Publications by authors named "Mikolaj Adamek"

50 Publications

Modulation of the Tissue Expression Pattern of Zebrafish CRP-Like Molecules Suggests a Relevant Antiviral Role in Fish Skin.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Jan 22;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Institute of Research, Development, and Innovation in Healthcare Biotechnology in Elche (IDiBE), Miguel Hernández University (UMH), 03202 Elche, Spain.

Recent studies suggest that short pentraxins in fish might serve as biomarkers for not only bacterial infections, as in higher vertebrates including humans, but also for viral ones. These fish orthologs of mammalian short pentraxins are currently attracting interest because of their newly discovered antiviral activity. In the present work, the modulation of the gene expression of all zebrafish short pentraxins (CRP-like proteins, CRP1-7) was extensively analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Initially, the tissue distribution of - transcripts and how the transcripts varied in response to a bath infection with the spring viremia of carp virus, were determined. The expression of - was widely distributed and generally increased after infection (mostly at 5 days post infection), except for (downregulated). Interestingly, several transcription levels significantly increased in skin. Further assays in mutant zebrafish of recombinant activation gene 1 () showed that all s (except for , downregulated) were already constitutively highly expressed in skin from knockouts and only increased moderately after viral infection. Similar results were obtained for most isoforms (a reporter gene of the interferon response), suggesting a general overcompensation of the innate immunity in the absence of the adaptive one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10020078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912335PMC
January 2021

Type I interferon-dependent response of zebrafish larvae during tilapia lake virus (TiLV) infection.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Mar 23;116:103936. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Evolutionary Immunology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

Tilapia lake virus (TiLV; genus: Tilapinevirus, family: Amnoonviridae) is a recently characterised enveloped virus with a linear, negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome, which causes high mortality in tilapia species. In the present study, we demonstrated that zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae are susceptible to TiLV infection upon systemic injection. TiLV replicated in zebrafish larvae and caused their high mortality (of about 70%). Histopathological examination revealed that TiLV infection caused pathological abnormalities in zebrafish larvae that were well visible within the brain. Moreover, gene expression analysis revealed that TiLV infection induced up-regulation of the expression of the immune-related genes encoding pathogen recognition receptors involved in sensing of viral dsRNA (rig-I (ddx58), tlr3, tlr22), transcription factors (irf3, irf7), type I interferon (infϕ1), antiviral protein (mxa), and pro-inflammatory cytokine (il-1β). We also demonstrated the protective role of the recombinant zebrafish IFNϕ1 on the survival of zebrafish larvae during TiLV infection. Our results show the importance of type I IFN response during TiLV infection in zebrafish larvae and demonstrate that zebrafish is a good model organism to study interactions between TiLV - a newly emerging in aquaculture virus, and fish host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2020.103936DOI Listing
March 2021

Characterization of carp seminal plasma Wap65-2 and its participation in the testicular immune response and temperature acclimation.

Vet Res 2020 Nov 25;51(1):142. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-748, Olsztyn, Poland.

Two functionally distinct isoforms of warm-temperature acclimation related 65-kDa protein (Wap65-1 and Wap65-2) with a role in the immune response are present in fish. To our knowledge, contrary to Wap65-1, Wap65-2 has neither been isolated nor functionally characterized in carp especially in reproductive system. The aim of this study was to characterize Wap65-2 and ascertain its functions in immune response and temperature acclimation within reproductive system. Wap65-2 corresponded to one of the most abundant proteins in carp seminal plasma, with a high immunologic similarity to their counterparts in seminal plasma of other fish species and a wide tissue distribution, with predominant expression in the liver. The immunohistochemical localization of Wap65-2 to spermatogonia, Leydig cells, and the epithelium of blood vessels within the testis suggests its role in iron metabolism during spermatogenesis and maintenance of blood-testis barrier integrity. Wap65-2 secretion by the epithelial cells of the spermatic duct and its presence around spermatozoa suggests its involvement in the protection of spermatozoa against damage caused by heme released from erythrocytes following hemorrhage and inflammation. Our results revealed an isoform-specific response of Wap65 to temperature acclimation and Aeromonas salmonicida infection which alters blood-testis barrier integrity. Wap65-2 seems to be related to the immune response against bacteria, while Wap65-1 seems to be involved in temperature acclimation. This study expands the understanding of the mechanism of carp testicular immunity against bacterial challenge and temperature changes, in which Wap65-2 seems to be involved and highlights their potential usefulness as biomarkers of inflammation and temperature acclimation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-020-00858-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688007PMC
November 2020

Impact of a reduced water salinity on the composition of Vibrio spp. in recirculating aquaculture systems for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and its possible risks for shrimp health and food safety.

