Publications by authors named "Milos Veleminsky"

39 Publications

The impact of air pollution to obesity.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2020 Sep;41(3):146-153

Department of Genetic Toxicology and Epigenetics, Institute of Experimental Medicine, AS CR, Prague, Czech Republic.

Backgroud: Air pollution in ambient air could affect the increase of obesity in children.

Method: Review analyze papers about the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fine particles (particulate matter < 2.5 μm, PM2.5), and traffic air pollution (NO2, NOx, PM2.5).

Results: Prenatal exposure to concentrations 1.73-3.07 ng/m3 PAHs significantly increased obesity at age 5 and 7 years, up to 11 years. All studies indicate the significance of prenatal exposure with concentration > 0.3 ng/m3 of B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene). Prenatal exposure to PM2.5 above concentrations 10.6-11.9 μg/m3 increased obesity in children up to the age of 9 years. Traffic air pollution was evaluated according to exposure to NO2 and PM2.5. Concentrations NO2 higher 30 μg/m3 affect adiponectin levels in cord blood, cholesterol metabolism, and therefore increase later the risk of overweight or obesity. PM2.5 9.2-11.6 μg/m3 during pregnancy affect adiponectin. These concentrations from the traffic air pollution can affect the metabolism in newborns later related to obesity.

Conclusion: All these studies indicate that contemporary concentrations of PAHs, PM2.5 and NO2 in ambient air, especially during prenatal period, affect overweight and obesity in children.
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September 2020

The Impact of Cesarean and Vaginal Delivery on Results of Psychological Cognitive Test in 5 Year Old Children.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Oct 21;56(10). Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University of South Bohemia, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

The impact of cesarean and vaginal delivery on cognitive development was analyzed in 5 year old children. : Two cohorts of 5 year old children born in the years 2013 and 2014 in Karvina (Northern Moravia) and Ceske Budejovice (Southern Bohemia) were studied for their cognitive development related to vaginal ( = 117) and cesarean types of delivery ( = 51). The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BG test) and the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM test) were used as psychological tests. : In the comparison of vaginal delivery vs. cesarean section, the children delivered by cesarean section scored lower and, therefore, achieved poorer performance in cognitive tests compared to those born by vaginal delivery, as shown in the RCPM ( < 0.001) and in the BG test ( < 0.001). When mothers' education level was considered, the children whose mothers achieved a university degree scored higher in both the RCPM test ( < 0.001) and the BG test ( < 0.01) compared to the children of mothers with lower secondary education. When comparing mothers with a university degree to those with higher secondary education, there was a significant correlation between level of education and score achieved in the RCPM test ( < 0.001), but not in the BG test. : According to our findings, the mode of delivery seems to have a significant influence on performance in psychological cognitive tests in 5 year old children in favor of those who were born by vaginal delivery. Since cesarean-born children scored notably below vaginally born children, it appears possible that cesarean delivery may have a convincingly adverse effect on children's further cognitive development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56100554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589839PMC
October 2020

Effect of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposure on Cognitive Development in 5 Years Old Children.

Brain Sci 2020 Sep 7;10(9). Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University of South Bohemia, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

To analyze the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air at the time of delivery and five years of age on cognitive development in five year old children. Two cohorts of children born in the years 2013 and 2014 from Karvina (Northern Moravia, = 70) and Ceske Budejovice (Southern Bohemia, = 99) were studied at the age of five years for their cognitive development related to the exposure to PAHs, determined in the ambient air as the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and OH-PAH (hydroxy-PAH) metabolites in urine of the newborns at the time of delivery. As psychological tests, the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (BG test) and the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM test) were used. Concentrations of B[a]P in the third trimester of mother's pregnancies were 6.1 ± 4.53 ng/m in Karvina, and 1.19 ± 1.28 ng/m ( < 0.001) in Ceske Budejovice. Neither the outcome of the RCPM test nor the BG test differed between children in Karvina vs. Ceske Budejovice, or boys vs. girls. Cognitive development in five year old children was affected by the higher exposure to PM2.5 during the third trimester in girls in Karvina. We did not observe any significant effect of prenatal PAH exposure on psychological cognitive tests in five year old children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10090619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563279PMC
September 2020

Prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in the Czech Republic.

Child Abuse Negl 2020 04 13;102:104249. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of child maltreatment and adverse childhood experiences in the Czech Republic, as data on these is scarce. The survey was conducted among 1760 randomly selected students from five Czech universities. Participants filled in the adverse childhood experiences survey instrument. The results showed that the prevalence of child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences is high: emotional abuse was reported by 20.7%, physical abuse by 17.1%, sexual abuse by 6.4%, and physical neglect by 8.0%. Household dysfunction was also high, with household street drug use reported by 4.9%, alcohol misuse by 15.3%, mental disorder by 13.4%, parental violence by 22.1% and parental separation by 23%. Thirty-eight per cent had not experienced any adverse childhood experience, while 9.9% reported experiencing four or more types of adverse childhood experiences. There was a significant association between adverse childhood experiences and health-harming behaviours such as suicide attempt, drug use, risky sexual behaviour and tobacco use. The findings suggest that there is a need to invest in prevention programmes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.104249DOI Listing
April 2020

