Publications by authors named "Miguel Angel Perales"

233 Publications

Incidence and impact of community respiratory viral infections in post-transplant cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis and haploidentical stem cell transplantation.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

Community respiratory viral infections (CRVIs) are associated with pulmonary function impairment, alloimmune lung syndromes and inferior survival in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Although the incidence of viral infections in HLA-haploidentical HCT recipients who receive post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis is reportedly increased, there are insufficient data describing the incidence of CRVIs and the impact of donor source and PTCy on transplant outcomes. Analysing patients receiving their first HCT between 2012 and 2017 for acute myeloid leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes, we describe comparative outcomes between matched sibling transplants receiving either calcineurin-based GVHD prophylaxis (SibCNI, N = 1605) or PTCy (SibCy, N = 403), and related haploidentical transplants receiving PTCy (HaploCy, N = 757). The incidence of CRVIs was higher for patients receiving PTCy, regardless of donor type. Patients in the HaploCy cohort who developed a CRVI by day +180 had both a higher risk of treatment-related mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 2⋅14, 99% confidence interval (CI) 1⋅13-4⋅07; P = 0⋅002] and inferior 2-year overall survival (HR 1⋅65, 99% CI 1⋅11-2⋅43; P = 0⋅001) compared to SibCNI with no CRVI. This finding justifies further research into long-term antiviral immune recovery, as well as development of preventive and treatment strategies to improve long-term outcomes in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17563DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy and safety of isavuconazole compared with voriconazole as primary antifungal prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

Med Mycol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Infectious Disease Service, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.

Voriconazole is frequently discontinued prematurely as primary antifungal prophylaxis (AFP) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients due to adverse events. Limited data exists for isavuconazole as AFP. We analyzed adult HCT recipients who received voriconazole or isavuconazole AFP to estimate rate of premature AFP discontinuation, identify risk factors for premature AFP discontinuation, and compare incidence of invasive fungal infection (IFI) and survival at day + 180 post-HCT between patients who received voriconazole/isavuconazole-AFP. This was a propensity score matched cohort analysis of 210 HCT-recipients who received voriconazole-AFP (9/1/2014-12/31/2016; voriconazole-cohort), and 95 HCT-recipients who received isavuconazole-AFP (5/1/2017-10/31/2018; isavuconazole-cohort). AFP discontinuation for any reason prior to completion was defined as "premature". Median (interquartile range, IQR) duration of AFP was longer in the isavuconazole-cohort (94 days, 87-100) vs. the voriconazole-cohort (76 days, 23-94; P-value < 0.0001). Premature AFP discontinuation was more frequent in the voriconazole-cohort (92/210, 43.8%) vs. the isavuconazole-cohort (14/95, 14.7%; P-value < 0.0001). The most common reason for premature discontinuation was biochemical hepatotoxicity (voriconazole-cohort: 48/210, 22.8% vs. isavuconazole-cohort: 5/95, 5.26%; P-value = 0.0002). Transaminase values between baseline and end-of-treatment (EOT) and up to 14 days post-EOT significantly increased in the voriconazole-cohort, but remained unchanged in the isavuconazole-cohort. The incidence of IFI at day + 180 was 2.9% (6/210) and 3.2% (3/95) in the voriconazole-cohort and isavuconazole-cohort, respectively (P-value = 0.881). All-cause mortality at day + 180 was 2.4% (5/210) and 6.3% (6/95) in the voriconazole-cohort and isavuconazole-cohort, respectively (P-value = 0.089). When compared to voriconazole, isavuconazole was a safer and as effective primary AFP during the first 3 months after HCT.

Lay Summary: When compared to voriconazole, isavuconazole is a safer and as effective primary antifungal prophylaxis during the first 3 months after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant, with lower rates of hepatotoxicity, and similar rates of fungal infections and all-cause mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myab025DOI Listing
May 2021

Relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation of acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome and importance of second cellular therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA; Cellular Therapeutics Center, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) generally have poor overall survival (OS). Interventions that result in improved OS after relapse are not well established. The efficacy of second cellular therapy and specific indications are debated.

Objectives: To study factors associated with post-relapse survival and efficacy of a second course of cellular therapy.

Study Design: We retrospectively analyzed consecutive AML and MDS patients who received a first alloHCT between 2010 and 2017 at our center but subsequently relapsed. One-hundred-and-four patients with AML and 44 with MDS were included (total n=148). Bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts were either unmodified or T-cell depleted (TCD) by CD34+ selection ex-vivo. Forty-five patients (30.4%) received second cellular therapy after relapse, either a second alloHCT (n=28, 18.9%) or donor leukocyte infusion (n=17, 11.5%).

