Publications by authors named "Miles Walkden"

14 Publications

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Differences in polysomnographic, nocturnal penile tumescence and penile doppler ultrasound findings in men with stuttering priapism and sleep-related painful erections.

Int J Impot Res 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

University College London Hospitals, London, UK.

Men with Stuttering Priapism (SP) and sleep-related painful erections (SRPE) experience bothersome nocturnal painful erections resulting in poor sleep. The aim of this study is to observe common features and differences between men with SP and SRPE based on polysomnography, nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT), and penile doppler ultrasound (PDU). This is a prospective cohort study of 20 participants divided into two groups (Group 1 = SP [n = 12]; Group 2 = SRPE [n = 8]) with bothersome painful nocturnal erections. All participants were referred to the sleep disorder clinic to be assessed and consented for overnight polysomnography with simultaneous NPT recording and to complete validated sleep, sexual dysfunction and health-related quality of life questionnaires. Unstimulated PDU was also performed. Abnormal Polysomnographic findings (reduced sleep efficiency, total sleep time, and awake after sleep onset) were identified in both groups suggesting poor sleep. Men with SP had significantly longer erections (60.0 vs 18.5; p = 0.002) and took longer to detumesce once awake (25.7 vs 5.4 min; p = 0.001) than men with SRPE. They also had significantly higher peak systolic and end diastolic velocities on unstimulated PDU with an abnormal low resistance waveform identified. No sleep pathology was identified in men with SP. This implies a local (penile) etiology in men with SP. Men with SRPE had a normal resting PDU and abnormal sleep architecture with REM awakenings and significantly more Periodic limb movements (p = 0.04) than men with SP suggesting a central (sleep-related) cause in men with SRPE. Sexual dysfunction and poor HR-QoL was identified on validated questionnaires in both groups. SP and SRPE are rare entities that share similar symptoms (painful nocturnal erections and poor sleep) but dissimilar features of nocturnal erection onset, duration and resolution with different polysomnographic features which may allude to a different pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41443-021-00462-3DOI Listing
August 2021

Growth and renal function dynamics of renal oncocytomas in patients on active surveillance.

BJU Int 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: To study the natural history of renal oncocytomas and address indications for intervention by determining how growth is associated with renal function over time, the reasons for surgery and ablation, and disease-specific survival.

Patients And Methods: The study was conducted in a retrospective cohort of consecutive patients with renal oncocytoma on active surveillance reviewed at the Specialist Centre for Kidney Cancer at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust (2012 to 2019). Comparison between groups was performed using Mann-Whitney U-tests and chi-squared tests. A mixed-effects model with a random intercept for patient was used to study the longitudinal association between tumour size and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

Results: Longitudinal data from 98 patients with 101 lesions were analysed. Most patients were men (68.3%) and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 69 (13) years. The median (IQR) follow-up was 29 (26) months. Most lesions were small renal masses, and 24% measured over 4 cm. Over half (64.4%) grew at a median (IQR) rate of 2 (4) mm per year. No association was observed between tumour size and eGFR over time (P = 0.871). Nine lesions (8.9%) were subsequently treated. Two deaths were reported, neither were related to the diagnosis of renal oncocytoma.

Conclusion: Natural history data from the largest active surveillance cohort of renal oncocytomas to date show that renal function does not seem to be negatively impacted by growing oncocytomas, and confirms clinical outcomes are excellent after a median follow-up of over 2 years. Active surveillance should be considered the 'gold standard' management of renal oncocytomas up to 7cm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15499DOI Listing
May 2021

Impact of the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic on a tertiary referral centre for kidney cancer.

BJU Int 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Specialist Centre for Kidney Cancer, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Objective: To analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a centralized specialist kidney cancer care pathway.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patient and pathway characteristics including prioritization strategies at the Specialist Centre for Kidney Cancer located at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust (RFH) before and during the surge of COVID-19.

Results: On 18 March 2020 all elective surgery was halted at RFH to redeploy resources and staff for the COVID-19 surge. Prioritizing of patients according to European Association of Urology guidance was introduced. Clinics and the specialist multidisciplinary team (SMDT) meetings were maintained with physical distancing, kidney surgery was moved to a COVID-protected site, and infection prevention measurements were enforced. During the 7 weeks of lockdown (23 March to 10 May 2020), 234 cases were discussed at the SMDT meetings, 53% compared to the 446 cases discussed in the 7 weeks pre-lockdown. The reduction in referrals was more pronounced for small and asymptomatic renal masses. Of 62 low-priority cancer patients, 27 (43.5%) were deferred. Only one (4%) COVID-19 infection occurred postoperatively, and the patient made a full recovery. No increase in clinical or pathological upstaging could be detected in patients who underwent deferred surgery compared to pre-COVID practice.

