Publications by authors named "Mikkel Carstensen Gjelstrup"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cerebrospinal fluid free kappa light chains and kappa index perform equal to oligoclonal bands in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2018 12;57(2):210-220

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Background Detection of intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis by gold standard oligoclonal bands (OCB) or IgG index remains an integral part of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnostics, although both methods have weaknesses. Emerging evidence suggests that automated detection of free light chains (FLC) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has diagnostic performance equal to OCB. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of CSF FLC with OCB and IgG index in a large cohort of Scandinavian patients referred for MS evaluation. Methods We prospectively included 230 patients suspected for MS. They are composed of patients with MS (n=96), clinically isolated syndrome (n=37), other neurological diseases (OND, n=31) and symptomatic controls (SC, n=66). CSF and serum samples were analyzed for kappa and lambda FLC, OCB and IgG index. Diagnostic performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Both the absolute concentration of CSF-kappa and the kappa index had excellent MS diagnostic performances with ROC area under the curve of 0.93 and 0.94 (MS vs. SC+OND). At the 0.42 mg/L cutoff, CSF-kappa had sensitivity and specificity of 93.8% and 85.6%, whereas sensitivity and specificity for OCB was 82.3% and 93.8% (72.9% and 95.9% for IgG index at cutoff 0.64). CSF-lambda and lambda index performed inferior to CSF-kappa and kappa index. Conclusions CSF-kappa and kappa index represent automated, rapid and low-cost alternatives to OCB. Using merely the absolute concentration of CSF-kappa is a logistic advantage in the clinical laboratories.
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December 2018

Subsets of activated monocytes and markers of inflammation in incipient and progressed multiple sclerosis.

Immunol Cell Biol 2018 02 11;96(2):160-174. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Bartholin Building, Wilhelm Meyers Allé 4, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune mediated, inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Substantial evidence points toward monocytes and macrophages playing prominent roles early in disease, mediating both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses. Monocytes are subdivided into three subsets depending on the expression of CD14 and CD16, representing different stages of inflammatory activation. To investigate their involvement in MS, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 40 patients with incipient or progressed MS and 20 healthy controls were characterized ex vivo. In MS samples, we demonstrate a highly significant increase in nonclassical monocytes (CD14+CD16++), with a concomitant significant reduction in classical monocytes (CD14++CD16-) compared with healthy controls. Also, a significant reduction in the surface expression of CD40, CD163, and CD192 was found, attributable to the upregulation of the nonclassical monocytes. In addition, significantly increased levels of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) envelope (Env) epitopes, encoded by both HERV-H/F and HERV-W, were specifically found on nonclassical monocytes from patients with MS; emphasizing their involvement in MS disease. In parallel, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were analyzed for soluble biomarkers of inflammation and neurodegeneration. For sCD163 versus CD163, no significant correlations were found, whereas highly significant correlations between levels of soluble neopterine and the intermediate monocyte (CD14++CD16+) population was found, as were correlations between levels of soluble osteopontin and the HERV Env expression on nonclassical monocytes. The results from this study emphasize the relevance of further focus on monocyte subsets, particularly the nonclassical monocytes in monitoring of inflammatory diseases.
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February 2018

A multi-biomarker follow-up study of patients with multiple sclerosis.

Brain Behav 2016 09 11;6(9):e00509. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Department of Neurology Aarhus University Hospital Nørrebrogade 44 DK-8000 Aarhus C Denmark.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the levels of the macrophage marker sCD163 and other biomarkers at the time of diagnosis of patients with either clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and assess relation to clinical indicators of prognosis, disease activity (DA), and changes in the levels of these biomarkers at follow-up.

Materials And Methods: The clinical status and MRI were reevaluated in 56 patients more than 1 year after diagnosis with a median follow-up time of 2 years. Levels of biomarkers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Results: There was no significant difference in time to DA between patients with CIS and RRMS. A high sCD163 ratio (>0.07) was significantly ( = 0.04) associated with time to DA in the untreated patient group. In 21 patients reevaluated with serum and CSF samples, the sCD163 ratio levels decreased from 0.068 to 0.054 ( = 0.026) in the CIS/RRMS-treated group. The CSF CXCL13, CXCL13 ratio, CSF neurofilament light polypeptide and osteopontin levels also decreased significantly in the CIS/RRMS-treated group.

Conclusions: The levels of all biomarkers changed concurrently with MS treatment. The sCD163 ratio was identified as a potential novel marker for time to DA.
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September 2016

Biomarkers of inflammation and axonal degeneration/damage in patients with newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis: contributions of the soluble CD163 CSF/serum ratio to a biomarker panel.

PLoS One 2015 10;10(4):e0119681. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Department of Biomedicine, Bartholin Building, Wilhelm Meyers Allé 4, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

Background: Expression of soluble CD163 (sCD163), a macrophage/microglia biomarker, is increased in inflammatory conditions, and sCD163 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have recently been shown to be elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS): the sCD163 CSF/serum ratio was elevated in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary progressive MS (PPMS), and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) compared with symptomatic controls.

Objective: To investigate the contributions of the sCD163 CSF/serum ratio to a biomarker panel focusing on inflammation and axonal degeneration in newly diagnosed MS; thus optimising a diagnostic biomarker panel for MS.

Methods: After a full MS diagnostic work-up, including collection of paired samples of CSF and serum, 125 patients were included in this study. Patients were divided into groups based on their diagnosis, and patients with normal clinical and paraclinical findings were defined as symptomatic controls. Serum and CSF levels, ratios, and indices of sCD163, CXCL13, osteopontin, neopterin, and CSF levels of neurofilament light polypeptide were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). For sCD163 the results constitute a post-hoc analysis of already published data.

Results: All tested biomarkers, notably the sCD163 ratio, the CXCL13 ratio, the NEO ratio, the CSF level of NfL, the IgG index, and the serum level of OPN, were significantly correlated to RRMS, PPMS, and/or CIS. The individual biomarkers in single tests had a lower performance than the IgG index, however, their combined receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated excellent diagnostic discriminatory power.

Conclusion: The biomarker panel showed distinct profiles for each patient group and could be a valuable tool for clinical differentiation of MS subgroups. The combined ROC analysis showed that sCD163 contributes positively as a diagnostic marker to a panel of established MS biomarkers. Patients with PPMS were demonstrated to have significantly elevated levels of both inflammatory and degenerative markers.
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April 2016

Structural insight into the function of myelin basic protein as a ligand for integrin alpha M beta 2.

J Immunol 2008 Mar;180(6):3946-56

Biophysical Immunology Laboratory, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease where phagocytic cells infiltrate the nerve tissue and act as terminal agents in destruction of the myelin sheath. However, the mechanism that triggers the ability of these cells to recognize myelin remains obscure. We show that myelin basic protein (MBP), a major autoantigen in MS, is a potent and specific ligand for the integrin alpha(M)beta(2) (Mac-1, CD11b/CD18) expressed mainly on phagocytic cells. MBP undergoes a dramatic conformational change when liberated from the lipid-rich environment of the myelin sheath. The MS drug glatiramer acetate mimics the conformationally labile regions of MBP, interacts in the unfolded state strongly with alpha(M)beta(2), and inhibits the MBP binding to alpha(M)beta(2). Our study reveals a link between MBP, glatiramer acetate, and the alpha(M)beta(2) integrin, and suggests a new model for MS pathogenesis based on the recognition of unfolded MBP by the alpha(M)beta(2) integrin.
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March 2008