J Fish Dis 2021 Jan 24;44(1):89-105. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Fish Disease Research Unit, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Tropical shrimp, like Litopenaeus vannamei, in land-based recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are often kept at low water salinities to reduce costs for artificial sea salt and the amount of salty wastewater. Although these shrimp are tolerant against low salinities, innate immunity suppression and changes in the microbial composition in the water can occur. As especially Vibrio spp. are relevant for shrimp health, alterations in the species composition of the Vibrio community were analysed in water from six RAS, run at 15‰ or 30‰. Additionally, pathogenicity factors including pirA/B, VPI, toxR, toxS, vhh, vfh, tdh, trh, flagellin genes and T6SS1/2 of V. parahaemolyticus were analysed. The Vibrio composition differed significantly depending on water salinity. In RAS at 15‰, higher numbers of the potentially pathogenic species V. parahaemolyticus, V. owensii and V. campbellii were detected, and especially in V. parahaemolyticus, various pathogenicity factors were present. A reduced salinity may therefore pose a higher risk of disease outbreaks in shrimp RAS. Because some of the detected pathogenicity factors are relevant for human health, this might also affect food safety. In order to produce healthy shrimp as a safe food for human consumption, maintaining high water salinities seems to be recommendable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13270DOI Listing
January 2021

Health Surveillance of Wild Brown Trout () in the Czech Republic Revealed a Coexistence of Proliferative Kidney Disease and Infection.

Pathogens 2020 Jul 24;9(8). Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Ecology and Diseases of Zooanimals, Game, Fish and Bees, Veterinary and Pharmaceutical University, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic.

The population of brown trout () in continental Europe is on the decline, with infectious diseases confirmed as one of the causative factors. However, no data on the epizootiological situation of wild fish in the Czech Republic are currently available. In this study, brown trout (n = 260) from eight rivers were examined for the presence of viral and parasitical pathogens. , infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, (VHSV) and (IHNV) were not detected using PCR. Cell culturing showed no viruses as well, and serological analysis of 110 sera did not detect any specific antibodies against VHSV or IHNV. Fish from two rivers were positive for the presence of (PRV-3), subtype PRV-3b. However, none of the PRV-3-positive fish showed gross pathologies typically associated with PRV infections. By far the most widespread pathogen was which was confirmed in each of the examined locations, with a prevalence of up to 65% and 100%, as established by immunohistochemistry and PCR, respectively. Furthermore, up to 43.8% of fish showed signs of proliferative kidney disease caused by , suggesting that this parasite is a main health challenge for brown trout in the Czech Republic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460431PMC
July 2020

Viral infection-induced changes in the expression profile of non-RLR DExD/H-box RNA helicases (DDX1, DDX3, DHX9, DDX21 and DHX36) in zebrafish and common carp.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Sep 8;104:62-73. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Evolutionary Immunology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

In mammals, several non-RLR DExD/H-box RNA helicases are involve in sensing of viral nucleic acids and activation of antiviral immune response, however their role in the immune defense of fish is much less known. In this study, the expression profile of non-RLR DExD/H-box RNA helicase genes: ddx1, ddx3, dhx9, ddx21 and dhx36, was studied in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during infection with two RNA viruses: spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and Chum salmon reovirus (CSV). Bioinformatic analysis of the amino acid sequences of the core helicase of DDX1, DDX3, DHX9, DDX21 and DHX36 in zebrafish and common carp revealed presence of all conserved motifs found amongst all other species, with the exception of common carp DHX9 which do not possess motif V. The transcripts of studied DExD/H-box RNA helicases were found in zebrafish ZF4 cell line as well as in all studied organs from zebrafish and common carp. The expression study demonstrated the up-regulation of the expression of selected non-RLR DExD/H-box RNA helicases during viral infections in ZF4 cell line (in vitro study) and in zebrafish and common carp organs (in vivo study). DDX1 was the only DExD/H-box RNA helicase which expression was repetitively up-regulated during in vivo infections with SVCV and CSV in zebrafish and SVCV in common carp. In ZF4 cells and kidney of common carp, viral infection-induced up-regulation of DExD/H-box RNA helicases preceded the up-regulation of type I IFN gene. Our results suggest that studied non-RLR DExD/H-box RNA helicases might be involved in antiviral immune response in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.06.010DOI Listing
September 2020

Koi herpesvirus and carp edema virus threaten common carp aquaculture in Croatia.

J Fish Dis 2020 Jun 21;43(6):673-685. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Fish Disease Research Unit, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation, Hannover, Germany.

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a very important fish species for warm-water aquaculture in Croatia. All Croatian carp farms are subjected to a surveillance programme for the presence of koi herpesvirus (KHV), causing a deadly disease called koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). However, there is no surveillance for other viral pathogens of importance like carp edema virus (CEV), a causative agent of koi sleepy disease (KSD). During regular testing within the KHVD surveillance programme, we tested samples for CEV simultaneously. The screening indicated possible outbreaks of KHVD and KSD. During 2016, KHVD broke out in an isolated area and soon thereafter a KHV eradication programme was successfully performed. However, during 2018 and 2019, two additional mortality events occurred in lakes in the southern part of Croatia during the spring. Samples from both events tested positive for CEV. An epidemiological investigation confirmed the introduction of infected carps from an infected farm to one of the lakes. To prevent the spreading of CEV into open waters, it is of utmost importance to introduce CEV testing before fish movement or to perform regular testing of all carp farms in the country to determine CEV prevalence for the purpose of implementation of control measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13163DOI Listing
June 2020