Results: The median age at transplant was 60 years (range: 24-78). The median time to relapse (TTR) after transplant was 6.5 months (range: 1-60.9) and the ensuing median OS was 6 months (95% CI: 4.8-8.9). In univariable analysis, longer TTR, relapse type (MRD vs. morphologic), relapse occurring in the most recent years, and receipt of cellular therapy after relapse were associated with better outcomes, whereas adverse cytogenetics and/or abnormality of TP53, as well as NPM1 mutation in patients with AML, were associated with adverse outcomes. Relapse type, year of relapse, and a variable resulting from the combination of TTR and receipt of second cellular therapy remained significantly associated with post-relapse survival in multivariable analysis. In a separate multivariable model, only adjusted for TTR, relapse type, and receipt of second cellular therapy, an adverse effect of NPM1 mutation on survival was confirmed. We could not show an effect of post-transplant maintenance on survival after relapse. In both univariable and multivariable analysis, we found a positive association for second cellular therapy with survival after relapse in patients who relapsed early (< 6 months) after alloHCT and a similar trend in patients who relapsed late (> 12 months) after transplant. Two-year OS after second cellular therapy was 44.9% (95% CI: 28.5-61.4), and it was significantly better in patients with less than 5% BM blasts before cell infusion. We could not show a different effect on survival after second cellular therapy for DLI vs. second alloHCT in univariable analysis.

Conclusions: Survival after relapse is improving over time, but this remains a challenging event, especially for patients relapsing early after transplant. We showed that second cellular therapy could offer a benefit even in these cases. Still, more research is needed to clarify which are the most appropriate treatment choices after relapse. These are probably driven by underlying genetic and immunologic conditions, which should be the focus of future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.011DOI Listing
May 2021

Oral Proteasome Inhibitor Ixazomib for Switch-Maintenance Prophylaxis of Recurrent or Late Acute and Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Day 100 in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Medicine, Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent complication in the first year after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Recipients of reduced-intensity (RI) or nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning combined with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based GVHD prophylaxis frequently develop GVHD in the context of immunosuppression taper. Ixazomib is an oral proteasome inhibitor with a wide safety profile that has demonstrated immunomodulatory properties, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and anti-tumor activity. We hypothesized that switch-maintenance GVHD prophylaxis using ixazomib would facilitate CNI taper without increased GVHD frequency and severity while maintaining graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect and an acceptable safety profile. We conducted an open-label, prospective, single-center pilot study in patients with hematologic malignancies who received an RI or NMA conditioning and CNI-based GVHD prophylaxis that were within day 100 to 150 after HCT (n = 18). Patients were treated with ixazomib once weekly on a 28-day cycle (3 weeks on, 1 week off). Treatment was safe; most adverse events were grade 1 or 2, with cytopenia and elevation in transaminases the most common. Five patients were removed from the study because of toxicity or side effects. Only 5 of 18 patients developed GVHD during the study, and its severity was driven by acute manifestations while chronic involvement was mild. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute and chronic GVHD at 1-year after HCT was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13-55). No patients died during the study, and only 1 had malignant relapse. An additional patient relapsed after completion of the study but within 1 year after HCT. The probability of progression-free survival and GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (composite endpoint) at 1 year were 89% (95% CI, 75-100) and 78% (95% CI, 61-100), respectively. Immune reconstitution analysis showed a rapid and sustained recovery in T-cell subpopulations and B cell reconstitution, and vaccine response in a subset of patients demonstrated continuing or de novo positive protective antibody titers. This study demonstrated low incidence of recurrent and late acute and chronic GVHD within 1 year after HCT possible associated with switch-maintenance GVHD prophylaxis using ixazomib. This approach allowed for CNI taper while preserving GVT effect, without aggravating GVHD. Our findings support further development of this approach and provide a proof-of-concept for switch-maintenance GVHD prophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.008DOI Listing
May 2021

Secondary cytogenetic abnormalities in core-binding factor AML harboring inv(16) vs t(8;21).

Blood Adv 2021 05;5(10):2481-2489

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Patients with core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), caused by either t(8;21)(q22;q22) or inv(16)(p13q22)/t(16;16)(p13;q22), have higher complete remission rates and longer survival than patients with other subtypes of AML. However, ∼40% of patients relapse, and the literature suggests that patients with inv(16) fare differently from those with t(8;21). We retrospectively analyzed 537 patients with CBF-AML, focusing on additional cytogenetic aberrations to examine their impact on clinical outcomes. Trisomies of chromosomes 8, 21, or 22 were significantly more common in patients with inv(16)/t(16;16): 16% vs 7%, 6% vs 0%, and 17% vs 0%, respectively. In contrast, del(9q) and loss of a sex chromosome were more frequent in patients with t(8;21): 15% vs 0.4% for del(9q), 37% vs 0% for loss of X in females, and 44% vs 5% for loss of Y in males. Hyperdiploidy was more frequent in patients with inv(16) (25% vs 9%, whereas hypodiploidy was more frequent in patients with t(8;21) (37% vs 3%. In multivariable analyses (adjusted for age, white blood counts at diagnosis, and KIT mutation status), trisomy 8 was associated with improved overall survival (OS) in inv(16), whereas the presence of other chromosomal abnormalities (not trisomy 8) was associated with decreased OS. In patients with t(8;21), hypodiploidy was associated with improved disease-free survival; hyperdiploidy and del(9q) were associated with improved OS. KIT mutation (either positive or not tested, compared with negative) conferred poor prognoses in univariate analysis only in patients with t(8;21).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152510PMC
May 2021