Conclusion: The first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic severely impacted diagnosis, referral and treatment of kidney cancer at a tertiary referral centre. With a policy of prioritization and COVID-protected pathways, capacity for time-sensitive oncological interventions was maintained and no immediate clinical harm was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8239749PMC
May 2021

Renal cryoablation - a practical guide for interventional radiologists.

Br J Radiol 2021 Feb 22;94(1118):20200854. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Interventional Oncology Service, University College Hospital, 235 Euston Road, NW1 2BU, London, United Kingdom.

Renal cryoablation is a treatment option for early stage renal cell carcinomas with excellent oncological outcomes and low morbidity. This review outlines the technique of renal cryoablation and provides a guide for interventional radiologists on setting up an integrated service within a renal cancer network multidisciplinary setting. Patient selection and preparation, together with the technical aspects which ensure optimal oncological outcomes and avoid collateral damage to adjacent organs are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934314PMC
February 2021

Outcomes of Renal Tumors Treated by Image-Guided Percutaneous Cryoablation: Immediate and 3- and 5-Year Outcomes at a Regional Center.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2020 07 14;215(1):242-247. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Imaging Department, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and 3- and 5-year outcomes of patients with clinical stage T1 (cT1) biopsy-proven renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated by image-guided percutaneous cryoablation at a regional interventional oncology center. A prospectively maintained local interventional radiology database identified patients with cT1 RCC lesions that were treated by percutaneous cryoablation. Technical success, procedural complications (graded using the Clavien-Dindo classification system), and the residual unablated tumor rate were collated. Local tumor progression-free survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. A total of 180 patients with 185 separate cT1 RCC lesions were identified. Mean patient age was 68.4 years (range, 34.1-88.9 years) and 52 patients (28.9%) were women. There were 168 (90.8%) and 17 (9.2%) cT1a and cT1b lesions, respectively, with a mean lesion size of 28.5 mm (range, 11-58 mm). Technical success was achieved in 183 of 185 (98.9%) patients. The major complication rate (Clavien-Dindo classification ≥ grade III) was 2.2% (four out of 185). Residual unablated tumor on the first follow-up scan was identified in four of 183 tumors (2.2%). Estimated local tumor progression-free survival at 3 and 5 years was 98.3% and 94.9%, respectively. No distant metastases or deaths attributable to RCC occurred. Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before the procedure was 72.4 ± 18.5 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m and this was not statistically significantly different after the procedure (69.7 ± 18.8 mL/min/1.73 m), at 1 year (70.7 ± 16.4 mL/min/1.73 m), or at 2 years (69.8 ± 18.9 mL/min/1.73 m) ( > 0.05). These data add to the accumulating evidence that image-guided cryoablation is an efficacious treatment for selected cT1 RCC with a low complication rate and ro bust 3- and 5-year outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.19.22213DOI Listing
July 2020

Splenogonadal fusion: A rare paratesticular lesion and how to recognise it on ultrasound.

Ultrasound 2020 Feb 3;28(1):54-57. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Department of Radiology, University College Hospital, UK.

Introduction: Splenogonadal fusion is a rare developmental disorder that results in a gonadal or paragonadal mass due to the close proximity of the developing spleen and gonad.

Case Report: We describe a case of splenogonadal fusion presenting as a paratesticular mass in a 25-year-old male. This was ultimately diagnosed on surgical biopsy.

Discussion: Splenogonadal fusion is a rare abnormality but can be managed conservatively. The sonographic features and the differential diagnosis are highlighted.

Conclusion: Through this case, we highlight the clinical and sonographic features of splenogonadal fusion. Awareness amongst ultrasound practitioners is important, given that it can be managed conservatively, and means of a non-invasive diagnosis are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1742271X19876085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6987496PMC
February 2020

Protocol for a feasibility study of a cohort embedded randomised controlled trial comparing phron paring reatment (NEST) for small renal masses.

BMJ Open 2019 06 11;9(6):e030965. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Surgical Biotechnology, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK.

Introduction: Small renal masses (SRMs; ≤4 cm) account for two-thirds of new diagnoses of kidney cancer, the majority of which are incidental findings. The natural history of the SRM seems largely indolent. There is an increasing concern regarding surgical overtreatment and the associated health burden in terms of morbidity and economy. Observational data support the safety and efficacy of percutaneous cryoablation but there is an unmet need for high-quality evidence on non-surgical management options and a head-to-head comparison with standard of care is lacking. Historical interventional trial recruitment difficulties demand novel study conduct approaches. We aim to assess if a novel trial design, the cohort embedded randomised controlled trial (RCT), will enable carrying out such a comparison.