Antiviral response of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) during tilapia lake virus (TiLV) infection.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Jun 20;101:1-8. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Buenteweg 17, 30559, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is a novel enveloped orthomyxo-like virus with a genome of 10 segments of linear negative-sense single-stranded RNA. It causes massive mortality of wild and farmed tilapia species and because of its spread in Asia, Africa, South and North America, it is considered a threat to tilapia aquaculture. Here, we have evaluated the possible use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to study immune response and host-pathogen interactions during an infection with TiLV. Adult zebrafish were infected with TiLV by intraperitoneal (i.p) injection or by cohabitation. Increased viral load was observed in liver, spleen and kidney of i.p. injected fish at 1, 3, 6, and 14 days post infection (dpi) but not in fish from the cohabitation group (only liver was tested). We also demonstrated that in spleen and kidney i.p. injection of TiLV induced up-regulation of the expression of the immune-related genes encoding pathogen recognition receptors involved in sensing of viral dsRNA (rig-I, tlr3, tlr22), transcription factors (irf3, irf7), type I interferon (infϕ1), antiviral protein (mxa), pro-inflammatory (il-1β, tnf-α, il-8, ifnγ1-2) and anti-inflammatory (il-10) cytokines, CD4 markers (cd4-1, cd4-2), and IgM (igm). Moreover, tissue tropism of TiLV and histopathological changes were analyzed in selected organs of i.p. injected zebrafish. Our results indicate that zebrafish is a good model to study mechanisms of the TiLV infection and to follow antiviral responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.03.040DOI Listing
June 2020

Anti-CyHV-3 Effect of Fluorescent, Tricyclic Derivative of Acyclovir 6-(4-MeOPh)-TACV .

J Vet Res 2019 Dec 24;63(4):513-518. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Institute of Ichthyobiology and Aquaculture, Polish Academy of Sciences, 43-520 Chybie, Poland.

Introduction: (CyHV-3) is a virus infecting carp with disease symptoms of gill necrosis, fish discoloration, sunken eyes, and mortality reaching 90%. Several research groups have examined how to potentially abate the consequences of viral activity. Recently we showed that acyclovir inhibits CyHV-3 replication and in the present study we examined the anti-CyHV-3 activity of the tricyclic derivative of acyclovir 6-(4-MeOPh)-TACV (T-ACV), a fluorescent molecule known for higher lipophilicity than acyclovir, and therefore potentially better candidate for application .

Material And Methods: CCB and KF1 cell lines were incubated with T-ACV at concentrations of 0, 66.67, and 133.33 μM for three days and toxicity examined with MTT and CV assays. To investigate the antiviral activity of T-ACV, the lines were infected with CyHV-3 or mock infected and incubated for three days with the drug at concentrations of 0 or 66.67 μM. The activity of T-ACV was evaluated by plaque assay and TaqMan qPCR.

Results: T-ACV at a concentration of 66.67 μM displayed low toxicity and inhibited CyHV-3 activity by 13-29%, varying by cell line and method.

Conclusion: The low anti-CyHV-3 activity of T-ACV indicates that it would be reasonable to screen several tricyclic derivatives of acyclovir for such activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2019-0065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950444PMC
December 2019

Effect of β-1/3,1/6-glucan upon immune responses and bacteria in the gut of healthy common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

J Fish Biol 2020 Feb 30;96(2):444-455. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

School of Life Sciences, Huxley Building, Keele University, Newcastle, UK.

β-glucans are frequently included in the diet of healthy common carp Cyprinus carpio as a pre-emptive measure for combatting disease. In order to study the effect this has on the relationship between the gut bacteria and host immune response, carp were maintained on either a β-glucan free diet or feed containing 0.1% MacroGard®, a β-1/3, 1/6-glucan, for up to 7 weeks and analysis of innate immune gene expression and molecular analysis of the gut bacteria was performed. The data reveals feeding of MacroGard® to healthy carp does not induce bactericidal innate immune gene expression in the gut but does appear to alter bacterial species richness that did not have a negative effect on overall health. Analysis of innate immune gene expression within the upper midgut revealed that there were significant changes over time in the expression of Interleukin (il)-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos), mucin (muc2) and C-reactive protein (crp2). Diet did not affect the number of copies of the bacterial 16s rDNA gene in the gut, used as a as a measure of total bacteria population size. However, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed a shift in bacterial species richness with MacroGard feeding. Bactericidal immune gene expression of crp2, muc2 and il-1β was weakly correlated with gut bacteria population size indicating a potentially limited role of these genes in interacting with the gut bacteria in healthy carp in order to maintain gut homeostatic conditions. These findings highlight the importance of considering both host immunity and the microbiome together in order to fully elucidate the effeect of immunomodulants, such as β-glucans, upon gut health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14222DOI Listing
February 2020

Quantitative diagnostics of gill diseases in common carp: not as simple as it seems.

Dis Aquat Organ 2019 May;134(3):197-207

Fish Disease Research Unit, Centre of Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

During a disease outbreak, affected fish exhibit particular clinical signs, and the task in veterinary diagnostics is to identify the causative agent(s) as a prerequisite for appropriate treatment measures. In this study, we present an outbreak of a multifactorial gill disease in a cohort of ornamental koi Cyprinus carpio with gill necrosis as the main exterior clinical sign. By means of pathogen identification and determining pathogen abundance in various tissues, mortality of individual fish was found to be caused by different agents. Three out of 5 diseased individuals suffered from koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) associated with a systemic infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), 1 fish succumbed to koi sleepy disease (KSD) caused by a high carp edema virus (CEV) load in the gills co-infected with CyHV-3 and flavobacteria, and the last fish had low loads of both viruses but high flavobacteria and Ichthyobodo burdens and most likely died from an interaction of these bacterial and parasitic agents. The results indicated that correct identification of the agent responsible for the observed clinical signs or mortality during co-infection might require quantitative determination of the abundance of the pathogens as well as detailed knowledge of the infection biology of these pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03374DOI Listing
May 2019

Hormonal stimulation of carp is accompanied by changes in seminal plasma proteins associated with the immune and stress responses.