Universal Engraftment after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Using Cryopreserved CD34-Selected Grafts.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medicine, Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, most centers performing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have switched to the use of cryopreserved grafts. Previous investigators have suggested that cryopreserved allografts may heighten risk of nonengraftment. To date, no study has investigated the effect of cryopreservation of CD34-selected hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34 HPCs) used as the sole graft source. In this study, we sought to evaluate outcomes after unrelated donor or matched sibling allo-HCT with cryopreserved CD34 HPCs. This was a single-center analysis of adult patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent allo-HCT with cryopreserved CD34-selected allo-HCT grafts between January 2010 and June 2017. All patients received ablative conditioning and antirejection prophylaxis with rabbit antithymocyte globulin. G-CSF-mobilized leukapheresis products underwent CD34 selection using the CliniMACS Reagent System. Cells were then cryopreserved in DMSO (final concentration 7.5%) to -90 °C using a controlled-rate freezing system before being transferred to vapor-phase liquid nitrogen storage. In internal validation, this method has shown 92% mean CD34 cell viability and 99.7% mean CD34 cell recovery. Engraftment was defined as the first of 3 consecutive days of an absolute neutrophil count of ≥0.5. Platelet recovery was recorded as the first of 7 consecutive days with a platelet count ≥20 K/μL without transfusion. Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS), and cumulative incidence functions were used to estimate rates of relapse, nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). A total of 64 patients received a cryopreserved CD34-selected graft. The median CD34 cell count before cryopreservation was 6.6 × 10/kg (range, 1.4 to 16.1 × 10/kg), and the median CD3 cell count was 2.0 × 10/kg (range, 0 to 21.1 × 10/kg). All patients were engrafted, at a median of 11 days post-HCT (range, 8 to 14 days). One patient had poor graft function in the setting of cytomegalovirus viremia, necessitating a CD34-selected boost on day +57. The median time to platelet recovery was 16 days (range, 13 to 99 days). The estimated 2-year OS was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58% to 83%) with cryopreserved grafts versus 62% (95% CI, 57% to 67%) with fresh grafts (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.35; P = .5). The estimated 2-year RFS in the 2 groups was 59% (95% CI, 48% to 74%) versus 56% (95% CI, 51% to 61%; HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.51; P > .9). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was 29% (95% CI, 17% to 41%) versus 23% (95% CI, 19% to 27%; P = .16), and the cumulative incidence of NRM at 2 years was 17% (95% CI, 9% to 28%) versus 23% (95% CI, 19% to 28%; P = .24). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD by day +100 was 16% with cryopreserved grafts (95% CI, 8% to 26%) and 16% (95% CI, 13% to 20%; P = .97) with fresh grafts. Moderate to severe chronic GVHD by day +365 occurred in only 1 recipient of a cryopreserved graft (2%). Our data show that in patients with hematologic malignancies who received cryopreserved allogeneic CD34 HPCs, engraftment, GVHD, and survival outcomes were consistent with those seen in recipients of fresh allogeneic CD34 HPC grafts at our center. Our laboratory validation and clinical experience demonstrate the safety of our cryopreservation procedure for CD34-selected allografts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.026DOI Listing
May 2021

The evolving role of allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation in the era of chimaeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jun 29;193(6):1060-1075. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

EBMT ALWP Office Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France.

Chimaeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T) therapy has revolutionized the management of many haematological malignancies. It is associated with impressive disease responses in relapsed or refractory high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) with durable remissions in a subset of patients. Historically, haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been the standard consolidation strategy for many of these patients who are now being treated with CAR T. Relapses are frequent after CD19 CAR T therapy in B-ALL and consolidation with allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) may improve survival of patients with high-risk disease. There appears to be a clear difference in B-ALL outcomes between paediatric and adult patients, with the latter having a much higher risk of relapse after CAR T therapy. Late relapses are infrequent in patients with B-NHL and consolidation with allo-HCT may not be needed in patients who achieve a complete remission after CAR T therapy. Future registry-based and prospective studies will hopefully provide the needed data in the future to risk-stratify the recipients of CAR T therapy. Meanwhile, we provide guidance on patient selection and practical issues with performing allo-HCT after CAR T therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17460DOI Listing
June 2021

National Marrow Donor Program-Sponsored Multicenter, Phase II Trial of HLA-Mismatched Unrelated Donor Bone Marrow Transplantation Using Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 27;39(18):1971-1982. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD.

Purpose: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative for hematologic disorders, but outcomes are historically inferior when using HLA-mismatched donors. Despite unrelated donor registries listing > 38 million volunteers, 25%-80% of US patients lack an HLA-matched unrelated donor, with significant disparity across ethnic groups. We hypothesized that HCT with a mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy), a novel strategy successful in overcoming genetic disparity using mismatched related donors, would be feasible and increase access to HCT.

Patients And Methods: We performed a prospective phase II study of MMUD bone marrow HCT with PTCy for patients with hematologic malignancies. The primary end point was 1-year overall survival (OS), hypothesized to be 65% or better. 80 patients enrolled at 11 US transplant centers (December 2016-March 2019). Following myeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning-based HCT, patients received PTCy on days +3, +4, with sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil starting on day +5. We compared outcomes to Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research contemporary controls receiving PTCy.

Results: Notably, 48% of patients enrolled were ethnic minorities. 39% of pairs were matched for 4-6 out of 8 HLA alleles. The primary end point was met, with 1-year OS of 76% (90% CI, 67.3 to 83.3) in the entire cohort, and 72% and 79% in the myeloablative and reduced-intensity conditioning strata, respectively. Secondary end points related to engraftment and graft-versus-host-disease were reached. Multivariate analysis comparing the study group with other mismatched HCT controls found no significant differences in OS.