Attachment of family to child with disability.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2019 Nov;40(3):119-124

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, South Bohemian University, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

The development of attachment during the perinatal and/or postnatal periods between a child their mother, father and family as whole can be observed. This attachment provides the child with the safety and security feelings and may provide satisfaction to the mother and other family members. In children with physical and mental developmental disability, attachment may be challenged immediately after birth. It is typically recovered after a certain period. The authors describe the development of attachment of family members to children with somatic, mental or social disability based on an analysis of nine case reports. They conclude that the attachment of parents/mothers to their child with a disability is typically established after a certain period of time only. In the first period, there is a caregiving attitude of the mother even though the period of the origination of this tie takes place later. The mother is most frequently the person establishing attachment. However, this is not always the rule. In our cases, there were two fathers, who made the attachment earlier than respective mothers. Attachment was also evident in some grandparents and siblings. The parents, mostly the fathers, can lose the attachment established. Analysis of the degree of attachment to the child by parents may be complicated due to difficulty in assessing the extent and degree of the attachment of children with severe disabilities to their parents.
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November 2019

Adverse childhood experiences, childhood relationships and associated substance use and mental health in young Europeans.

Eur J Public Health 2019 08;29(4):741-747

Kiev International Institute of Sociology, Kyiv, Ukraine.

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can increase risks of health-harming behaviours and poor health throughout life. While increases in risk may be affected by resilience resources such as supportive childhood relationships, to date few studies have explored these effects.

Methods: We combined data from cross-sectional ACE studies among young adults (n = 14 661) in educational institutions in 10 European countries. Nine ACE types, childhood relationships and six health outcomes (early alcohol initiation, problem alcohol use, smoking, drug use, therapy, suicide attempt) were explored. Multivariate modelling estimated relationships between ACE counts, supportive childhood relationships and health outcomes.

Results: Almost half (46.2%) of participants reported ≥1 ACE and 5.6% reported ≥4 ACEs. Risks of all outcomes increased with ACE count. In individuals with ≥4 ACEs (vs. 0 ACEs), adjusted odds ratios ranged from 2.01 (95% CIs: 1.70-2.38) for smoking to 17.68 (95% CIs: 12.93-24.17) for suicide attempt. Supportive childhood relationships were independently associated with moderating risks of smoking, problem alcohol use, therapy and suicide attempt. In those with ≥4 ACEs, adjusted proportions reporting suicide attempt reduced from 23% with low supportive childhood relationships to 13% with higher support. Equivalent reductions were 25% to 20% for therapy, 23% to 17% for problem drinking and 34% to 32% for smoking.

Conclusions: ACEs are strongly associated with substance use and mental illness. Harmful relationships are moderated by resilience factors such as supportive childhood relationships. Whilst ACEs continue to affect many children, better prevention measures and interventions that enhance resilience to the life-long impacts of toxic childhood stress are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckz037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660110PMC
August 2019

A rare case of ectopic pregnancy - retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2018 Sep;39(3):156-159

Department of Pathology, Hospital Ceske Budejovice , Czech Republic.

Ectopic pregnancy is a condition when fertilized egg implants outside the uterine cavity. The reported incidence is about 0.5-1% of all pregnancies. Retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancies (REP) are extremely rare and early diagnosis and treatment is very difficult. For the adequate management and elimination of risks of maternal morbidity and even mortality, timely diagnosis is of a key importance. A 38-year-old woman was referred to our department for RCUI due to missed abortion/anembryonic pregnancy. Re-RCUI was later indicated due to suspicion of residua post RCUI. Histological examination didn't confirm intrauterine pregnancy, β-hCG blood levels were flat. Further ultrasonographic examination identified retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy, most likely in the precaval lymph node. The surgical and subsequently histological examination confirmed this diagnosis. Our case describes successful management of rare retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy. When common sites of ectopic pregnancy do not have any positive finding, then the presence of REP should be taken into consideration.
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September 2018

Gene expression profiling in healthy newborns from diverse localities of the Czech Republic.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2018 06 30;59(5):401-415. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Prenatal exposure to air pollution is associated with intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Gene expression changes in newborns in relation to air pollution have not been sufficiently studied. We analyzed whole genome expression in cord blood leukocytes of 202 newborns from diverse localities of the Czech Republic, differing among other factors in levels of air pollution: the district of Karvina (characterized by higher concentration of air pollutants) and Ceske Budejovice (lower air pollution levels). We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways in relation to locality and concentration of air pollutants. We applied the linear model to identify the specific DEGs and the correlation analysis, to investigate the relationship between the concentrations of air pollutants and gene expression data. An analysis of biochemical pathways and gene set enrichment was also performed. In general, we observed modest changes of gene expression, mostly attributed to the effect of the locality. The highest number of DEGs was found in samples from the district of Karvina. A pathway analysis revealed a deregulation of processes associated with cell growth, apoptosis or cellular homeostasis, immune response-related processes or oxidative stress response. The association between concentrations of air pollutants and gene expression changes was weak, particularly for samples collected in Karvina. In summary, as we did not find a direct effect of exposure to air pollutants, we assume that the general differences in the environment, rather than actual concentrations of individual pollutants, represent a key factor affecting gene expression changes at delivery. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:401-415, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.22184DOI Listing
June 2018

Effect of the DASH-diet and salt Kardisal® on blood pressure in adolescents with prehypertension (Cooperative multicentre interventional study).