J Proteomics 2019 06 25;202:103369. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland.

Hormonal stimulation in common carp is a routine practice to enhance sperm production and control gamete maturation. This study aimed to compare the proteome of carp seminal plasma between control and Ovopel-induced males using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis. Ovopel induction increased sperm volume, total sperm count, seminal plasma osmolality, and pH and decreased seminal plasma protein concentration. In total, 36 spots were identified (23 up- and 13 downregulated), corresponding to 23 proteins differentially abundant in seminal plasma after Ovopel induction (p < .05; fold change 1.2). The majority of proteins were associated with the immune and stress responses including the transport protein (hephaestin), antiproteases (fetuin, α2-macroglobulin, TIMP2), complement components (C3, complement factor B/C2A), regulator of the coagulation cascade (plasminogen), modulators of the innate immune response, such as intelectin, ApoA and ApoE, and the cathepsin/cystatin system, and stress response (enolase1). In addition, hormonal stimulation seems to be related to the proteins involved in lipid metabolism, signal transduction, and tissue remodeling. Our results suggest that hormonal stimulation is not just concomitant with the hydration of testis but also induces the synthesis and secretion of seminal plasma proteins involved in sperm maturation and protection against stress induced by administration of the exogenous hormone. SIGNIFICANCE: It is well known that hormonal stimulation of male fish induces the final maturation of spermatozoa. However, molecular and biochemical basis underlying hormone-induced changes in semen is unknown at present. This study for the first time reveals, using proteomic approach, that hormonal stimulation in addition to hydration of testis is accompanied by significant changes in seminal plasma proteins related mainly to immune and stress response, lipid metabolism, signal transduction and tissue remodeling. These changes are associated with gene expression and synthesis and secretion of seminal plasma proteins by reproductive tissues. Overall, our results provide a framework for understanding the molecular mechanism responsible for hormonal stimulation in the reproductive tract of fish males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2019.04.019DOI Listing
June 2019

Evaluation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an animal model for the viral infections of fish.

J Fish Dis 2019 Jun 28;42(6):923-934. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Evolutionary Immunology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a laboratory model organism used in different areas of biological research including studies of immune response and host-pathogen interactions. Thanks to many biological tools available, zebrafish becomes also an important model in aquaculture research since several fish viral infection models have been developed for zebrafish. Here, we have evaluated the possible use of zebrafish to study infections with fish viruses that have not yet been tested on this model organism. In vitro studies demonstrated that chum salmon reovirus (CSV; aquareovirus A) and two alloherpesviruses cyprinid herpesvirus 1 (CyHV-1) and cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) are able to replicate in zebrafish cell lines ZF4 and SJD.1. Moreover, CSV induced a clear cytopathic effect and up-regulated the expression of antiviral genes vig-1 and mxa in both cell lines. In vivo studies demonstrated that both CSV and CyHV-3 induce up-regulation of vig-1 and mxa expression in kidney and spleen of adult zebrafish after infection by i.p. injection but not in larvae after infection by immersion. CyHV-3 is eliminated quickly from fish; therefore, virus clearing process could be evaluated, and in CSV-infected fish, a prolonged confrontation of the host with the pathogen could be studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12994DOI Listing
June 2019

Type I interferon responses of common carp strains with different levels of resistance to koi herpesvirus disease during infection with CyHV-3 or SVCV.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Apr 15;87:809-819. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Carp from breeding strains with different genetic background present diverse levels of resistance to viral pathogens. Carp strains of Asian origin, currently being treated as Cyprinus rubrofuscus L., especially Amur wild carp (AS), were proven to be more resistant to koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD; caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3, CyHV-3) than strains originating from Europe and belonging to Cyprinus carpio L., like the Prerov scale carp (PS) or koi carp from a breed in the Czech Republic. We hypothesised that it can be associated with a higher magnitude of type I interferon (IFN) response as a first line of innate defence mechanisms against viral infections. To evaluate this hypothesis, four strains of common carp (AS, Rop, PS and koi) were challenged using two viral infection models: Rhabdovirus SVCV (spring viremia of carp virus) and alloherpesvirus CyHV-3. The infection with SVCV induced a low mortality rates and the most resistant was the Rop strain (no mortalities), whereas the PS strain was the most susceptible (survival rate of 78%). During CyHV-3 infection, Rop and AS strains performed better (survival rates of 78% and 53%, respectively) than PS and koi strains (survival rates of 35% and 10%, respectively). The evaluation of virus loads and virus replication showed significant differences between the carp strains, which correlated with the mortality rate. The evaluation of type I IFN responses showed that there were fundamental differences between the virus infection models. While responses to the SVCV were high, the CyHV-3 generally induced low responses. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the magnitude of type I IFN responses did not correlate with a higher resistance in infected carp. In the case of a CyHV-3 infection, reduced type I IFN responses could be related to the potential ability of the virus to interfere with cellular sensing of foreign nucleic acids. Taken together, the results broaden our understanding of how common carp from different genetic strains interact with various viral pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.02.022DOI Listing
April 2019

Piscine Orthoreovirus 3 Is Not the Causative Pathogen of Proliferative Darkening Syndrome (PDS) of Brown Trout ().