Conclusion: Our prospective study demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of HCT with an MMUD in the setting of PTCy. Remarkably, nearly half of the study participants belonged to an ethnic minority population, suggesting this approach may significantly expand access to HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03502DOI Listing
June 2021

COVID-19 and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Center-Specific Survival Analysis: Can We Adjust for the Impact of the Pandemic? Recommendations of the COVID-19 Task Force of the 2020 Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research Center Outcomes Forum.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Medical College of Wisconsin, Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research, Milwaukee Campus, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

COVID-19 has significantly impacted the practice of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and likely affected outcomes of HCT recipients. Early reports document substantially higher case fatality rates for HCT recipients than seen in faced by the general population. Currently we do not have a clear picture of how much of this threat is present within the first year after HCT and how infection rates and outcomes vary with time after HCT. There are important because center-specific survival estimates for reporting purposes focus on 1-year post-HCT mortality. Transplantation centers have dramatically changed their practices in response to the pandemic. At many centers, quality assurance processes and procedures were disrupted, changes that likely affected team performance. Centers have been affected unevenly by the pandemic through time, location, and COVID-19 burdens. Assessment of center-specific survival depends on the ability to adjust for risk factors, such as COVID-19, that are outside center control using consistent methods so that team performance based on controllable risk factors can be ascertained. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR) convened a working group for the 2020 Center Outcomes Forum to assess the impact of COVID-19 on both patient-specific risks and center-specific performance. This committee reviewed the factors at play and developed recommendations for a process to determine whether adjustments in the methodology to assess center-specific performance are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061634PMC
April 2021

CMV viral load kinetics predict CMV end-organ disease and mortality after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT).

J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Infectious Disease Service, New York, NY, United States.

Background: We investigated the association between time-averaged area under the curve (AAUC) of CMV viral load (VL) by D100 and overall survival (OS) at one-year post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

Methods: A retrospective cohort study, including patients receiving HCT between 2010.6 and 2017.12 from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. AAUC was calculated for patients with detected VL. Patients were categorized into "non-controllers" (Q4) and "controllers" (Q1-3) using the highest AAUC quartile as cutoff. Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox models were used to estimate the association between AAUC and OS. Patients with non-detected CMV VL were categorized into "elite-controllers" (R+ or R-/D+) and "R-/D-".

Results: The study (N=952) included 282 controllers, 93 non-controllers, 275 elite-controllers, and 302 R-/D-. OS was 80.1% and 58.1% for controllers and non-controllers, respectively. In multivariable models, non-controllers had worse OS versus controllers (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.65, 95% CI 1.71-4.12). In landmark analyses, CMV controllers had similar OS as elite-controllers (HR 1.26, 95% CI 0.83-1.91) or R-/D- (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.64-1.5).

Conclusion: CMV non-controllers had worse OS at one-year post-HCT. CMV controllers had similar OS as elite-controllers or R-/D-. Future studies are needed to validate our AAUC cutoff across different cohorts and CMV management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiab212DOI Listing
April 2021

Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) Recommendations Regarding Essential Medications Required To Establish An Early Stage Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Program.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 16;27(3):267.e1-267.e5. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Establishing a hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) program is complex. Planning is essential while establishing such a program to overcome the expected challenges. Authorities involved in HCT program establishment will need to coordinate the efforts between the different departments required to start up the program. One essential department is pharmacy and the medications required. To help facilitate this, the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation organized a structured survey to address the essential medications required to start up an HCT program. A group of senior physicians and pharmacists prepared a list of the medications used at the different phases of transplantation. These drugs were then rated by a questionnaire using a scale of necessity based on the stage of development of the transplant program. The questionnaire was sent to 30 physicians, in different parts of the world, who have between 5 and 40 years of experience in autologous and/or allogeneic transplantation. This group of experts scored each medication on a 7-point scale, ranging from an absolute requirement (score of 1) to not required (score of 7). The results are presented here to help guide the prioritization of required medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.015DOI Listing
March 2021

The International Prognostic Index Is Associated with Outcomes in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma after Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 18;27(3):233-240. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Intensive Care Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College; New York, New York. Electronic address:

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown excellent activity against relapsed and refractory (R/R) diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). CAR T cell therapy is associated with early toxicities, including cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. The incidence and severity of these toxicities has been associated in part with baseline disease and patient characteristics, which also may impact overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). However, there are limited data on patient selection and how to better predict toxicities or outcomes. Indexes used in patients with DLBCL, such as the International Prognostic Index (IPI and age-adjusted IPI [aaIPI]) and in transplantation recipients, such as the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI), have not been evaluated in this setting. Here we evaluated 4 indices- IPI, aaIPI, HCT-CI, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)-and their associations with early CAR T cell related-toxicities and outcomes. We demonstrated an association between high-risk IPI or aaIPI and inferior PFS in patients with R/R DLBCL treated with CAR T cell therapy. We also found an association between aaIPI and IPI with OS and neurotoxicity, respectively. CCI was not associated with toxicities or outcomes, and owing to the small sample size, we could not draw a conclusion regarding associations with the HCT-CI. Both the IPI and aaIPI are widely used tools that can now provide better information to guide selection of patients who would best benefit from CD19 CAR T cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.10.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010220PMC
March 2021

