Publications by authors named "Mikael Christiansen"

4 Publications

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Contemporary Clinical Use of Aspirin: Mechanisms of Action, Current Concepts, Unresolved Questions, and Future Perspectives.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

The ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation has positioned this agent within the most frequently used drugs worldwide. The aim of this article is to review the contemporary clinical use of aspirin and also to discuss unresolved issues not yet translated into clinical practice. Results from several clinical trials have led to strong guideline recommendations for aspirin use in the acute management and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. On the contrary, guidelines regarding aspirin use as primary prevention of cardiovascular disease are almost conservative, supported by recent trials reporting that the bleeding risk outweighs the potential benefits in most patients. In pregnancy, aspirin has proved efficient in preventing preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age births in women at high risk, and is hence widely recommended in clinical guidelines. Despite the vast amount of clinical data on aspirin, several unresolved questions remain. Randomized trials have reported that aspirin reduces the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism, but the clinical relevance remains limited, because direct oral anticoagulants are more effective. Laboratory studies suggest that a twice-daily dosing regimen or evening intake may lead to more efficient platelet inhibition, and the potential clinical benefit of such strategies is currently being explored in ongoing clinical trials. Enteric-coated formulations of aspirin are frequently used, but it remains unclear if they are safer and as efficient as plain aspirin. In the future, aspirin use after percutaneous coronary interventions might not be mandatory in patients who also need anticoagulant therapy, as several trials support shorter aspirin duration strategies. On the other hand, new treatment indications for aspirin will likely arise, as there is growing evidence that aspirin may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and other types of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1726096DOI Listing
June 2021

Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events with Aspirin: Toward More Harm than Benefit-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2019 Jul 16;45(5):478-489. Epub 2019 May 16.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Primary prevention of cardiovascular events with aspirin remains controversial, as the risk of bleeding might outweigh the benefits. Recently, new evidence has emerged from the ARRIVE (Aspirin to Reduce Risk of Initial Vascular Events), ASCEND (A Study of Cardiovascular Events in Diabetes), and ASPREE (Effect of Aspirin on Cardiovascular Events and Bleeding in the Healthy Elderly) trials. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of aspirin's efficacy and safety in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in healthy individuals and in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors, and separately in those with diabetes. The Medline database was searched, without time restrictions, for relevant human trials published in English up to December 10, 2018, and additional trials were identified from reference lists. Data on efficacy (cardiovascular death and nonfatal myocardial infarction) and safety (major bleeding) were extracted for analysis. In total, 20 randomized trials were identified. Separate meta-analyses were performed on 10 trials including 144,930 individuals, who were healthy or had cardiovascular risk factors, and on 4 trials including 20,326 individuals with diabetes. In healthy individuals and individuals with cardiovascular risk factors, aspirin reduced the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction by 21% ( < 0.001), but had no effect on cardiovascular death ( = 0.52), and increased the risk of major bleeding by 48% ( < 0.001). In individuals with diabetes, aspirin had no effect on nonfatal myocardial infarction ( = 0.93) or cardiovascular death ( = 0.92) and increased the risk of bleeding by 49% ( = 0.13). This meta-analysis suggests that aspirin should not be used on a routine basis in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, especially in individuals with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1687905DOI Listing
July 2019

Cerebrospinal fluid free kappa light chains and kappa index perform equal to oligoclonal bands in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2018 12;57(2):210-220

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Background Detection of intrathecal immunoglobulin G (IgG) synthesis by gold standard oligoclonal bands (OCB) or IgG index remains an integral part of multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnostics, although both methods have weaknesses. Emerging evidence suggests that automated detection of free light chains (FLC) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has diagnostic performance equal to OCB. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of CSF FLC with OCB and IgG index in a large cohort of Scandinavian patients referred for MS evaluation. Methods We prospectively included 230 patients suspected for MS. They are composed of patients with MS (n=96), clinically isolated syndrome (n=37), other neurological diseases (OND, n=31) and symptomatic controls (SC, n=66). CSF and serum samples were analyzed for kappa and lambda FLC, OCB and IgG index. Diagnostic performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results Both the absolute concentration of CSF-kappa and the kappa index had excellent MS diagnostic performances with ROC area under the curve of 0.93 and 0.94 (MS vs. SC+OND). At the 0.42 mg/L cutoff, CSF-kappa had sensitivity and specificity of 93.8% and 85.6%, whereas sensitivity and specificity for OCB was 82.3% and 93.8% (72.9% and 95.9% for IgG index at cutoff 0.64). CSF-lambda and lambda index performed inferior to CSF-kappa and kappa index. Conclusions CSF-kappa and kappa index represent automated, rapid and low-cost alternatives to OCB. Using merely the absolute concentration of CSF-kappa is a logistic advantage in the clinical laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2018-0400DOI Listing
December 2018

[Social inequality and health in adolescents].

Ugeskr Laeger 2010 Mar;172(11):857-63

Arbejdsmedicinsk Klinik, Regionshospitalet Herning, DK-7400 Herning, Denmark.

Introduction: Previous studies indicate that social disparities in health exist in the Danish population. We examined the relationship between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and a number of indicators of physical and mental health amongst 14-15 year old adolescents from the former Ringkoebing County, now a part of the Central Jutland Region, Denmark. SES was measured in terms of education and income, which, in part, correspond with the concepts of cultural and economic capital.

Material And Methods: Information concerning parents' level of education and income was obtained from central registers via Statistics Denmark. Health-related data for a total of 3,058 adolescents, corresponding to a response rate of 83%, was gathered via questionnaires. Prevalence proportion ratios (PPR) were calculated and are used in the article as risk estimates.

Results: Adolescents with less educated parents had a significantly greater risk of poor self-rated health, high self-perceived stress and being overweight, compared with those with better educated parents. The most substantial difference was seen for self-rated health with a PPR of 3.44. Adolescents with low-income parents had poorer health when compared with higher-income groups on eight out of 11 health indicators. Most noticeable were differences for self-rated health and self-perceived stress with PPRs of 1.86 and 1.54, respectively.

Conclusion: The study shows that social disparities in health exist among adolescents from the western part of central Jutland corresponding to the former Ringkoebing County. Both low parental education and income had a negative effect on adolescent health. The study also indicates that education and income affect health in different ways. For this reason it is desirable to use both indicators as measures of SES when studying social disparities in health.
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March 2010
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