Viruses 2019 01 28;11(2). Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Department for Veterinary Sciences, LMU Munich, 80539 Munich, Germany.

The proliferative darkening syndrome (PDS) is a lethal disease of brown trout () which occurs in several alpine Bavarian limestone rivers. Because mortality can reach 100%, PDS is a serious threat for affected fish populations. Recently, Kuehn and colleagues reported that a high throughput RNA sequencing approach identified a piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) as a causative agent of PDS. We investigated samples from PDS-affected fish obtained from two exposure experiments performed at the river Iller in 2008 and 2009. Using a RT-qPCR and a well-established next-generation RNA sequencing pipeline for pathogen detection, PRV-specific RNA was not detectable in PDS fish from 2009. In contrast, PRV RNA was readily detectable in several organs from diseased fish in 2008. However, similar virus loads were detectable in the control fish which were not exposed to Iller water and did not show any signs of the disease. Therefore, we conclude that PRV is not the causative agent of PDS of brown trout in the rhithral region of alpine Bavarian limestone rivers. The abovementioned study by Kuehn used only samples from the exposure experiment from 2008 and detected a subclinical PRV bystander infection. Work is ongoing to identify the causative agent of PDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11020112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410266PMC
January 2019

Molecular ontogeny of larval immunity in European eel at increasing temperatures.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Apr 24;87:105-119. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

School of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

Temperature is a major factor that modulates the development and reactivity of the immune system. Only limited knowledge exists regarding the immune system of the catadromous European eel, Anguilla anguilla, especially during the oceanic early life history stages. Thus, a new molecular toolbox was developed, involving tissue specific characterisation of 3 housekeeping genes, 9 genes from the innate and 3 genes from the adaptive immune system of this species. The spatial pattern of immune genes reflected their function, e.g. complement component c3 was mainly produced in liver and il10 in the head kidney. Subsequently, the ontogeny of the immune system was studied in larvae reared from hatch to first-feeding at four temperatures, spanning their thermal tolerance range (16, 18, 20, and 22 °C). Expression of some genes (c3 and igm) declined post hatch, whilst expression of most other genes (mhc2, tlr2, il1β, irf3, irf7) increased with larval age. At the optimal temperature, 18 °C, this pattern of immune-gene expression revealed an immunocompromised phase between hatch (0 dph) and teeth-development (8 dph). The expression of two of the studied genes (mhc2, lysc) was temperature dependent, leading to increased mRNA levels at 22 °C. Additionally, at the lower end of the thermal spectrum (16 °C) immune competency appeared reduced, whilst close to the upper thermal limit (22 °C) larvae showed signs of thermal stress. Thus, protection against pathogens is probably impaired at temperatures close to the critical thermal maximum (CT), impacting survival and productivity in hatcheries and natural recruitment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2018.12.048DOI Listing
April 2019

Influence of a membrane-denitrification reactor on the microbial community of an aquaculture recirculation system.

J Fish Dis 2019 Jan 25;42(1):141-146. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Fish Disease Research Unit, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12918DOI Listing
January 2019

Recommendations for identifying pathogenic Vibrio spp. as part of disease surveillance programmes in recirculating aquaculture systems for Pacific white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei).

J Fish Dis 2018 Dec 12;41(12):1877-1897. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Fish Disease Research Unit, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Due to their pathogenic potential, identifying Vibrio species from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is of great importance to determine the risk for animal's as well as for the consumer's health. The present study compared identification results for a total of 93 Vibrio isolates, including type strains and isolates from shrimp aquaculture. Results from biochemical identifications, 16S rRNA sequencing, sequencing of the uridylate kinase encoding gene pyrH and analysis of the protein spectra assessed by MALDI-TOF MS were compared. The results achieved by these different methods were highly divergent for many of the analysed isolates and for several Vibrio spp difficulties in reliably identifying occurred. These difficulties mainly resulted from missing entries in digital databases, a low number of comparable isolates analysed so far, and high interspecific similarities of biochemical traits and nucleotide sequences between the closely related Vibrio species. Due to the presented data, it can be concluded that for identifying Vibrio spp. from samples in routine diagnostics, it is recommended to use MALDI-TOF MS analysis for a quick and reliable identification of pathogenic Vibrio sp. Nevertheless, editing the database, containing the main spectra of Vibrio is recommended to achieve reliable identification results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12897DOI Listing
December 2018

Detection of piscine orthoreoviruses (PRV-1 and PRV-3) in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout farmed in Germany.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Jan 23;66(1):14-21. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Piscine orthoreoviruses (PRVs) are emerging pathogens causing circulatory disorders in salmonids. PRV-1 is the etiological cause of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), characterized by epicarditis, inflammation and necrosis of the myocardium, myositis and necrosis of red skeletal muscle. In 2017, two German breeding farms for Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) experienced disease outbreaks with mortalities of 10% and 20% respectively. The main clinical signs were exhaustion and lethargic behaviour. During examinations, PRV-1 in salmon and PRV-3 in trout were detected for the first time in Germany. Further analyses also indicated the presence of Aeromonas salmonicida in internal tissues of both species. While PRV-1 could be putatively linked with the disease in Atlantic salmon, most of the rainbow trout suffered from an infection with A. salmonicida and not with PRV-3. Interestingly, the sequence analysis suggests that the German PRV-3 isolate is more similar to a Chilean PRV-3 isolate from Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) than to PRV-3 from rainbow trout from Norway. This indicates a wide geographic distribution of this virus or dispersal by global trade. These findings indicate that infections with PRVs should be considered when investigating disease outbreaks in salmonids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13018DOI Listing
January 2019

Acyclovir inhibits Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 multiplication in vitro.