Outcomes of adult T-Cell leukemia/lymphoma with allogeneic stem cell transplantation: single-institution experience.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Mar 29:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Adult BMT Service, Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Few publications exist concerning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (alloHCT) outcomes in non-Japanese patients with HTLV-1-associated ATLL. We detail the patient and disease characteristics, transplant approach, and clinical outcomes in 17 patients with ATLL at our institution who underwent alloHCT. We report favorable outcomes, with 8/17 in ongoing remission, 2/17 with prolonged (>6 years) disease-free survival, and a low incidence of transplant-related mortality (2/17). These results validate the feasibility and efficacy of alloHCT in non-Japanese patients with ATLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1897806DOI Listing
March 2021

Cellular Therapy During COVID-19: Lessons Learned and Preparing for Subsequent Waves.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 14;27(5):438.e1-438.e6. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

An evidence-based triage plan for cellular therapy distribution is critical in the face of emerging constraints on healthcare resources. We evaluated the impact of treatment delays related to COVID-19 on patients scheduled to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy at our center. Data were collected in real time between March 19 and May 11, 2020, for patients who were delayed to cellular therapy. We evaluated the proportion of delayed patients who ultimately received cellular therapy, reasons for not proceeding to cellular therapy, and changes in disease and health status during delay. A total of 85 patients were delayed, including 42 patients planned for autologous HCT, 36 patients planned for allogeneic HCT, and 7 patients planned for CAR-T therapy. Fifty-six of these patients (66%) since received planned therapy. Five patients died during the delay. The most common reason for not proceeding to autologous HCT was good disease control in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (75%). The most common reason for not proceeding to allogeneic HCT was progression of disease (42%). All patients with acute leukemia who progressed had measurable residual disease (MRD) at the time of delay, whereas no patient without MRD at the time of delay progressed. Six patients (86%) ultimately received CAR-T therapy, including 3 patients who progressed during the delay. For patients with high-risk disease such as acute leukemia, and particularly those with MRD at the time of planned HCT, treatment delay can result in devastating outcomes and should be avoided if at all possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952254PMC
May 2021

Allogeneic transplantation after PD-1 blockade for classic Hodgkin lymphoma.

Leukemia 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies yield high response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), but most patients will eventually progress. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) after PD-1 blockade may be associated with increased toxicity, raising challenging questions about the role, timing, and optimal method of transplantation in this setting. To address these questions, we assembled a retrospective cohort of 209 cHL patients who underwent alloHCT after PD-1 blockade. With a median follow-up among survivors of 24 months, the 2-year cumulative incidences (CIs) of non-relapse mortality and relapse were 14 and 18%, respectively; the 2-year graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse-free survival (GRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival were 47%, 69%, and 82%, respectively. The 180-day CI of grade 3-4 acute GVHD was 15%, while the 2-year CI of chronic GVHD was 34%. In multivariable analyses, a longer interval from PD-1 to alloHCT was associated with less frequent severe acute GVHD, while additional treatment between PD-1 and alloHCT was associated with a higher risk of relapse. Notably, post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based GVHD prophylaxis was associated with significant improvements in PFS and GRFS. While awaiting prospective clinical trials, PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis may be considered the optimal transplantation strategy for this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01193-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Posttransplant cyclophosphamide is associated with increased cytomegalovirus infection: a CIBMTR analysis.

Blood 2021 Jun;137(23):3291-3305

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR), Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Prior studies suggest increased cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after haploidentical donor transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (HaploCy). The role of allograft source and posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in CMV infection is unclear. We analyzed the effect of graft source and PTCy on incidence of CMV infection, and effects of serostatus and CMV infection on transplant outcomes. We examined patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research between 2012 and 2017 who had received HaploCy (n = 757), matched related (Sib) with PTCy (SibCy, n = 403), or Sib with calcineurin inhibitor-based prophylaxis (SibCNI, n = 1605). Cumulative incidences of CMV infection by day 180 were 42%, 37%, and 23%, respectively (P < .001). CMV disease was statistically comparable. CMV infection risk was highest for CMV-seropositive recipients (R+), but significantly higher in PTCy recipients regardless of donor (HaploCy [n = 545]: hazard ratio [HR], 50.3; SibCy [n = 279]: HR, 47.7; SibCNI [n = 1065]: HR, 24.4; P < .001). D+/R- patients also had increased risk for CMV infection. Among R+ or those developing CMV infection, HaploCy had worse overall survival and nonrelapse mortality. Relapse was unaffected by CMV infection or serostatus. PTCy was associated with lower chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) overall, but CMV infection in PTCy recipients was associated with higher chronic GVHD (P = .006). PTCy, regardless of donor, is associated with higher incidence of CMV infection, augmenting the risk of seropositivity. Additionally, CMV infection may negate the chronic GVHD protection of PTCy. This study supports aggressive prevention strategies in all receiving PTCy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009362DOI Listing
June 2021

Compilation of longitudinal microbiota data and hospitalome from hematopoietic cell transplantation patients.