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2018 Feb;38(8):544-548

Department of Normal, Pathological and Clinical Physiology, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: In a cooperative multi-center interventional study of 60 probands with prehypertension and normal BMIs were followed for 3 months.

Design: The intervention included the DASH diet for 3 months in 30 probands plus sodium limited intake using the low sodium salt Kardisal® (60% NaCl, 40% KCl) (group A) and the DASH diet for 3 months in 30 probands without Kardisal® (group B).

Results: In group A (n=26 probands evaluated) the systolic blood pressure (median) decreased significantly from 138 to 129 mmHg (p<0.001), while the diastolic blood pressure had a statistically non-significant decrease. In group B (n=25 probands evaluated) the SBP decreased significantly from 135 to 132 mmHg (p<0.001), and the DBP decreased significantly from 85 to 69 mmHg (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Despite a relatively short period on the DASH diet, the intervention produced a significant decrease in the blood pressure of prehypertensive adolescents. The additional use of a low sodium salt for home cooking was not found to have any advantages over the DASH diet alone.
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February 2018

The impact of air pollution to central nervous system in children and adults.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2017 Dec;38(6):389-396

Faculty of Health and Social Studies, South Bohemian University, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

The aim of this paper was to review studies analyzing the associations between air pollution and neurodevelopment in children as well as the effect on adult population. Effect of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P) were already studied on cohorts from New York, Poland, China, and Spain. All results indicate changes of child behavior and neurodevelopment at the age of 3-9 years, decrease of IQ, increase of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), reduction of left hemisphere white matter. Effect of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) to neurobehavioral development in children, measured as PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 µm), PM10, elemental carbon (EC), black smoke (BC), NO2, NOx, were studied in USA, Spain, Italy, and South Korea. Increased concentrations of TRAP were associated with the increase of ADHD, autism, affected cognitive development; PM2.5 decreased the expression of BDNF in placenta. Increased concentrations of PM2.5 affected adults cognition (episodic memory), increased major depressive disorders. Increased concentrations of NO2 were associated with dementia, NOx with Parkinson's disease. Increased concentrations of PAHs, PM2.5 and NO2 in polluted air significantly affect central nervous system in children and adults and represent a significant risk factor for human health.
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December 2017

Oxidative stress in newborns by different modes of delivery.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2016 Nov;37(6):445-451

Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objectives: The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of the type of delivery - vaginal vs. cesarean section on oxidative damage determined as the lipid peroxidation (15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP) in the cord blood of newborns and venous blood from mothers in two localities with different levels of air pollution: Ceske Budejovice (CB), a locality with a clean air, and Karvina, a locality with high air pollution.

Resutls: In Karvina, the concentration of PM2.5 was higher than in CB in the summer 2013 (mean±SD: 20.41±6.28 vs. 9.45±3.62 µg/m3, p<0.001) and in the winter 2014 (mean±SD: 53.67±19.76 vs. 27.96±12.34 µg/m3, p<0.001). Similarly, the concentration of B[a]P was higher in Karvina than in CB in the summer 2013 (mean±SD: 1.16±0.91 vs. 0.16±0.26 ng/m3, p<0.001) and in the winter 2014 (5.36±3.64 vs. 1.45±1.19 ng/m3, p<0.001). Delivery procedures differed by the type of anesthesia; at the Cesarean section in CB was used general anesthesia in 73.8% vs. 20.8% in Karvina (p<0.001), epidural anesthesia in CB in 26.2% vs. 77.1% in Karvina (p<0.001), at vaginal delivery was local anesthesia used in CB in 58.9% vs. 14.1% in Karvina (p<0.001). In CB was oxidative stress higher after vaginal delivery (101.7±31.0 pg 15-F2t-isoP/ml plasma) vs. Cesarean section (83.9±26.9 pg 15-F2t-isoP/ml plasma, p<0.001), no difference between the type of delivery was observed in Karvina.

Conclusion: No difference between the types of delivery was observed in mothers in CB as well as in Karvina. Oxidative stress in newborns in Karvina was significantly affected by the concentrations of PM2.5 and B[a]P in the polluted air.
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November 2016

The impact of air pollution in the Southern Bohemia Region on fetuses and newborns.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2016 Dec;37(suppl 2):52-57

Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Department of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Prague, Czech Republic.