J Fish Dis 2018 Nov 24;41(11):1709-1718. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Institute of Ichthyobiology and Aquaculture, Polish Academy of Sciences, Chybie, Poland.

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is an aetiological agent of a virulent and lethal disease in common and koi carp. In this study, we examined in vitro the anti-CyHV-3 activity of acyclovir (ACV), nucleoside analogue commonly used against human herpesviruses, as well as acyclovir monophospate (ACV-MP). The cytotoxicity of the ACV and the ACV-MP for two common carp cell lines, CCB (Common carp brain) and KF1 (Koi carp fin 1), was determined by means of MTT and crystal violet assays. In subsequent studies, the concentration of 66.67 μM was applied. The ACV and the ACV-MP (66.67 μM) inhibited a cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by the CyHV-3 virus in the CCB (ACV by 66%, ACV-MP by 58%) and the KF1 (ACV by 25%, ACV-MP by 37%). The viral load measured by the means of TaqMan qPCR was reduced in a range of 67%-93% depending on the analogue, the cell line and the time of incubation. The expression of viral genes (ORF149, ORF3, ORF134 and ORF78) in CCB cells infected with the CyHV-3 was strongly downregulated within the range of 78%-91%. In summary, both the ACV and the ACV-MP can inhibit CyHV-3 replication in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12880DOI Listing
November 2018

Flavobacteria as secondary pathogens in carp suffering from koi sleepy disease.

J Fish Dis 2018 Nov 1;41(11):1631-1642. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Koi sleepy disease (KSD) is a disease with increasing importance in global common carp aquaculture. Despite the fact that carp edema virus (CEV) is most likely the causative agent of KSD, the disease often presents itself as multifactorial with several parasites and bacteria species present on gills, skin or in internal organs. Therefore, in this study, we analysed and presented initial results on an interaction of flavobacteria and CEV in the development of clinical KSD in carp suffering from proliferative gill disease. We examined selected field samples from Germany and Hungary and confirmed the presence of CEV and flavobacteria co-infections in subset of the samples. In several infection experiments, we studied the transfer and dynamics of both infections. Furthermore, we analysed which Flavobacterium species could be isolated from KSD-affected fish and concluded that Flavobacterium branchiophilum is a possible copathogen. Antibiotic treatment experiments showed that CEV seems to be the primary pathogen causing an insult to the gills of carp and by these enabling other pathogens, including F. branchiophilum, to establish co-infections. Despite the fact that F. branchiophilum co-infection is not required for the development of clinical KSD, it could contribute to the pathological changes recorded during the outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12872DOI Listing
November 2018

Monitoring changing cellular characteristics during the development of a fin cell line from Cyprinus carpio.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Nov 28;225:1-12. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Working Group Aquatic Cell Technology and Aquaculture, Fraunhofer Research Institution for Marine Biotechnology and Cell Technology, Lübeck, Germany.

The establishment and in-depth characterization of a novel continuous cell line derived from fin tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), CCApin, is reported. The cells of the cell line could be propagated in Leibovitz's L-15 medium containing 15% foetal calf serum and 0.5% carp serum for >150 passages during the last 24 months, with a stable fast growth. Furthermore, antibody staining indicated that cell types obtained in primary cultures, containing the epithelial stem-cell marker tumorprotein 63, were different from cells in long-term cell cultures, containing tight junction protein zona occludens 1 and cytokeratin 7. These observations suggest a switch of dominant cell types. Molecular analysis of gene expression profiles of caudal fin tissue and CCApin cells showed that genes relevant in epithelial cells but also in mesenchymal cells were expressed. However, during cultivation of CCApin a set of very steadily expressed, primarily mesenchymal genes like collagen 1 alpha 1, fibronectin or cadherin 2 was found. In summary, the long-term cell culture could be described as a stably growing epithelial population with some mesenchymal features. There are several application possibilities, especially for virus susceptibility studies, e.g. cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3). The study leads to a better understanding of molecular and physiological mechanisms of in vitro fish cell cultures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2018.06.003DOI Listing
November 2018

Acclimation to cold and warm temperatures is associated with differential expression of male carp blood proteins involved in acute phase and stress responses, and lipid metabolism.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 May 12;76:305-315. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Department of Gametes and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland.

