Publications by authors named "Michiel Voskuil"

134 Publications

Targeted Temperature Management in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest With Shockable Rhythm: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Trial.

Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands. Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The optimal targeted temperature in patients with shockable rhythm is unclear, and current guidelines recommend targeted temperature management with a correspondingly wide range between 32°C and 36°C. Our aim was to study survival and neurologic outcome associated with targeted temperature management strategy in postarrest patients with initial shockable rhythm.

Design: Observational substudy of the Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment Elevation trial.

Setting: Nineteen hospitals in The Netherlands.

Patients: The Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest trial randomized successfully resuscitated patients with shockable rhythm and absence of ST-segment elevation to a strategy of immediate or delayed coronary angiography. In this substudy, 459 patients treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia (32.0-34.0°C) or targeted normothermia (36.0-37.0°C) were included. Allocation to targeted temperature management strategy was at the discretion of the physician.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: After 90 days, 171 patients (63.6%) in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group and 129 (67.9%) in the targeted normothermia group were alive (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.62-1.18]; log-rank p = 0.35; adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.45-1.72). Patients in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group had longer ICU stay (4 d [3-7 d] vs 3 d [2-5 d]; ratio of geometric means, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.51), lower blood pressures, higher lactate levels, and increased need for inotropic support. Cerebral Performance Category scores at ICU discharge and 90-day follow-up and patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year were similar in the two groups.

Conclusions: In the context of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm and no ST-elevation, treatment with mild therapeutic hypothermia was not associated with improved 90-day survival compared with targeted normothermia. Neurologic outcomes at 90 days as well as patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year did not differ between the groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005271DOI Listing
September 2021

Rationale and Design of the Groningen Intervention Study for the Preservation of Cardiac Function with Sodium Thiosulfate after ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-IV) Trial.

Am Heart J 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen, 9713 GZ, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart & Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 3584 CX, the Netherlands.

Rationale: Ischemia and subsequent reperfusion cause myocardial injury in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Hydrogen sulfide (HS) reduces "ischemia-reperfusion injury" in various experimental animal models, but has not been evaluated in humans. This trial will examine the efficacy and safety of the HS-donor sodium thiosulfate (STS) in patients presenting with a STEMI.

Study Design: The Groningen Intervention study for the Preservation of cardiac function with STS after STEMI (GIPS-IV) trial (NCT02899364) is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, which will enroll 380 patients with a first STEMI. Patients receive STS 12.5 gram intravenously or matching placebo in addition to standard care immediately at arrival at the catheterization laboratory after providing consent. A second dose is administered 6 hours later at the coronary care unit. The primary endpoint is myocardial infarct size as quantified by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 4 months after randomization. Secondary endpoints include the effect of STS on peak CK-MB during admission and left ventricular ejection fraction and NT-proBNP levels at 4 months follow-up. Patients will be followed-up for 2 years to assess clinical endpoints.

Conclusions: The GIPS-IV trial is the first study to determine the effect of a HS-donor on myocardial infarct size in patients presenting with STEMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2021.08.012DOI Listing
September 2021

Polygenetic risk scores do not add predictive power to clinical models for response to anti-TNFα therapy in inflammatory bowel disease.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(9):e0256860. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) therapy is widely used in the management of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, up to a third of patients do not respond to induction therapy and another third of patients lose response over time. To aid patient stratification, polygenetic risk scores have been identified as predictors of response to anti-TNFα therapy. We aimed to replicate the association between polygenetic risk scores and response to anti-TNFα therapy in an independent cohort of patients, to establish its clinical validity.

Materials And Methods: Primary non-response, primary response, durable response and loss of response to anti-TNFα therapy was retrospectively assessed for each patient using stringent definitions. Genome wide genotyping was performed and previously described polygenetic risk scores for primary non-response and durable response were calculated. We compared polygenetic risk scores between patients with primary response and primary non-response, and between patients with durable response and loss of response, using separate analyses for CD and UC.

Results: Out of 334 patients with CD, 15 (4%) patients met criteria for primary non-response, 221 (66%) for primary response, 115 (34%) for durable response and 35 (10%) for loss of response. Out of 112 patients with UC, 12 (11%) met criteria for primary non-response, 68 (61%) for primary response, 19 (17%) for durable response and 20 (18%) for loss of response. No significant differences in polygenetic risk scores were found between primary non-responders and primary responders, and between durable responders and loss of responders.