Air pollution with increased concentrations of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs, represented by benzo[a]pyrene, B[a]P) affect fetal development, reduce birth weights (LBW) of newborns, and increases intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The Southern Bohemia Region is believed to be one of the least air polluted regions in the Czech Republic. Monitoring air pollution in the city of České Budějovice from 2011-2015, PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 µm) decreased from 20.3 ± 14.5 µg/m3 to 14.3 ± 8.6 µg/m3, but concentrations of B[a]P did not change between the years 2007-2015: 1.5 ± 0.6 ng/m3 vs. 1.4 ± 1.4 ng/m3. Higher B[a]P concentrations the winter induce genetic damage in newborns, increase frequency of micronuclei (chromosomal aberrations), deregulate genes for immunity in umbilical cord blood, and increase incidence of IUGR and LBW in newborns.
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December 2016

Impact of Air Pollution to Genome of Newborns.

Cent Eur J Public Health 2016 Dec;24 Suppl:S40-S44

University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

The Northern Moravia Region is the most polluted region in the Czech Republic by particulate matter (PM) and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) by heavy industry and local heating. This specific situation was used to study the impact of air pollution on newborns in the exposed Karviná district and control district of České Budějovice. Biological material from newborns and mothers was collected in summer and winter seasons. This project is highly detailed, analyzing the concentrations of PAHs in ambient air and diet, in human breast milk, in the urine of mothers and newborns, using biomarkers of genetic damage as DNA adducts and gene expression analysis, biomarkers of oxidative stress as 8-oxodG adducts and lipid peroxidation (15-F2t-isoprostane immunoassay). All 400 children, for whom the biomarker data at delivery were obtained, will be followed for morbidity up to 2 years of age. The Northern Moravia Region seems to be to be a model area for studying the long-term impact of human health exposure to c-PAHs. Our observations will indicate possible genetic and oxidative damage in newborns, which may significantly affect their morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a4536DOI Listing
December 2016

Evaluation of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in urine of Czech mothers and newborns.

Sci Total Environ 2016 Oct 29. Epub 2016 Oct 29.

University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Faculty of Food and Biochemical Technology, Department of Food Analysis and Nutrition, Technicka 3, 166 28 Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a large group of ubiquitous contaminants of the environment, including food chain where they are released as by-products of incomplete combustion of an organic matter. Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to PAHs correlated with increased incidence of cancer. Carcinogenicity is associated mainly with metabolites that are formed during metabolic degradation of these substances in exposed organism. In this study monohydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs), the major metabolites excreted into urine, were determined in 531 urine samples collected from mothers and their newborns from two localities of the Czech Republic - heavily air polluted Karvina and control locality of Ceske Budejovice and in two sampling rounds - August-October 2013 (summer, less air polluted season) and January-April 2014 (winter, more air polluted season). From all targeted analytes, naphthalene-2-ol was the most abundant compound present in 100% of the samples and it represented also the analyte with the highest concentration. Median concentration of ΣOH-PAHs in the urine of children was on average 1.6 times lower compared to the respective mother which correlates with higher intake of PAHs by mothers. ΣOH-PAHs concentrations determined in mothers' urine collected in the summer were comparable in both localities. No significant increase occurred in Ceske Budejovice in winter, while in samples from the Karvina region a statistically significant difference (α=0.05) in the amount of ΣOH-PAHs was observed. The median concentrations of ΣOH-PAHs in mothers' urine samples in the winter were 1.5 times higher than in the summer in the same locality. The amounts of ΣOH-PAHs in newborns' urine from Karvina in the winter season were 1.5 times higher than in the summer collected in the same locality and 3.3 times higher when compared with the less polluted locality of Ceske Budejovice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.165DOI Listing
October 2016

Impact of air pollution on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in mothers and their newborns.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2016 08 31;219(6):545-56. Epub 2016 May 31.

Department of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, AS CR, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Ambient air particulate matter (PM) represents a class of heterogeneous substances that form one component of air pollution. Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important action mechanism for PM on the human organism. Oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) may affect any cellular macromolecule. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of air pollution on oxidative DNA damage [8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG)] and lipid peroxidation [15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP)] in the urine and blood from mothers and newborns from two localities with different levels of air pollution: Ceske Budejovice (CB), a locality with a clean air, and Karvina, a locality with high air pollution. The samples from normal deliveries (38-41 week+) of nonsmoking mothers and their newborns were collected in the summer and winter seasons. Higher PM2.5 concentrations were found in Karvina than in CB in the summer 2013 (mean±SD: 20.41±6.28 vs. 9.45±3.62μg/m(3), P<0.001), and in the winter 2014 (mean±SD: 53.67±19.76 vs. 27.96±12.34μg/m(3), P<0.001). We observed significant differences in 15-F2t-IsoP levels between the summer and winter seasons in Karvina for newborns (mean±SD: 64.24±26.75 vs. 104.26±38.18pg/ml plasma, respectively) (P<0.001). Levels of 8-oxodG differed only in the winter season between localities, they were significantly higher (P<0.001) in newborns from Karvina in comparison with CB (mean±SD: 5.70±2.94 vs. 4.23±1.51 nmol/mmol creatinine, respectively). The results of multivariate regression analysis in newborns from Karvina showed PM2.5 concentrations to be a significant predictor for 8-oxodG excretion, PM2.5 and B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) concentrations to be a significant predictor for 15-F2t-IsoP levels. The results of multivariate regression analysis in mothers showed PM2.5 concentrations to be a significant predictor of 8-oxodG levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.05.010DOI Listing
August 2016