Sci Data 2021 03 2;8(1):71. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Program for Computational and Systems Biology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

The impact of the gut microbiota in human health is affected by several factors including its composition, drug administrations, therapeutic interventions and underlying diseases. Unfortunately, many human microbiota datasets available publicly were collected to study the impact of single variables, and typically consist of outpatients in cross-sectional studies, have small sample numbers and/or lack metadata to account for confounders. These limitations can complicate reusing the data for questions outside their original focus. Here, we provide comprehensive longitudinal patient dataset that overcomes those limitations: a collection of fecal microbiota compositions (>10,000 microbiota samples from >1,000 patients) and a rich description of the "hospitalome" experienced by the hosts, i.e., their drug exposures and other metadata from patients with cancer, hospitalized to receive allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) at a large cancer center in the United States. We present five examples of how to apply these data to address clinical and scientific questions on host-associated microbial communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00860-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925583PMC
March 2021

Development and validation of a disease risk stratification system for patients with haematological malignancies: a retrospective cohort study of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Mar;8(3):e205-e215

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Background: Diagnosis and remission status at the time of allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are the principal determinants of overall survival following transplantation. We sought to develop a contemporary disease-risk stratification system (DRSS) that accounts for heterogeneous transplantation indications.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we included 55 histology and remission status combinations across haematological malignancies, including acute leukaemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders. A total of 47 265 adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who received an allogeneic HSCT between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2016, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry were included. We divided EBMT patients into derivation (n=25 534), tuning (n=18 365), and geographical validation (n=3366) cohorts. Disease combinations were ranked in a multivariable Cox regression for overall survival in the derivation cohort, cutoff for risk groups were evaluated for the tuning cohort, and the selected system was tested on the geographical validation cohort. An independent single-centre US cohort of 660 patients transplanted between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2015 was used to externally validate the results.

Findings: The DRSS model stratified patients in the derivation cohort (median follow-up was 2·1 years [IQR 1·0-3·2]) into five risk groups with increasing mortality risk: low risk (reference group), intermediate-1 (hazard ratio for overall survival 1·26 [95% CI 1·17-1·36], p<0·0001), intermediate-2 (1·53 [1·42-1·66], p<0·0001), high (2·03 [1·86-2·22], p<0·0001), and very high (2·87 [2·63-3·13], p<0·0001). DRSS levels were also associated with a stepwise increase in risk across the tuning and geographical validation cohort. In the external validation cohort (median follow-up was 5·7 years [IQR 4·5-7·1]), the DRSS scheme separated patients into 4 risk groups associated with increasing risk of mortality: intermediate-2 risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1·34 [95% CI 1·04-1·74], p=0·025), high risk (HR 2·03 [95% CI 1·39-2·95], p=0·00023) and very-high risk (HR 2·26 [95% CI 1·62-3·15], p<0·0001) patients compared with the low risk and intermediate-1 risk group (reference group). Across all cohorts, between 64% and 65% of patients were categorised as having intermediate-risk disease by a previous prognostic system (ie, the disease-risk index [DRI]). The DRSS reclassified these intermediate-risk DRI patients, with 855 (6%) low risk, 7111 (51%) intermediate-1 risk, 5700 (41%) intermediate-2 risk, and 375 (3%) high risk or very high risk of 14 041 patients in a subanalysis combining the tuning and internal geographic validation cohorts. The DRI projected 2-year overall survival was 62·1% (95% CI 61·2-62·9) for these 14 041 patients, while the DRSS reclassified them into finer prognostic groups with overall survival ranging from 45·7% (37·4-54·0; very high risk patients) to 73·1% (70·1-76·2; low risk patients).

Interpretation: The DRSS is a novel risk stratification tool including disease features related to histology, genetic profile, and treatment response. The model should serve as a benchmark for future studies. This system facilitates the interpretation and analysis of studies with heterogeneous cohorts, promoting trial-design with more inclusive populations.

Funding: The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center for Hemato-Oncology Research, Tel Aviv University.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30394-XDOI Listing
March 2021

Fecal microbiota diversity disruption and clinical outcomes after auto-HCT: a multicenter observational study.

Blood 2021 Mar;137(11):1527-1537

Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

We previously described clinically relevant reductions in fecal microbiota diversity in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Recipients of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous HCT (auto-HCT) incur similar antibiotic exposures and nutritional alterations. To characterize the fecal microbiota in the auto-HCT population, we analyzed 1161 fecal samples collected from 534 adult recipients of auto-HCT for lymphoma, myeloma, and amyloidosis in an observational study conducted at 2 transplantation centers in the United States. By using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing, we assessed fecal microbiota composition and diversity, as measured by the inverse Simpson index. At both centers, the diversity of early pretransplant fecal microbiota was lower in patients than in healthy controls and decreased further during the course of transplantation. Loss of diversity and domination by specific bacterial taxa occurred during auto-HCT in patterns similar to those with allo-HCT. Above-median fecal intestinal diversity in the periengraftment period was associated with decreased risk of death or progression (progression-free survival hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.82; P = .008), adjusting for disease and disease status. This suggests that further investigation into the health of the intestinal microbiota in auto-HCT patients and posttransplant outcomes should be undertaken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976512PMC
March 2021

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation recipients: an observational cohort study.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Mar 19;8(3):e185-e193. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Adult BMT Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are considered at high risk of poor outcomes after COVID-19 on the basis of their immunosuppressed status, but data from large studies in HSCT recipients are lacking. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of HSCT recipients after developing COVID-19.