The environmental temperature affects plasma biochemical indicators, antioxidant status and hematological and immunological parameters in fish. So far, only single blood proteins have been identified in response to temperature changes. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of carp blood plasma from males acclimated to warm (30 °C) and cold (10 °C) temperatures by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 47 spots were found to be differentially regulated by temperature (>1.2-fold change, p < 0.05): 25 protein spots were more abundant in warm-acclimated males and 22 were enriched in cold-acclimated males. The majority of differentially regulated proteins were associated with acute phase response signalling involved in: i) activation of the complement system (complement C3-H1), ii) neutralization of proteolytic enzymes (inter-alpha inhibitor H3, fetuin, serpinA1, antithrombin, alpha2-macroglobulin), iii) scavenging of free hemoglobin and radicals (haptoglobin, Wap65 kDa), iv) clot-formation (fibrinogen beta and alpha chain, T-kininogen) and v) the host's immune response modulation (ApoA1 and ApoA2). However, quite different sets of these proteins or proteoforms were involved in response to cold and warm temperatures. In addition, cold acclimation seems to be related to the proteins involved in lipid metabolism (apolipoproteins A and 14 kDa) and stress response (corticosteroid binding globulin). We discovered a strongly regulated protein Cap31 upon cold acclimation, which can serve as a potential blood biomarker of cold response in carp. These studies significantly extend our knowledge concerning mechanisms underlying thermal adaptation in poikilotherms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2018.03.018DOI Listing
May 2018

Viral infections in common carp lead to a disturbance of mucin expression in mucosal tissues.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Dec 17;71:353-358. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

In response to the constant challenge by potential pathogens, external surfaces of fish, their skin, gills and intestinal tract, are coated with mucus, a gel like substance which largely prevents the entry of pathogens. This mucus gel consists mainly of water and mucins, large O-glycosylated proteins, which are responsible for forming a gel like mixture. A modulation of the mRNA expression of mucins, was described in viral diseases in mammals however there is a knowledge gap about the regulation of mucins during viral infection in fish. Therefore, novel sequences for common carp mucins were located in an early version of the common carp genome and their mRNA expression measured in carp under infection with three different viral pathogens: (i) the alloherpesvirus cyprinid herpesvirus 3, (ii) the rhabdovirus spring viremia of carp virus and (iii) the poxvirus carp edema virus. The results showed a downregulation of mucin mRNA expression in gills and gut of common carp under infection with these pathogenic viruses. This could be a sign of a severe distress to the mucosal tissues in carp which occurs under viral infection. The reduced expression of mucins could help explaining the increased susceptibility of virus-infected carp to secondary bacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2017.10.029DOI Listing
December 2017

Comparison of PCR methods for the detection of genetic variants of carp edema virus.

Dis Aquat Organ 2017 Sep;126(1):75-81

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

The infection of common carp and its ornamental variety, koi, with the carp edema virus (CEV) is often associated with the occurrence of a clinical disease called 'koi sleepy disease'. The disease may lead to high mortality in both koi and common carp populations. To prevent further spread of the infection and the disease, a reliable detection method for this virus is required. However, the high genetic variability of the CEV p4a gene used for PCR-based diagnostics could be a serious obstacle for successful and reliable detection of virus infection in field samples. By analysing 39 field samples from different geographical origins obtained from koi and farmed carp and from all 3 genogroups of CEV, using several recently available PCR protocols, we investigated which of the protocols would allow the detection of CEV from all known genogroups present in samples from Central European carp or koi populations. The comparison of 5 different PCR protocols showed that the PCR assays (both end-point and quantitative) developed in the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science exhibited the highest analytical inclusivity and diagnostic sensitivity. Currently, this makes them the most suitable protocols for detecting viruses from all known CEV genogroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03152DOI Listing
September 2017

Purification, characterization and expression of transferrin from rainbow trout seminal plasma.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Jun 11;208-209:38-46. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Semen Biology Group, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland.

Transferrin (TF) is recognized as a multifunctional protein and has been implicated in antioxidative, antimicrobial protection, growth, differentiation and cytoprotection effects. An efficient, original three-step isolation procedure for TF consisting in hydrophobic interaction chromatography, gel filtration and preparative electrophoresis was developed. Rainbow trout TF was found to be N-glycosylated (not O-glycosylated) and phosphorylated at all serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues. The protein consists of several proteoforms with an average molecular weight of 76.9kDa and isoelectric point ranging from 5.2 to 5.7. Rainbow trout TF has two functional iron-binding sites and appears to be quite distinct from carp TF regarding glycosylation and iron-binding properties. The highest gene expression of TF was detected in liver and testis, the lowest was detected in head kidney, spleen and efferent ducts. For the first time TF was identified in the semen of several salmonid species. TF was localized within testis, mainly in spermatozoa, Sertoli, Leydig cells, as well as in both columnar secretory and basal cells within the efferent duct. This work contributes to the existing knowledge information indicating significant variations in TF structure within teleost fish. The results obtained in this study provide valuable data on the TF from trout seminal plasma and the physiological role of this protein in the reproductive tract of salmonids. The results are important for our understanding of the role of TF in the antioxidant protection and resistance to pathogenic infections of reproductive cells. The protective role of TF against environmental pollution with heavy metals, especially during prolonged storage of spermatozoa in the spermatic duct, as well as regulation of spermatogenesis and providing Fe for developing germ cells is also postulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2017.04.002DOI Listing
June 2017

Experimental infections of different carp strains with the carp edema virus (CEV) give insights into the infection biology of the virus and indicate possible solutions to problems caused by koi sleepy disease (KSD) in carp aquaculture.

Vet Res 2017 02 21;48(1):12. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559, Hannover, Germany.