Mothers' dilemma - conducting delivery on the limits of the foetus viability. Case Report.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2015 Dec;36(6):524-8

Faculty of Health and Social Studies, South Bohemian University, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Ethical questions concerning problems of conducting delivery of enormously immature foetuses are subjected to intensive discussion and call for a permanent and wide consideration with the participation of all specialists, who are involved in the problem. The discussions have persisted over tens of years and became intensive particularly at the moment of defining the foetus viability. In the present contribution, the author illustrates the discussion by two selected case reports exemplifying the practical impact of conducting deliveries of enormously immature foetuses on the physician and particularly on the family.
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December 2015

Qualitative analysis of selected literature sources addressing the issue of homelessness.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2015 ;36 Suppl 2:54-61

University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Czech Republic.

Objectives: The objective of this article is to answer the main research question, which reads: "How is the issue of homelessness presented in the relevant literature?" Basic terms related to homelessness and homeless people are defined at the beginning of the article. Homelessness is a complex social problem, with many factors contributing to its origin and development that can, in principle, be divided into objective and subjective factors.

Methods: A qualitative research strategy was chosen to address the main research question. Analysis of documents using content analysis was used as the research tool. The research sample consisted of three articles, two chapters, and two subchapters in a monograph. The three analyzed sources were in English, three in the Slovak language, and one in the Czech language.

Results: It was found that the issue could be viewed from both health-related and social perspectives. None of the authors, whose publications were analyzed, preferred a "purely" health-related or a "purely" social welfare view of the issue of homelessness. We identified three types of perspectives (approaches) related to the care of homeless people: health & social, preferred health care, and preferred social care. Both components of care are more or less represented in each of the three types of care.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the issue of homelessness cannot be viewed from a single perspective (either health or social), since it requires an interdisciplinary approach and cooperation of both healthcare professionals and social welfare experts to address the unfavorable social situations associated with homelessness.
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May 2016

Illegal drug use among female university students in Slovakia.

Med Sci Monit 2015 Jan 20;21:254-61. Epub 2015 Jan 20.

Faculty of Health and Social Studies, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Background: This study is focused on the issue of illegal drug use among female university students preparing to become teachers. The main aim was to determine the frequency of drug abuse in a group of young women (n=215, mean age 20.44 years).

Material/methods: Using survey methods, we determined that 33.48% of female university students in Slovakia use illegal drugs and 66.51% of students have never used illegal drugs. Differences between these groups were determined using statistical analysis, mostly in 4 areas of survey questions.

Results: We determined that education of parents has a statistically significant influence on use of illegal drugs by their children (χ2=10.14; P<0.05). Communication between parents and children and parental attention to children have a significant role in determining risky behavior (illegal drug use, χ2=8.698, P<0.05). Parents of students not using illegal drugs were interested in how their children spend their free time (68.53%). We confirmed the relationship between consumption of alcohol and illegal drug use (χ2=16.645; P<0.001) and smoking (χ2=6.226; P<0.05). The first contact with drugs occurs most frequently at high school age. The most consumed "soft" drug in our group of female university students is marijuana.

Conclusions: Our findings are relevant for comparison and generalization regarding causes of the steady increase in number of young people using illegal drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.892068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4309727PMC
January 2015

Subjective Social Status in select Ukrainians, Vietnamese, and Mongolians living in the Czech Republic.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2014 ;35 Suppl 1:90-101

Department of Social Work, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Czech Republic.

Objectives: This article discusses methods of examining subjective social status (SSS), which is based on the concept of social determinants of health described by Wilkinson and Marmot in 1998.

Methods: SSS research was conducted with Cooperation from the Scientific and Technical Research (COST) program, with financial support from the Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. This study is part of a project entitled the "Health and Social Status of Immigrants and Asylum Seekers in the Czech Republic" (registration number OC 10031), which was started in 2010 and concluded in May 2011. The study included 246 respondents of which: 69 (28.1%) had emigrated from Vietnam; 93 (37.8%) from the Ukraine; and 84 (34.1%) from Mongolia. In terms of qualitative strategies, 13 individual immigrants and asylum seekers were personally interviewed. This research was thus conceived as being both quantitative-qualitative, which included the use of the appropriate technical tools (i.e., questionnaires and interviews with select immigrants and asylum seekers). SSS was determined using the Pearson's chi-square test, as well as through correspondence and cluster analyzes. Sign schemes were used to detect select significant relationships in contingency tables. The minimum significance level chosen was α ≤ 0.05.

Results: When examining the SSS of select nationalities, differences were observed in the perception of subjective social status. The correspondence analysis results clearly show that Ukrainians best perceived their social status (within the selected parameters). One measure of subjectively perceived social status related to Czech language proficiency (i.e., one criterion was the comprehension of spoken Czech; e.g., whether the respondent could read or speak Czech, or how they assessed their own Czech proficiency).