Methods And Analysis: Single-centre prospective cohort study of adults diagnosed with SRM (n=200) with an open label embedded interventional RCT comparing nephron sparing interventions. Cohort participants will be managed at patient and clinicians' discretion and agree with longitudinal clinical data and biological sample collection, with invitation for trial interventions and participation in comparator control groups. Cohort participants with biopsy-proven renal cell carcinoma eligible for both percutaneous cryoablation and partial nephrectomy will be randomly selected (1:1) and invited to consider percutaneous cryoablation (n=25). The comparator group will be robotic partial nephrectomy (n=25). The primary outcome of this feasibility study is participant recruitment. Qualitative research techniques will assess barriers and recruitment improvement opportunities. Secondary outcomes are participant trial retention, health-related quality of life, treatment complications, blood transfusion rate, intensive care unit admission and renal replacement requirement rates, length of hospital stay, time to return to pre-treatment activities, number of work days lost, and health technologies costs.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval has been granted (UK HRA REC 19/EM/0004). Study outputs will be presented and published.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN18156881; Pre-results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6577353PMC
June 2019

High-Frequency Jet Ventilation During Cryoablation of Small Renal Tumours.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2018 Jul 7;41(7):1067-1073. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, 250 Euston Road, London, NW1 2PG, UK.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) in place of standard intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) on procedure duration, patient radiation dose, complication rates, and outcomes during CT-guided cryoablation of small renal tumours.

Materials And Methods: One hundred consecutive CT-guided cryoablation procedures to treat small renal tumours under general anaesthesia were evaluated-50 with standard IPPV and 50 after the introduction of HFJV as standard practice. Anaesthesia and procedural times, ionising radiation dose, complications, and 1-month post-treatment outcomes were collected.

Results: HFJV was feasible and safe in all cases. Mean procedure time and total anaesthetic time were shorter with HFJV (p = <0.0001). The number of required CT acquisitions (p = 0.0002) and total procedure patient radiation dose (p = 0.0027) were also lower in the HFJV group compared with the IPPV group. There were a total of four complications of Clavien-Dindo classification 3 or above-three in the IPPV group and one in the HFJV group. At 1-month follow-up, two cases (both in the IPPV group) demonstrated subtotal treatment. Both cases were subsequently successfully retreated with cryoablation.

Conclusion: By reducing target tumour motion during CT-guided renal cryoablation, HFJV can reduce procedure times and exposure to ionising radiation. HFJV provides an important adjunct to complex image-guided interventions, with potential to improve safety and treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-018-1921-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976690PMC
July 2018

Abnormal deep dorsal vein resulting in veno-occlusive erectile dysfunction.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jan 18;2018. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

A 59-year-old man with a 6-year history of erectile dysfunction presented to the andrology outpatient clinic. Multimodality assessment with ultrasound, MRI venography and fluoroscopic venography demonstrated an aberrant emissary vein arising from the corporal bodies causing venogenic erectile dysfunction. Selective coil embolisation of the collateral vein resulted in an almost immediate and sustained improvement in his erections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-223496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5775804PMC
January 2018

Microbubble-enhanced ultrasound to demonstrate urethral transection in a case of penile fracture.

BMJ Case Rep 2017 Sep 23;2017. Epub 2017 Sep 23.

Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

A 47-year-old man attended the emergency department following trauma during sexual intercourse after which he developed penile swelling and haematuria several hours later. A penile fracture was suspected but given the slightly atypical history, ultrasound was performed to look for a fracture. Given the history of haematuria, both a standard Doppler ultrasound and a microbubble-enhanced retrograde ultrasound urethrogram were performed. The Doppler confirmed the suspected diagnosis of penile fracture, and microbubble urethrogram demonstrated a urethral injury. This facilitated prompt surgical treatment and helped guide the surgical approach. Retrograde microbubble enhanced ultrasound urethrogram is a novel technique that can be used in conjunction with standard ultrasound to confirm the presence of a concurrent urethral rupture in penile fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-220073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5747639PMC
September 2017

Distal corpus cavernosum fibrosis and erectile dysfunction secondary to non-ischaemic priapism.

Arch Ital Urol Androl 2015 Sep 30;87(3):258-9. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Department of Urology, Guy's Hospital, Kings College London; Department of Urology, University College London Hospitals.