Conclusions: We could not replicate the previously reported association between polygenetic risk scores and response to anti-TNFα therapy in an independent cohort of patients with CD or UC. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to use polygenetic risk scores to predict response to anti-TNFα therapy in patients with IBD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256860PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448323PMC
September 2021

The Effect of Phenotype and Genotype on the Plasma Proteome in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background And Aims: Protein profiling in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is underexplored in IBD. This study analysed the association between phenotype, genotype and the plasma proteome in IBD.

Methods: Ninety-two (92) inflammation-related proteins were quantified in plasma of 1,028 patients with IBD (567 Crohn's disease [CD]; 461 ulcerative colitis [UC]) and 148 healthy individuals to assess protein-phenotype associations. Corresponding whole-exome sequencing and global screening array data of 919 patients with IBD were included to analyse the effect of genetics on protein levels (protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) analysis). Intestinal mucosal RNA sequencing and fecal metagenomic data were used for complementary analyses.

Results: Thirty-two (32) proteins were differentially abundant between IBD and healthy individuals, of which 22 proteins independent of active inflammation. Sixty-nine (69) proteins were associated with 15 demographic and clinical factors. Fibroblast growth factor-19 levels were decreased in CD patients with ileal disease or a history of ileocecal resection. Thirteen novel cis-pQTLs were identified and 10 replicated from previous studies. One trans-pQTL of the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) gene (rs602662) and two independent cis-pQTLs of C-C motif chemokine 25 (CCL25) affected plasma CCL25 levels. Intestinal gene expression data revealed an overlapping cis-expression (e)QTL-variant (rs3745387) of the CCL25 gene. The FUT2 rs602662 trans-pQTL was associated with reduced abundances of fecal butyrate-producing bacteria.

Conclusions: This study shows that genotype and multiple disease phenotypes strongly associate with the plasma inflammatory proteome in IBD and identifies disease-associated pathways that may help to improve disease management in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab157DOI Listing
September 2021

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement for Degenerated Transcatheter Aortic Valves: The TRANSIT International Project.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2021 06 7;14(6):e010440. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

IRCCS Policlinico S. Donato, Milan, Italy (L.T., M.A., N.B., A.P.R., M.C., F.D.M., G.B., F.B.).

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has determined a paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, the durability of bioprostheses is still a matter of concern, and little is known about the management of degenerated TAV. We sought to evaluate the outcomes of patients with a degenerated TAV treated by means of a second TAVR.

Methods: The TRANSIT is an international registry that included cases of degenerated TAVR from 28 centers. Among around 40 000 patients treated with TAVR in the participating centers, 172 underwent a second TAVR: 57 (33%) for a mainly stenotic degenerated TAV, 97 (56%) for a mainly regurgitant TAV, and 18 (11%) for a combined degeneration. Overall, the rate of New York Heart Association class III/IV at presentation was 73.5%.

Results: Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 device success rate was 79%, as a consequence of residual gradient (14%) or regurgitation (7%). At 1 month, the overall mortality rate was 2.9%, while rates of new hospitalization and New York Heart Association class III/IV were 3.6% and 7%, respectively, without significant difference across the groups. At 1 year, the overall mortality rate was 10%, while rates of new hospitalization and New York Heart Association class III/IV were 7.6% and 5.8%, respectively, without significant difference across the groups. No cases of valve thrombosis were recorded.

Conclusions: Selected patients with a degenerated TAV may be safely and successfully treated by means of a second TAVR. This finding is of crucial importance for the adoption of the TAVR technology in a lower risk and younger population.

Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04500964.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.010440DOI Listing
June 2021

Velocity and Pulsatility Measures in the Perforating Arteries of the Basal Ganglia at 3T MRI in Reference to 7T MRI.