Conclusion: The SSS study clearly revealed typical links among select nationalities living in the Czech Republic, and highlighted risks related to the degree of integration (and its relationship to social exclusion). This study served as a pilot project for follow-up research conducted by the second COST project entitled: "Social Determinants of Health and their Impact on the Health of Immigrants Living in the Czech Republic" (registration number LD 13044 COST). The follow-up study included 1 000 respondents of Slovak, Vietnamese, Ukrainian, Russian and Polish nationality and is currently underway at the Faculty of Health and Social Studies at the University of South Bohemia in the Czech Republic. The methodological tools used were taken from the COST pilot project (which is the topic of this article) and were adjusted as needed (i.e., both objective and subjective criteria were used for examining social status).
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March 2015

Medical and salutogenic approaches and their integration in taking prenatal and postnatal care of Czech women.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2014 ;35 Suppl 1:80-9

University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Czech Republic.

Objective: To compile a proposal of the system of taking complex prenatal, perinatal and postnatal care of pregnant women and their children in the Czech Republic with taking into account medical and salutogenic approaches.

Material And Methods: A questionnaire was prepared comprising questions for mothers and making it possible to exactly use specified data from their healthcare documentation. The method thus consisted of a secondary data analysis and subsequent contact with mothers. This was implemented in the form a qualitative and narrative interview. The study included 541 women from five Czech regions.

Results: In this group, there was a high level of the preventive care with persisting preference of prenatal consulting rooms conducted by physicians. Most deliveries occurred in institutions in the presence of physicians. In the groups evaluated, there were, however, no significant differences. In spite of this, the evaluation of delivering women indicated that there is a high level of the perinatal care in terms of the medical approach. However, the salutogenic care calls for increasing the active participation of midwives in the prenatal, perinatal and postnatal care and extension and intensification of activities particularly in the psychosocial area.

Conclusion: In the group monitored, there were no significant correlations of determined perinatal interventions with the method and result of the delivery and condition of the mother and newborn. It is to mention that the medical perinatal care is at a high level.
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March 2015

Medical and salutogenic approaches and their integration in taking prenatal and postnatal care of immigrants.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2014 ;35 Suppl 1:67-79

University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Czech Republic.

Objectives: To compile a proposal of the system of taking complex prenatal, perinatal and postnatal care of pregnant immigrants in the Czech Republic with taking into account medical and salutogenic approaches.

Material And Methods: The research was implemented by the form of a controlled interview and was based on a questionnaire comprising 50 questions focused on the evaluation of taking the prenatal, natal and postnatal care of immigrants. The data were accumulated among immigrants from Vietnam, Mongolia and Ukraine.

Results: It is possible to conclusively state that no principal dissatisfaction with taking care of pregnant women in the Czech Republic compared to native countries was demonstrated. There is a difference in a more considerable participation of midwives in the prenatal and natal care compared to the native countries. Failures in taking care of mothers-immigrants in the Czech Republic are considered to be the poor communication, particularly in association with the language barrier, limited possibilities of the participation of family members in the delivery and persisting unsuitable behaviour of certain healthcare professionals.

Conclusion: In the Czech Republic, the medical care is at a higher level compared to native countries. For the improvement of the salutogenic attitude, it is necessary to take into consideration certain results and provide their application to practice.
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March 2015

Interdisciplinary collaboration between medical and non-medical professions in health and social care.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2014 ;35 Suppl 1:59-66

University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Department of Clinical and Pre-Clinical Branches, Czech Republic.

Objectives: This paper addresses the issue of interdisciplinary collaboration between medical and non-medical professions in health and social care. The introduction defines basic terms such as interdisciplinary cooperation, interdisciplinary team, and health and social care. Additionally, it highlights the significance and contribution of interdisciplinary collaboration in the care of the patient/client in health and social care. The aim of the paper is to identify factors influencing the process of interdisciplinary collaboration between, in particular, social workers and physicians. In compliance with the main goal of the research, the following partial goals were included: 1) to identify factors that limit the process of interdisciplinary collaboration between social workers and physicians, and 2) to identify factors which support the process of interdisciplinary collaboration between social workers and physicians.

Methods: Based on the research goals, a systematic review was selected as the research method for the paper. The research dataset consisted of articles obtained from the following databases: EBSO, PUBMED/MEDLINE, SCIENCE DIRECT and SCOPUS. The databases were search using the following keywords: interprofessional cooperation, interdisciplinary, collaboration, social work, and physicians/doctors.

Results: Using the results, the following factors supporting interdisciplinary collaboration were identified: acknowledgement of colleagues' expertise, recognition of roles, positive level of communication, and mutual respect. Factors that limit interdisciplinary processes included the following: varying professional perspectives, theoretical differences, lack of knowledge, and poor communication.
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March 2015

Blood pressure relation to body composition and age: analysis of a nurse-led investigation and consultation program.

Med Sci Monit 2013 Jul 26;19:612-7. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Constantine the Philosopher University, Faculty of Social Sciences and Health Care Nitra, Slovakia.