Non-ischaemic priapism is a rare type of priapism and is associated with penile or perineal trauma. The absence of ischaemia should theoretically prevent smooth muscle necrosis and corporal fibrosis which occurs in ischaemic priapism. The aim of this study was to first report a patient series with non-ischaemic priapism that developed distal corpus cavernosum fibrosis and erectile dysfunction. Over a 5 year period, a cohort of 6 patients diagnosed with non-ischaemic priapism presented to a single centre. The diagnosis was based on a clinical history, penile examination with confirmation using a combination of cavernosal blood gas analysis, colour duplex ultrasonography of the penis and angiography. Patients were followed up in clinic at regular intervals with clinical examination and repeat imaging. Following a median follow up of 4 weeks (range 2-12) the patients reported either the development of erectile dysfunction with distal penile flaccidity. Five patients required the use of PDE-5 inhibitors to achieve full tumescence. The remaining patient eventually underwent insertion of a penile prosthesis due to the failure of pharmacotherapies. Based on these findings we suggest that superselective embolisation of non-ischaemic priapism cases occasionally should be performed after a shorter period of conservative treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/aiua.2015.3.258DOI Listing
September 2015

Laceration of the common femoral artery following deployment of the starclose vascular closure system.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2008 Jul-Aug;31(4):817-20. Epub 2008 May 28.

53 Rectory Lane, Tooting, London, SW17 9PY, UK.

StarClose is a novel arterial closure device which achieves hemostasis, following arteriotomy, via a nitinol clip deployed on the outer arterial wall. Since its introduction to the market, several studies have shown StarClose to be both safe and effective, with few major complications encountered. We report a case of common femoral artery laceration following deployment of the StarClose vascular closure system. We conclude that the injury occurred secondary to intravascular misplacement of the nitinol clip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-008-9351-3DOI Listing
November 2008

Percutaneous renal intervention: comparison of 2-D and time-resolved 3-D (4-D) ultrasound for minimal calyceal dilation using an ultrasound phantom and fluoroscopic control.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2008 Nov 15;34(11):1765-9. Epub 2008 May 15.

Department of Urology, St. George's Hospital, London, UK.

The rapid advances made by ultrasound in recent years have increasingly taken 3-D ultrasound (3DUS) and 4-D ultrasound (4DUS) from the research setting to the patient's bedside. There are still unexplored areas like renal percutaneous intervention, where 4DUS has yet to be proven an effective tool. Ultrasound-only guidance in renal percutaneous access is used in selected well-dilated pelvi-calyceal systems (PCS), and fluoroscopy is often utilized as an adjunct. Our aim was to compare 2-D and 4-D guidance for punctures, with fluoroscopy as control, using an in vitro ultrasound phantom. Agar and latex were the tissue-mimicking materials used for the construction of the phantom. The latex targets were designed to simulate multidirection-facing minimally dilated renal calyces. Two interventional fellows punctured the "calyces" using first 2DUS and then 4DUS guidance, making use of a different set of targets each time. The time to puncture, time to introduction of wire, quality of puncture (judged on fluoroscopy) and global rating of both modalities were documented. There was no significant difference between the times to puncture using 2DUS (1.8 min) and 4DUS (2 min). Nor was there a significant difference in the quality of puncture. 4DUS had a higher median difficulty rating. The multiplanar reformatted (MPR) longitudinal and transverse images were found to be the most useful for needle guidance. Cross hairs in all MPR images were not just useful in aligning the images on target but also as surrogate targets. The phantom was found to be robust, with only one instance of air introduction after 30 punctures. We have found that 4DUS is at least as good as 2DUS in terms of quality of punctures in vitro. The technology still has some way to go as frame rates, transducer size and resolution improve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2008.03.014DOI Listing
November 2008

Treatment of a chronic aneurysmal aortic dissection in a patient with Marfan syndrome using a staged hybrid procedure and a fenestrated endograft.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2008 Jul 15;31 Suppl 2:S72-6. Epub 2008 Jan 15.

St Georges Vascular Institute, St Georges Hospital, London, UK.

Patients with aneurysmal dissections involving both the thoracic and the abdominal aorta are particularly challenging to treat with endovascular techniques because of the natural communications at the level of the visceral arteries. We present the case of a patient with Marfan syndrome with an aneurysmal aortic dissection involving the thoracic and abdominal aorta who was treated by a combination of endografts, surgical bypass, and a fenestrated tube graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-007-9269-1DOI Listing
July 2008
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