of exercise intensity on training prescription, there is still no data regarding the effects of RT intensity on severe hypertension (SH).

Objective: This study examined the effects of two RT protocols (vertical ladder climbing), performed at different overloads of maximal weight carried (MWC), on blood pressure (BP) and muscle strength of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with SH.

Methods: Fifteen male SHR ENT#091;206 ± 10 mmHg of systolic BP (SBP)ENT#093; and five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; 119 ± 10 mmHg of SBP) were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SED-WKY) and SHR (SED-SHR); RT1-SHR training relative to body weight (~40% of MWC); and RT2-SHR training relative to MWC test (~70% of MWC). Systolic BP and heart rate (HR) were measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. The progression of muscle strength was determined once every fifteen days. The RT consisted of 3 weekly sessions on non-consecutive days for 12-weeks.

Results: Both RT protocols prevented the increase in SBP (delta - 5 and -7 mmHg, respectively; p > 0.05), whereas SBP of the SED-SHR group increased by 19 mmHg (p < 0.05). There was a decrease in HR only for the RT1 group (p < 0.05). There was a higher increase in strength in the RT2 (140%; p < 0.05) group as compared with RT1 (11%; p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Our data indicated that both RT protocols were effective in preventing chronic elevation of SBP in SH. Additionally, a higher RT overload induced a greater increase in muscle strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/abc.20160019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4811275PMC
March 2016

Sarcopenia Is Associated with High Pulse Pressure in Older Women.

J Aging Res 2015 5;2015:109824. Epub 2015 Aug 5.

Center of Health Sciences, University of Mogi das Cruzes, 08770-490 Mogi das Cruzes, Brazil ; School of Sciences and Letters of Bragança Paulista, SP, Brazil.

Introduction. Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome associated with impairment of muscle function, metabolism, and cognition in older women. Recent studies have shown a relationship between changes in muscle mass and the cardiovascular system. However, this relationship has not been fully elucidated. Methods. One hundred and thirty community-dwelling Brazilian older women (65.4 ± 6.3 years) were recruited to participate in this study. Data on body composition (via bioelectrical impedance measurements), cardiovascular parameters (using an automatic and noninvasive monitor), and muscle function (using a 3-meter gait speed test) were measured. Results. Sarcopenic older women (n = 43) presented higher levels of pulse pressure (PP) (60.3 ± 2.6 mmHg) and lower muscle function (0.5 ± 0.0 m/s) compared with nonsarcopenic subjects (n = 87) (53.7 ± 1.5 mmHg; 0.9 ± 0.0 m/s) (P < 0.05). Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significantly negative association between skeletal muscle index (SMI) and PP levels (β = -226, P < 0.05). Furthermore, sarcopenic older women showed a 3.1-fold increased risk of having higher PP levels compared with nonsarcopenic women (IC = 1.323-7.506) (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Sarcopenic older women showed lower muscle function and higher cardiovascular risk due to increased PP levels compared with nonsarcopenic subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/109824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4541009PMC
September 2015

Acute effects of physical exercise in type 2 diabetes: A review.

World J Diabetes 2014 Oct;5(5):659-65

Ricardo Yukio Asano, Universidade Mogi das Cruzes, Center of Health Sciences, Mogi das Cruzes 08770-490, Brazil.

The literature has shown the efficiency of exercise in the control of type 2 diabetes (T2D), being suggested as one of the best kinds of non-pharmacological treatments for its population. Thus, the scientific production related to this phenomenon has growing exponentially. However, despite its advances, still there is a lack of studies that have carried out a review on the acute effects of physical exercise on metabolic and hemodynamic markers and possible control mechanisms of these indicators in individuals with T2D, not to mention that in a related way, these themes have been very little studied today. Therefore, the aim of this study was to organize and analyze the current scientific production about the acute effects of physical exercise on metabolic and hemodynamic markers and possible control mechanisms of these indicators in T2D individuals. For such, a research with the following keywords was performed: -exercise; diabetes and post-exercise hypotension; diabetes and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption; diabetes and acute effects in PUBMED, SCIELO and HIGHWIRE databases. From the analyzed studies, it is possible to conclude that, a single exercise session can promote an increase in the bioavailability of nitric oxide and elicit decreases in postexercise blood pressure. Furthermore, the metabolic stress from physical exercise can increase the oxidation of carbohydrate during the exercise and keep it, in high levels, the post exercise consumption of O², this phenomenon increases the rate of fat oxidation during recovery periods after exercise, improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and reduces glycemia between 2-72 h, which seems to be dependent on the exercise intensity and duration of the effort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v5.i5.659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4138589PMC
October 2014