Methods: In response to the pandemic, the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) implemented a special form for COVID-19-related data capture on March 27, 2020. All patients-irrespective of age, diagnosis, donor type, graft source, or conditioning regimens-were included in the analysis with data cutoff of Aug 12, 2020. The main outcome was overall survival 30 days after a COVID-19 diagnosis. Overall survival probabilities were calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimator. Factors associated with mortality after COVID-19 diagnosis were examined using Cox proportional hazard models.

Findings: 318 HSCT recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 were reported to the CIBMTR. The median time from HSCT to COVID-19 diagnosis was 17 months (IQR 8-46) for allogeneic HSCT recipients and 23 months (8-51) for autologous HSCT recipients. The median follow-up of survivors was 21 days (IQR 8-41) for allogeneic HSCT recipients and 25 days (12-35) for autologous HSCT recipients. 34 (18%) of 184 allogeneic HSCT recipients were receiving immunosuppression within 6 months of COVID-19 diagnosis. Disease severity was mild in 155 (49%) of 318 patients, while severe disease requiring mechanical ventilation occurred in 45 (14%) of 318 patients-ie, 28 (15%) of 184 allogeneic HSCT recipients and 17 (13%) of 134 autologous HSCT recipients. At 30 days after the diagnosis of COVID-19, overall survival was 68% (95% CI 58-77) for recipients of allogeneic HSCT and 67% (55-78) for recipients of autologous HSCT. Age 50 years or older (hazard ratio 2·53, 95% CI 1·16-5·52; p=0·020); male sex (3·53; 1·44-8·67; p=0·006), and development of COVID-19 within 12 months of transplantation (2·67, 1·33-5·36; p=0·005) were associated with a higher risk of mortality among allogeneic HSCT recipients, and a disease indication of lymphoma was associated with a higher risk of mortality compared with plasma cell disorder or myeloma (2·41, [1·08-5·38]; p=0·033) in autologous HSCT recipients.

Interpretation: Recipients of autologous and allogeneic HSCT who develop COVID-19 have poor overall survival. These data emphasise the need for stringent surveillance and aggressive treatment measures in HSCT recipients who develop COVID-19.

Funding: American Society of Hematology; Leukemia and Lymphoma Society; National Cancer Institute; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institutes of Health; National Cancer Institute; Health Resources and Services Administration; Office of Naval Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30429-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816949PMC
March 2021

High progression-free survival after intermediate intensity double unit cord blood transplantation in adults.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(23):6064-6076

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Cord blood transplantation (CBT) after high intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning has limitations. We investigated cyclosporine-A/mycophenolate mofetil-based intermediate intensity (cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m2, thiotepa 10 mg/kg, total body irradiation 400 cGy) unmanipulated double-unit CBT (dCBT) with prioritization of unit quality and CD34+ cell dose in graft selection. Ninety adults (median age, 47 years [range, 21-63]; median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index, 2 [range, 0-8]; 61 [68%] acute leukemia) received double-unit grafts (median CD34+ cell dose, 1.3 × 105/kg per unit [range, 0.2-8.3]; median donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match, 5/8 [range 3-7/8]). The cumulative incidences of sustained CB engraftment, day 180 grade III-IV acute, and 3-year chronic graft-versus-host disease were 99%, 24%, and 7%, respectively. Three-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) and relapse incidences were 15% and 9%, respectively. Three-year overall survival (OS) is 82%, and progression-free survival (PFS) is 76%. Younger age and higher engrafting unit CD34+ cell dose both improved TRM and OS, although neither impacted PFS. Engrafting unit-recipient HLA match was not associated with any outcome with a 3-year PFS of 79% in 39 patients engrafting with 3-4/8 HLA-matched units. In 52 remission acute leukemia patients, there was no association between minimal residual disease (MRD) and 3-year PFS: MRD negative of 88% vs MRD positive of 77% (P = .375). Intermediate intensity dCBT is associated with high PFS. Use of highly HLA mismatched and unmanipulated grafts permits wide application of this therapy, and the low relapse rates support robust graft-versus-leukemia effects even in patients with MRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724901PMC
December 2020

The gut microbiota is associated with immune cell dynamics in humans.

Nature 2020 12 25;588(7837):303-307. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Computational and Systems Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

The gut microbiota influences development and homeostasis of the mammalian immune system, and is associated with human inflammatory and immune diseases as well as responses to immunotherapy. Nevertheless, our understanding of how gut bacteria modulate the immune system remains limited, particularly in humans, where the difficulty of direct experimentation makes inference challenging. Here we study hundreds of hospitalized-and closely monitored-patients with cancer receiving haematopoietic cell transplantation as they recover from chemotherapy and stem-cell engraftment. This aggressive treatment causes large shifts in both circulatory immune cell and microbiota populations, enabling the relationships between the two to be studied simultaneously. Analysis of observed daily changes in circulating neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts and more than 10,000 longitudinal microbiota samples revealed consistent associations between gut bacteria and immune cell dynamics. High-resolution clinical metadata and Bayesian inference allowed us to compare the effects of bacterial genera in relation to those of immunomodulatory medications, revealing a considerable influence of the gut microbiota-together and over time-on systemic immune cell dynamics. Our analysis establishes and quantifies the link between the gut microbiota and the human immune system, with implications for microbiota-driven modulation of immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2971-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725892PMC
December 2020

Real-world evidence of tisagenlecleucel for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 11;4(21):5414-5424

Novartis, Hamden, CT; and.