Outbreaks of koi sleepy disease (KSD) caused by carp edema virus (CEV) may seriously affect populations of farmed common carp, one of the most important fish species for global food production. The present study shows further evidence for the involvement of CEV in outbreaks of KSD among carp and koi populations: in a series of infection experiments, CEV from two different genogroups could be transmitted to several strains of naïve common carp via cohabitation with fish infected with CEV. In recipient fish, clinical signs of KSD were induced. The virus load and viral gene expression results confirm gills as the target organ for CEV replication. Gill explants also allowed for a limited virus replication in vitro. The in vivo infection experiments revealed differences in the virulence of the two CEV genogroups which were associated with infections in koi or in common carp, with higher virulence towards the same fish variety as the donor fish. When the susceptibility of different carp strains to a CEV infection and the development of KSD were experimentally investigated, Amur wild carp showed to be relatively more resistant to the infection and did not develop clinical signs for KSD. However, the resistance could not be related to a higher magnitude of type I IFN responses of affected tissues. Despite not having a mechanistic explanation for the resistance of Amur wild carp to KSD, we recommend using this carp strain in breeding programs to limit potential losses caused by CEV in aquaculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-017-0416-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5320791PMC
February 2017

Serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 2 is expressed in the male reproductive tract of carp with a possible role in antimicrobial protection.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Jan 17;60:150-163. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Department of Gamete and Embryo Biology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland.

The presence of the low-molecular-mass serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type (Spink) is a characteristic feature of vertebrate semen. Its main function is control of the serine protease in the acrosome, acrosin. Here we showed for the first time that Spink is present in the seminal plasma of carp, which have anacrosomal spermatozoa. Using a three-step isolation procedure that consisted in gel filtration and RP-HPLC and re-RP-HPLC, we isolated this inhibitor and identified it as serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 2 (Spink2), a reproductive-derived member of the Spink family. The cDNA sequence of this inhibitor obtained from carp testis encoded 77 amino acids, including a 17 amino acids signal peptide; this sequence was distinct from fish Kazal-type inhibitors. The mRNA expression analysis showed that Spink2 is expressed predominantly in carp testis and spermatic duct. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated its localization in testis in Sertoli, Leydig and germ cells at all developmental stages (with the exception of spermatozoa) and in the epithelium of the spermatic duct. Aside from strong inhibition of trypsin, this inhibitor acts strongly against subtilisin and possesses bacteriostatic activities against Lactobacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The localization of Spink2 in carp reproductive tract suggests an important function in spermatogenesis and in maintenance of the microenvironment in which sperm maturation occurs and sperm are stored. Our results suggest that Spink2 from carp seminal plasma may play a role in antibacterial semen defense, protecting semen against unwanted proteolysis within the reproductive tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2016.11.041DOI Listing
January 2017

Concentration of carp edema virus (CEV) DNA in koi tissues affected by koi sleepy disease (KSD).

Dis Aquat Organ 2016 May;119(3):245-51

Fish Disease Research Unit, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, 30559 Germany.

Carp edema virus (CEV), the causative agent of 'koi sleepy disease' (KSD), appears to be spreading worldwide and to be responsible for losses in koi, ornamental varieties of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Clinical signs of KSD include lethargic behaviour, swollen gills, sunken eyes and skin alterations and can easily be mistaken for other diseases, such as infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). To improve the future diagnosis of CEV infection and to provide a tool to better explore the relationship between viral load and clinical disease, we developed a specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) for strains of the virus known to infect koi carp. In samples from several clinically affected koi, CEV-specific DNA was present in a range from 1 to 2,046,000 copies, with a mean of 129,982 copies and a median of 45 copies per 250 ng of isolated DNA, but virus DNA could not be detected in all clinically affected koi. A comparison of the newly developed qPCR, which is based on a dual-labelled probe, to an existing end-point PCR procedure revealed higher specificity and sensitivity of the qPCR and demonstrated that the new protocol could improve CEV detection in koi. In addition to improved diagnosis, the newly developed qPCR test would be a useful research tool. For example, studies on the pathobiology of CEV could employ controlled infection experiments in which the development of clinical signs could be examined in parallel with a quantitative determination of virus load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02994DOI Listing
May 2016

First outbreak of an infection with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) in ornamental fish in Germany.

Dis Aquat Organ 2016 May;119(3):239-44

Fish Disease Research Unit, University of Veterinary Medicine, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

In 2014, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), a member of the genus Megalocytivirus, was detected for the first time in ornamental fish in Germany. Since 2013, angelfish Pterophyllum spp. originating from Colombia have experienced significant epizootics in a number of German retailers' facilities. The diseased fish showed symptoms such as increased ventilation, swollen gills, and ulcerations of the skin. In 2014, diseased angelfish P. altum and platys Xiphophorus maculatus maintained in the same recirculating system were examined. Histopathological lesions included hypertrophic cells, single-cell necrosis, and an inflammatory infiltration of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and macrophages in liver, spleen, and kidney. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous polygonal viral particles (150 nm in diameter) within the cytoplasm of enlarged cells. A PCR assay for the detection of megalocytiviruses amplified 777 bp of major capsid protein gene that was 100% identical to ISKNV. This is the first report of an ISKNV outbreak in Germany that most probably was introduced by infected angelfish from Colombia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ISKNV detected in fish imported from South America. Given the lethal nature of megalocytiviruses, proper biosecurity would seem prudent in countries like Germany where these emerging pathogens are not established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02995DOI Listing
May 2016