Isometric handgrip does not elicit cardiovascular overload or post-exercise hypotension in hypertensive older women.

Clin Interv Aging 2013 5;8:649-55. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

Universidade Católica de Brasília, Distrito Federal, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Arterial hypertension is a serious health problem affecting mainly the elderly population. Recent studies have considered both aerobic and resistance exercises as a non-pharmacological aid for arterial hypertension treatment. However, the cardiovascular responses of the elderly to isometric resistance exercise (eg, isometric handgrip [IHG]) have not yet been documented.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiovascular responses to different intensities of isometric exercise, as well as the occurrence of post-isometric exercise hypotension in hypertensive elderly people under antihypertensive medication treatment.

Patients And Methods: Twelve women volunteered to participate in the study after a maximal voluntary contraction test (MVC) and standardization of the intervention workload consisting of two sessions of IHG exercise performed in four sets of five contractions of a 10-second duration. Sessions were performed both at 30% of the MVC and 50% of the MVC, using a unilateral IHG protocol. Both intensities were compared with a control session without exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at rest (R), during peak exercise (PE), and after 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes of post-exercise recovery were evaluated.

Results: No significant changes were observed after isometric exercise corresponding to 30% MVC for either SBP (R: 121 ± 10; PE: 127 ± 14; 5 min: 125 ± 13; 10 min: 123 ± 12; 15 min: 122 ± 11; 30 min: 124 ± 11; 45 min: 124 ± 10; 60 min: 121 ± 10 mmHg) or DBP (R: 74 ± 9; PE: 76 ± 6; 5 min: 74 ± 5; 10 min: 72 ± 8; 15 min: 72 ± 5; 30 min: 72 ± 8; 45 min: 73 ± 6; 60 min: 75 ± 7 mmHg). Similarly, the 50% MVC did not promote post-isometric exercise hypotension for either SBP (R: 120 ± 7; PE: 125 ± 11; 5 min: 120 ± 9; 10 min: 122 ± 9; 15 min: 121 ± 11; 30 min: 121 ± 9; 45 min: 121 ± 9; 60 min: 120 ± 7 mmHg) or DBP (R: 72 ± 8; PE: 78 ± 7; 5 min: 72 ± 7; 10 min: 72 ± 8; 15 min: 71 ± 7; 30 min: 72 ± 8; 45 min: 75 ± 10; 60 min: 75 ± 7 mmHg).

Conclusion: Our data reveal that cardiovascular overload or post-exercise hypotension did not occur in elderly women with controlled hypertension when they undertook an IHG session. Thus this type of resistance exercise, with mild to moderate intensity, with short time of contraction appears to be safe for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S40560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3678710PMC
November 2013

Moderate exercise increases the metabolism and immune function of lymphocytes in rats.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2013 May 2;113(5):1343-52. Epub 2012 Dec 2.

Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Maranhao, Av. dos Portugueses, S/N, São Luís, MA CEP 65085-580, Brazil.