Tisagenlecleucel is a CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy approved for treatment of pediatric and young adult patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and adults with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The initial experience with tisagenlecleucel in a real-world setting from a cellular therapy registry is presented here. As of January 2020, 511 patients were enrolled from 73 centers, and 410 patients had follow-up data reported (ALL, n = 255; NHL, n = 155), with a median follow-up of 13.4 and 11.9 months for ALL and NHL, respectively. Among patients with ALL, the initial complete remission (CR) rate was 85.5%. Twelve-month duration of response (DOR), event-free survival, and overall survival (OS) rates were 60.9%, 52.4%, and 77.2%, respectively. Among adults with NHL, the best overall response rate was 61.8%, including an initial CR rate of 39.5%. Six-month DOR, progression-free survival, and OS rates were 55.3%, 38.7%, and 70.7%, respectively. Grade ≥3 cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity were reported in 11.6% and 7.5% of all patients, respectively. Similar outcomes were observed in patients with in-specification and out-of-specification products as a result of viability <80% (range, 61% to 79%). This first report of tisagenlecleucel in the real-world setting demonstrates outcomes with similar efficacy and improved safety compared with those seen in the pivotal trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656920PMC
November 2020

Letermovir for Prevention of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Haploidentical and Mismatched Adult Donor Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jan 11;27(1):85.e1-85.e6. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is serious viral infection in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients. November 2017, the novel CMV DNA terminase complex inhibitor letermovir was approved for prophylaxis of CMV infection in CMV-seropositive allo-HCT recipients. Here we sought to determine the effectiveness of letermovir in preventing CMV infection in CMV-seropositive patients undergoing haploidentical or mismatched adult unrelated donor allo-HCT using post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus host-disease prophylaxis. Sixty-four patients underwent transplantation between 2014 and 2019, of whom 32 received letermovir and 32 did not receive letermovir. The day 180 cumulative incidence of CMV infection requiring therapy was 45.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.7% to 57.1%) in the entire cohort, 68.8% (95% CI, 48.9% to 82.2%) in the patients who did not receive letermovir, and 21.9% (95% CI, 9.5% to 37.6%; P < .001) in patients who received letermovir. Adjusting for regimen intensity, disease histology, and age, the hazard ratio for CMV infection was .19 (95% CI, .08 to .47; P < .001) in patients who received primary prophylaxis with letermovir. The 1-year cumulative incidence of treatment- related mortality was similar between patients with and without letermovir treatment (16.9% versus 18.9%), as was overall survival (64.0% versus 49.0%). Persistent CMV infection requiring >28 days of therapy was more common in patients who did not receive letermovir (31.2% versus 6.2%; P = .02). In summary, letermovir was effective in preventing CMV infection in this high-risk population of HLA-mismatched allo-HCT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.10.009DOI Listing
January 2021

Outcomes in patients with DLBCL treated with commercial CAR T cells compared with alternate therapies.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(19):4669-4678

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

The prognosis of patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is poor. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has been approved for R/R DLBCL after 2 prior lines of therapy based on data from single-arm phase 2 trials, with complete responses (CRs) in 40% to 60% of patients. However, a direct comparison with other treatments is not available and, moreover, its true efficacy in real-world patients is unknown. In this single center, retrospective, observational study of 215 patients, we compared outcomes in patients treated with CAR T-cell therapy (n = 69) with a historical population treated with alternate therapies (n = 146). Patients treated with CAR T cell vs alternate therapies demonstrated a CR rate of 52% vs 22% (P < .001), median progression-free survival (PFS) of 5.2 vs 2.3 months (P = .01), and median overall survival (OS) of 19.3 vs 6.5 months (P = .006), and this advantage appeared to persist irrespective of the number of lines of prior therapy. After adjusting for unfavorable pretreatment disease characteristics, superior overall response rate in the CAR T cohort remained significant; however, differences in PFS and OS between cohorts did not. In addition, patients who responded to alternate therapies demonstrated prolonged remissions comparable to those who responded to CAR T therapy. We contend that in select clinical scenarios alternate therapies may be as efficacious as CAR T therapy; thus, additional study is warranted, ideally with randomized prospective trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556134PMC
October 2020

Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia: An Evidence-Based Review from the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jan 20;27(1):6-20. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

EBMT Paris Study Office, Paris, France; Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

The role of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the management of newly diagnosed adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is reviewed and critically evaluated in this evidence-based review. An AML expert panel, consisting of both transplant and nontransplant experts, was invited to develop clinically relevant frequently asked questions covering disease- and HCT-related topics. A systematic literature review was conducted to generate core recommendations that were graded based on the quality and strength of underlying evidence based on the standardized criteria established by the American Society of Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Steering Committee for evidence-based reviews. Allogeneic HCT offers a survival benefit in patients with intermediate- and high-risk AML and is currently a part of standard clinical care. We recommend the preferential use of myeloablative conditioning in eligible patients. A haploidentical related donor marrow graft is preferred over a cord blood unit in the absence of a fully HLA-matched donor. The evolving role of allogeneic HCT in the context of measurable residual disease monitoring and recent therapeutic advances in AML with regards to maintenance therapy after HCT are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.020DOI Listing
January 2021