Publications by authors named "Mikko Aalto"

3 Publications

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Genome-wide analyses disclose the distinctive HLA architecture and the pharmacogenetic landscape of the Somali population.

Sci Rep 2020 03 27;10(1):5652. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, and Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

African populations are underrepresented in medical genomics studies. For the Somali population, there is virtually no information on genomic markers with significance to precision medicine. Here, we analyzed nearly 900,000 genomic markers in samples collected from 95 unrelated individuals in the North Eastern Somalia. ADMIXTURE program for estimation of individual ancestries revealed a homogenous Somali population. Principal component analysis with PLINK software showed approximately 60% East African and 40% West Eurasian genes in the Somali population, with a close relation to the Cushitic and Semitic speaking Ethiopian populations. We report the unique features of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in the Somali population, which seem to differentiate from all other neighboring regions compared. Current study identified high prevalence of the diabetes type 1 (T1D) predisposing HLA DR-DQ haplotypes in Somalia. This finding may explain the increased T1D risk observed among Somali children. In addition, ethnic Somalis were found to host the highest frequencies observed thus far for several pharmacogenetic variants, including UGT1A4*2. In conclusion, we report that the Somali population displays genetic traits of significance to health and disease. The Somali dataset is publicly available and will add more information to the few genomic datasets available for African populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-62645-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101338PMC
March 2020

Visceral Leishmaniasis, Northern Somalia, 2013-2019.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 01;26(1):153-154

We identified visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in a previously unknown focus in northern Somalia. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 118 cases during 2013-2019 in Bosaso, the region's commercial capital, have raised suspicion of visceral leishmaniasis endemicity status there.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2601.181851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6924893PMC
January 2020

3D mosquito screens to create window double screen traps for mosquito control.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Aug 29;10(1):400. Epub 2017 Aug 29.

Research Program Unit, Immunobiology Research Program and Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Mosquitoes are vectors for many diseases such as malaria. Insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying of insecticides are the principal malaria vector control tools used to prevent malaria in the tropics. Other interventions aim at reducing man-vector contact. For example, house screening provides additive or synergistic effects to other implemented measures. We used commercial screen materials made of polyester, polyethylene or polypropylene to design novel mosquito screens that provide remarkable additional benefits to those commonly used in house screening. The novel design is based on a double screen setup made of a screen with 3D geometric structures parallel to a commercial mosquito screen creating a trap between the two screens. Owing to the design of the 3D screen, mosquitoes can penetrate the 3D screen from one side but cannot return through the other side, making it a unidirectional mosquito screen. Therefore, the mosquitoes are trapped inside the double screen system. The permissiveness of both sides of the 3D screens for mosquitoes to pass through was tested in a wind tunnel using the insectary strain of Anopheles stephensi.

Results: Among twenty-five tested 3D screen designs, three designs from the cone, prism, or cylinder design groups were the most efficient in acting as unidirectional mosquito screens. The three cone-, prism-, and cylinder-based screens allowed, on average, 92, 75 and 64% of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes released into the wind tunnel to penetrate the permissive side and 0, 0 and 6% of mosquitoes to escape through the non-permissive side, respectively.

Conclusions: A cone-based 3D screen fulfilled the study objective. It allowed capturing 92% of mosquitoes within the double screen setup inside the wind tunnel and blocked 100% from escaping. Thus, the cone-based screen effectively acted as a unidirectional mosquito screen. This 3D screen-based trap design could therefore be used in house screening as a means of avoiding infective bites and reducing mosquito population size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2322-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576366PMC
August 2017
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