Publications by authors named "Mickaël Bernard"

3 Publications

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Changes in Digestive Microbiota, Rumen Fermentations and Oxidative Stress around Parturition Are Alleviated by Live Yeast Feed Supplementation to Gestating Ewes.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Jun 4;7(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Lallemand SAS, 19 rue des Briquetiers, BP 59, CEDEX, 31702 Blagnac, France.

Background: In ruminants, physiological and nutritional changes occur peripartum. We investigated if gastro-intestinal microbiota, rumen metabolism and antioxidant status were affected around parturition and what could be the impact of a daily supplementation of a live yeast additive in late gestating ewes.

Methods: Rumen, feces and blood samples were collected from 2 groups of 14 ewes one month and a few days before parturition, and 2 weeks postpartum.

Results: In the control ewes close to parturition, slight changes in the ruminal microbiota were observed, with a decrease in the concentration and in the relative abundance of the Fibrobacteres phylum. Moreover, a decrease in the alpha-diversity of the bacterial community and a reduced relative abundance of the Fibrobacteres phylum were observed in their feces. Control ewes were prone to oxidative stress, as shown by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, a lower total antioxidant status, and higher glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the blood. In the yeast supplemented ewes, most of the microbial changes observed in the control group were alleviated. An increase in GPx activity, and a significant decrease in MDA concentration were measured.

Conclusions: The live yeast used in this study could stabilize gastro-intestinal microbiota and reduce oxidative stress close to parturition.
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June 2021

Supplementation of live yeast based feed additive in early life promotes rumen microbial colonization and fibrolytic potential in lambs.

Sci Rep 2019 12 16;9(1):19216. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UMR 454 MEDIS, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Rumen microbiota is of paramount importance for ruminant digestion efficiency as the microbial fermentations supply the host animal with essential sources of energy and nitrogen. Early separation of newborns from the dam and distribution of artificial milk (Artificial Milking System or AMS) could impair rumen microbial colonization, which would not only affect rumen function but also have possible negative effects on hindgut homeostasis, and impact animal health and performance. In this study, we monitored microbial communities in the rumen and the feces of 16 lambs separated from their dams from 12 h of age and artificially fed with milk replacer and starter feed from d8, in absence or presence of a combination of the live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 and selected yeast metabolites. Microbial groups and targeted bacterial species were quantified by qPCR and microbial diversity and composition were assessed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing in samples collected from birth to 2 months of age. The fibrolytic potential of the rumen microbiota was analyzed with a DNA microarray targeting genes coding for 8 glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. In Control lambs, poor establishment of fibrolytic communities was observed. Microbial composition shifted as the lambs aged. The live yeast supplement induced significant changes in relative abundances of a few bacterial OTUs across time in the rumen samples, among which some involved in crucial rumen function, and favored establishment of Trichostomatia and Neocallimastigaceae eukaryotic families. The supplemented lambs also harbored greater abundances in Fibrobacter succinogenes after weaning. Microarray data indicated that key cellulase and hemicellulase encoding-genes were present from early age in the rumen and that in the Supplemented lambs, a greater proportion of hemicellulase genes was present. Moreover, a higher proportion of GH genes from ciliate protozoa and fungi was found in the rumen of those animals. This yeast combination improved microbial colonization in the maturing rumen, with a potentially more specialized ecosystem towards efficient fiber degradation, which suggests a possible positive impact on lamb gut development and digestive efficiency.
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December 2019

Effectiveness of Interventions to Modulate the Rumen Microbiota Composition and Function in Pre-ruminant and Ruminant Lambs.

Front Microbiol 2018 18;9:1273. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Université Clermont Auvergne, INRA, VetAgro Sup, UMR Herbivores, Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France.

Modulating the assembly of the ruminal microbiota might have practical implications in production. We tested how an early-life dietary intervention in lambs influences the diversity and function of the ruminal microbiota during and after the intervention. Microbiota resilience during a repeated dietary intervention was also tested. The treatment, aiming to mitigate enteric methane emissions, combined garlic essential oil and linseed oil. Fifty-six lambs and their dams were allocated to two groups and treatment (T1) or placebo (C1) was drenched from birth until 10 weeks of life. Lambs were weaned at 8 weeks. From 16 to 20 weeks, lambs in each group were divided in two subgroups that received (T1-T2 and C1-T2) or not (T1-C2 and C1-C2) the same treatment. Measurements were done at 8, 14, and 20 weeks. Average daily gain was similar between groups. Methane production was reduced by treatment at 8 and 20 weeks but at 14 weeks it was similar between C1 and T1. Interestingly, early-life treated lambs displayed a numerical increase ( = 0.12) in methane emissions at 20 weeks compared with non-treated lambs. Concentration of VFA was not affected by the intervention at 8 or 14 weeks but a lower concentration was observed in T2 lambs compared with C2 at week 20. Metataxonomics (rRNA gene) revealed differences in archaeal communities between groups of lambs when treatment was applied (weeks 8 and 20); whereas, in accord with methane emissions, these differences disappeared when treatment was discontinued (week 14). Protozoal community structure was not affected by treatment. In contrast, bacterial community structure differed between treated and non-treated lambs during and after the intervention. Rumen and urine LC-MS and NMR metabolomics at week 20 separated C2 from T2 lambs and correlation analysis highlighted interactions between microbes and metabolites, notably that of methylated compounds and Methanomassiliicocceae methanogens. This study demonstrates that a long-term early-life intervention induced modifications in the composition of the rumen bacterial community that persisted after the intervention ceased with little or no effect on archaeal and protozoal communities. However, there was no persistency of the early-life intervention on methanogenesis indicating resilience for this function.
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June 2018