Background: Blood pressure (BP) increases with age and obesity. We have assessed the relative contribution of age and fatness to BP regulation in a healthy population investigated by nurse practitioners.

Material And Methods: Preventive investigation and counseling was offered at the entrance hall of the regional authority´s office in the town of Nitra by 2 nursing specialists who investigated 120 men and 276 women. In men the mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.8 kg/m2, mean weight was 84.4 kg, mean fat percentage was 23.3, mean age was 46.1 years, mean systolic BP was 133.1 mmHg, and mean diastolic BP was 82.5 mmHg. In women the mean BMI was 24.8 kg/m2, mean weight was 67.3 kg, mean fat percentage was 29.4, mean age was 45.4 years, mean systolic BP was 127.7 mmHg, and mean diastolic BP was 78.5 mmHg. Correlation analysis was performed and in multiple regression analysis we used BP values as the dependent variable and fat percentage and age as independent variables. Normality of variables distribution was checked and found satisfactorily.

Results: Most of the subjects had an untreated component of metabolic syndrome. There was a correlation between BP values, age, and percent body fat. BP was regulated only to a certain degree by fatness and age, with the influence being relatively small. Our results showed that BP was more influenced by fatness than age, and body fatness was more related to higher systolic than to diastolic BP.

Conclusions: Age and fatness could explain BP values by only 3-30%, although BP was more influenced by fatness than by age. Nurse practitioners can effectively detect and motivate people with metabolic syndrome.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728227PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/msm.883984DOI Listing
July 2013

Extremely large vulvar fibroma in a 15-year-old girl.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2012 ;33(6):600-2

Department of Clinical Branches, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Background: Fibromas and fibromyomas belong to the most common solid vulvar tumors. Their cause remains unknown.

Case: A 15-year-old girl arrived at our department for extirpation of a large pendulous vulval fibroma. For three years she had observed a gradually enlarging structure protruding from her external genitals. After a preoperative CT examination the tumor was extirpated with a histological diagnosis of benign soft fibroma.

Conclusion: Our report describes a therapeutic management of a large vulval fibroma in a young girl. The extended time from first symptoms to final treatment deserves reflection.
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March 2013

The relationship between family socioeconomic condition and childhood injury frequency in selected locations in the Czech Republic.

Med Sci Monit 2012 Mar;18(3):PH19-27

Department of Clinical and Preclinical Branches, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Background: Childhood injury rates are monitored worldwide because they markedly affect morbidity and mortality of children. There are numerous works that point out the relationship between family socioeconomic status and injuries, where lower socioeconomic levels are linked to higher numbers of injuries.

Material/methods: The goal of this work was to evaluate the relationship between family socioeconomic status and childhood injuries in the Czech Republic. The research was carried out between 1/7/2009 and 31/12/2010. A 2-part questionnaire was used to gather information. The first part, "Injury/poisoning of children," included information on the injury itself; the second part, "Family functionality," concerned family socioeconomic situations. We collected a total of 874 questionnaires in the South-Bohemian region and 132 questionnaires from a selected county in the North-Bohemian region. A database identical with the questionnaire assignment was established, comprising all the data accumulated.

Results: The injury rate in families living in poor socioeconomic situations in locality 8 was statistically significantly higher compared to families in good socioeconomic situations. The number of home injuries was 205. Families with incomes that were twice the subsistence level had more child protective measures in their households. There was a statistically significant relationship between the number of child protective measures and injury frequency in families. Children in families having higher incomes (twice that of subsistence level) were more likely to suffer injuries related to organized sports as compared to those in families having lower incomes.

Conclusions: The literature and research data show that preventive programs have the largest effect on reduction in childhood morbidity and mortality with respect to injuries.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3560742PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/msm.882508DOI Listing
March 2012

Estimation of beverage consumption and associated caloric intake in adult Czech population. An observational study.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2011 ;32 Suppl 2:13-6

Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Food intake is a commonly monitored issue in many studies. In contrast, almost no information has been published on beverage intake in adults.

Material And Methods: To evaluate beverage intake, we studied a population of 1, 200 adults (656 males and 544 females, aged 18-54 years). The volumes and types of beverages were obtained from self-reported questionnaires.

Results: The mean beverage intake was highly variable, with a minimum of 450 mL/day and a maximum of 5,330 mL/day. A mean of 1,575 mL/day was found in the entire population (2,300 mL in males and 840 mL in females). Different patterns in the consumption of beverage types were observed between the males and females. For both males and females, the most common beverage consumed was water followed by tea. The next preferable beverages were alcoholic beer, coffee, and non-alcoholic beer in males and coffee, milk, and alcoholic beer in females. The estimated caloric intake from beverages covers, in most individuals, 10-30% of the recommended daily caloric intake.

Conclusions: There is substantial variation among individuals, both in beverage intake and in caloric intake through beverages. The caloric intake from beverages reaches, in some individuals, one-third of the recommended daily caloric rate.
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June 2012

Micronuclei levels in mothers and their newborns from regions with different types of air pollution.

Mutat Res 2011 Oct 30;715(1-2):72-8. Epub 2011 Jul 30.

Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 14220 Prague 4, Czech Republic.

The aim of this study was to analyze genetic damage in human lymphocytes measured using automated image analysis of micronuclei (MN) in a group of 178 mothers and their newborns from two locations in the Czech Republic. The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and benzene were measured by stationary monitoring in the winter season of 2008/2009 in the capital city of Prague and in Ceske Budejovice, a regional city in a rural area. The 3-month mean concentration of B[a]P before delivery was lower in Prague in comparison with Ceske Budejovice: 1.9 ± 0.5ng/m³ vs. 3.2 ± 0.2ng/m³ (p<0.001). The opposite trend was found for PM2.5 and benzene: 27.0 ± 2.5μg/m³ and 2.5 ± 0.5μg/m³ vs. 24.5 ± 0.7μg/m³ and 2.1 ± 0.8μg/m³ (p<0.001) for Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, respectively. The average age of the mothers was 31 years (range, 18-49 years). The frequencies of MN per 1000 binucleated cells were 8.35 ± 3.06 vs. 6.47 ± 2.35 (p<0.001) for mothers from Prague and Ceske Budejovice, respectively, and 2.17 ± 1.32 vs. 3.82 ± 2.43 (p<0.001) for newborns from Prague and Ceske Budejovice, respectively. Other factors, including vitamin intake, exposure to tobacco smoke, body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, the education level of the mothers and the impact of the mothers' and fathers' ages were analyzed in our study. The results suggest that the different sensitivity of the study groups to various mixtures of carcinogenic pollutants could be affected by significant differences in lifestyle factors. Possible higher genetic damage was analyzed in newborns of smoking mothers, and the birth weight of this group was 7.4% lower (p<0.05) in comparison with the newborns of nonsmoking mothers. No impact of the age of the mothers or fathers on MN frequency in the newborns was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2011.07.011DOI Listing
October 2011

Rare complications of pregnancy: aortic cystic medionecrosis, gallbladder carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2011 ;32(3):242-5

Faculty of Health and Social Studies, South Bohemian University, Ceské Budĕjovice, Czech Republic.

The authors present cases on rare but serious complications in pregnancy and puerperium concerning women with cystic aorta medionecrosis, gallbladder carcinoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. They describe the prognosis of pregnant women and their newborns with oncological and non-oncological malignancies while stressing an individual approach.
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September 2011

Birth after cesarean section.

Med Sci Monit 2011 Feb;17(2):CR97-103

Department of Clinical Branches, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Background: The number of incoming expectant women who have previously experienced cesarean section has increased. This work sought to find the frequency and connections between vaginal deliveries, cesarean sections, and iterative cesarean sections from 2004 to 2008.

Material/methods: In all, 828 women with previous cesarean sections were included. From this group, 8282 vaginal deliveries were performed. During these years, 828 women had a history of the cesarean section; in these women, iterative cesarean sections were indicated. To evaluate knowledge of educational material designed for women being prepared for the iterative delivery, we used information compiled on experience from 2002 to 2003; the same approach was used to evaluate the nursing process on interventions and diagnoses of cesarean sections.

Results: From 2004 to 2008, 11 279 deliveries were performed in the Perinatological Center in České Budějovice; this was significant (P<.001). The same result was obtained in the relation for the total number of deliveries and those performed by the iterative cesarean section. The number of iterative cesarean sections in women who had already experienced the cesarean section (828) and delivered by cesarean section again is 620. Other data were not significant. Only 2 to 3 pregnancies next to the first cesarean section were statistically significant in 2004 and 2005.

Conclusions: If a trial of labor after cesarean does not proceed to vaginal birth, the woman will need support and encouragement to express feelings about another cesarean birth.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3524712PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/msm.881394DOI Listing
February 2011

Retrospective analysis of paediatric injuries associated with water in Czech Republic in the context of the European at worldwide situation.

Med Sci Monit 2010 Sep;16(9):SC13-7

University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Department of Clinical Branches, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

Background: Injuries encountered in association with the aquatic environment negatively affect morbidity and mortality rates in children. It is the second (in Bohemia the third) most frequent cause of injuries in children under 19 years of age. The targets of the study are as follows: to analyse the problems of children's injuries associated with water in the Czech Republic by the mechanism of their origination; to compare the analysis of results with the situation abroad; to evaluate risk factors associated with the aquatic environment.

Material/methods: The group includes 802 children aged 0-19 years who experienced accidents associated with the aquatic environment between 2002 and 2006; 14% drowned, 48% nearly drowned, 37% suffered injuries. The basic data for the study presented here was accumulated from multiple sources (statistical data, secondary analyses of documents, reports of the integrated emergency service, water rescue service, etc.).

Results: The results were statistically processed by the squared chi method. A statistically significant relationship was established between injuries originating in pools and the preschool age. (35.6%) No statistical significance was demonstrated with other variables.

Conclusions: The authors discuss the possibilities of providing safety for children at pools and in the vicinity of water reservoirs. They emphasise the necessity of permanent, concentrated surveillance on the part of parents and the building of protective devices restricting free access to the pool.
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September 2010