Exercise modulates both glucose and glutamine metabolism which influences lymphocyte function. We investigated the influence of chronic moderate exercise on glucose and glutamine metabolism in lymphocytes, the associated influence on proliferation, and cytokine and immunoglobulin production. Male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were placed in an exercise training group (N = 15, 1 h day(-1) at 60 % VO₂max, 5 days week(-1)) for 8 weeks of exercise, or a sedentary control group. Twenty-four hours following the final training session, lymphocytes were separated, and the incorporation of [U-14C]-glucose, [U-14C]-glutamine, and [2-14C]-thymidine from the supernatant was measured. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase, and glutaminase was measured. Lymphocytes were stimulated with ConA and LPS and incubated with the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and plasma IgG and IgE were measured. Glutamine metabolism increased in both T and B lymphocytes in the trained group. In the trained group, proliferative capacity increased T lymphocytes under ConA stimulation, and increased B lymphocytes with LPS. There was a significant increase in IL-2 production and decrease in IL-4 in the trained group compared with sedentary controls. IL-2R and TNFR increased in trained rats while IL-4R decreased and were more pronounced in T lymphocytes compared with B lymphocytes. In both lymphocyte subsets, exercise training significantly increased the expression of CD54+ and CD30+ cell markers. Exercise training increased plasma IgG compared with the sedentary group. In conclusion, moderate exercise training improves immune function and metabolism in T and B lymphocytes, reflecting an increased ability to respond to immune challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-012-2554-yDOI Listing
May 2013

Bradykinin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis in obese mice.

Lab Invest 2012 Oct 6;92(10):1419-27. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

Department of Biophysics, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) has been previously linked to glucose homeostasis. In isolated muscle or fat cells, acute bradykinin (BK) stimulation was shown to improve insulin action and increase glucose uptake by promoting glucose transporter 4 translocation to plasma membrane. However, the role for BK in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes remains largely unknown. To address this, we generated genetically obese mice (ob/ob) lacking the BK B2 receptor (obB2KO). Despite similar body weight or fat accumulation, obB2KO mice showed increased fasting glycemia (162.3 ± 28.2 mg/dl vs 85.3 ± 13.3 mg/dl), hyperinsulinemia (7.71 ± 1.75 ng/ml vs 4.09 ± 0.51 ng/ml) and impaired glucose tolerance when compared with ob/ob control mice (obWT), indicating insulin resistance and impaired glucose homeostasis. This was corroborated by increased glucose production in response to a pyruvate challenge. Increased gluconeogenesis was accompanied by increased hepatic mRNA expression of forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1, four-fold), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (seven-fold), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, three-fold) and glucose-6-phosphatase (eight-fold). FoxO1 nuclear exclusion was also impaired, as the obB2KO mice showed increased levels of this transcription factor in the nucleus fraction of liver homogenates during random feeding. Intraportal injection of BK in lean mice was able to decrease the hepatic mRNA expression of FoxO1 and PEPCK. In conclusion, BK modulates glucose homeostasis by affecting hepatic glucose production in obWT. These results point to a protective role of the KKS in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2012.105DOI Listing
October 2012

Effect of a high-intensity exercise training on the metabolism and function of macrophages and lymphocytes of walker 256 tumor bearing rats.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2007 Nov;232(10):1289-99

School of Physcial Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Epidemiologic studies suggest that moderately intense training promotes augmented immune function, whereas strenuous exercise can cause immunosupression. Because the combat of cancer requires high immune function, high-intensity exercise could negatively affect the host organism; however, despite the epidemiologic data, there is a lack of experimental evidence to show that high-intensity training is harmful to the immune system. Therefore, we tested the influence of high-intensity treadmill training (10 weeks, 5 days/week, 30 mins/day, 85% VO(2)max) on immune system function and tumor development in Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats. The metabolism of glucose and glutamine in lymphocytes and macrophages was assessed, in addition to some functional parameters such as hydrogen peroxide production, phagocytosis, and lymphocyte proliferative responses. The metabolism of Walker 256 cells was also investigated. Results demonstrated that high-intensity training increased the life span of tumor-bearing rats, promoted a reduction in tumor mass, and prevented indicators of cachexia. Several changes, such as a reduction in body weight and food intake and activation of glutamine metabolism in macrophages and lymphocytes induced by the presence of Walker 256 tumor, were prevented by high intensity training. The reduction in tumor growth was associated with an impairment of tumor cell glucose and glutamine metabolism. These data suggest that high-intensity exercise training may be a viable strategy against tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3181/0704-RM-93DOI Listing
November 2007