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:665480. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Radiology, Center for Image Sciences, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Cerebral perforating artery flow velocity and pulsatility can be measured using 7 tesla (T) MRI. Enabling these flow metrics on more widely available 3T systems would make them more employable. It is currently unknown whether these measurements can be performed at 3T MRI due to the lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate if flow velocity and pulsatility in the perforating arteries of the basal ganglia (BG) can be measured at 3T MRI and assess the agreement with 7T MRI measurements as reference. Twenty-nine subjects were included, of which 14 patients with aortic coarctation [median age 29 years (21-72)] and 15 controls [median age 27 years (22-64)]. Using a cardiac-gated 2D phase-contrast MRI sequence BG perforating arteries were imaged at 3T and 7T MRI and perforating artery density (N , #/cm), flow velocity (V , cm/s) and pulsatility index (PI) were determined. Agreement between scanner modalities was assessed using correlation and difference plots with linear regression. A -value ≤ 0.05 indicated statistical significance. It was shown that perforating artery flow velocity and pulsatility can be measured at 3T MRI (N = 0.21 ± 0.11; V = 6.04 ± 1.27; PI = 0.49 ± 0.19), although values differed from 7T MRI measurements (N = 0.95 ± 0.21; V = 3.89 ± 0.56; PI = 0.28 ± 0.08). The number of detected arteries was lower at 3T (5 ± 3) than 7T MRI (24 ± 6), indicating that 3T MRI is on average a factor 4.8 less sensitive to detect cerebral perforating arteries. Comparison with 7T MRI as reference showed some agreement in N , but little to no agreement for V and PI. Equalizing the modalities' sensitivity by comparing the detected arteries on 7T MRI with the highest velocity with all vessels detected on 3T MRI, showed some improvement in agreement for PI, but not for V . This study shows that it is possible to measure cerebral perforating artery flow velocity and pulsatility at 3T MRI, although an approximately fivefold sample size is needed at 3T relative to 7T MRI for a given effect size, and the measurements should be performed with equal scanner field strength and protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.665480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107291PMC
April 2021

The effect of immediate coronary angiography after cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation on left ventricular function. A sub-study of the COACT randomised trial.

Resuscitation 2021 07 28;164:93-100. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands.

Background: The effect of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who are successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular function is currently unknown.

Methods: This prespecified sub-study of a multicentre trial evaluated 552 patients, successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI. Patients were randomized to either undergo immediate coronary angiography or delayed coronary angiography, after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The main outcomes of this analysis were left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic and systolic volumes assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography.

Results: Data on left ventricular function was available for 397 patients. The mean (± standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.2% (±12.8) in the immediate angiography group and 48.4% (±13.2) in the delayed angiography group (mean difference: -3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.75 to 0.37). Median left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 177 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 169 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95-1.19). In addition, mean left ventricular end-systolic volume was 90 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 78 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.13; 95% CI 0.97-1.32).

Conclusion: In patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, immediate coronary angiography was not found to improve left ventricular dimensions or function compared with a delayed angiography strategy.

Clinical Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.04.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Clopidogrel in noncarriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles versus ticagrelor in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome: A pre-specified sub analysis from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials CYP2C19 alleles in elderly patients.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jul 20;334:10-17. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands; Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are carrying CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles derive less benefit from clopidogrel treatment. Despite this, in elderly patients, clopidogrel might be preferred over more potent P2Y inhibitors due to a lower bleeding risk. Whether CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet treatment in the elderly could be of benefit has not been studied specifically.

Methods: Patients aged 70 years and older with known CYP2C19*2 and *3 genotype were identified from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials. Noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles treated with clopidogrel were compared to patients, irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype, treated with ticagrelor and to clopidogrel treated carriers of loss-of-function alleles. We assessed net clinical benefit (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke and Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major bleeding), atherothrombotic outcomes (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke) and bleeding outcomes (PLATO major and minor bleeding).

Results: A total of 991 patients were assessed. There was no significant difference in net clinical benefit (17.2% vs. 15.1%, adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.44), atherothrombotic outcomes (9.7% vs. 9.2%, adjHR 1.00, 95%CI 0.66-1.50), and bleeding outcomes (17.7% vs. 19.8%, adjHR 0.80, 95%CI 0.62-1.12) between clopidogrel in noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles and ticagrelor respectively.

Conclusion: In ACS patients aged 70 years and older, there was no significant difference in net clinical benefit and atherothrombotic outcomes between noncarriers of a loss-of-function allele treated with clopidogrel and patients treated with ticagrelor. The bleeding rate was numerically; though not statistically significant, lower in patients using clopidogrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.04.029DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical outcomes after permanent polymer or polymer-free stent implantation in patients with diabetes mellitus: The ReCre8 diabetes substudy.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The purpose of this analysis was to compare target-lesion failure (TLF) of a permanent polymer zotarolimus-eluting stent (PP-ZES) versus a polymer-free amphilimus-eluting stent (PF-AES) in diabetics.

Background: The improvement of outcomes with new-generation drug-eluting stent as seen in the general population is less pronounced among diabetics. The PF-AES introduces an elution-technology with potential enhanced performance in diabetics.

Methods: In this subanalysis of the ReCre8 trial, patients were randomized to either a PP-ZES or PF-AES after stratification for diabetes and troponin status. The primary device-oriented endpoint was TLF, a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction and target-lesion revascularization.

Results: In the ReCre8 trial, 304 (20%) patients were diabetic and 96 (6%) had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference between the two study arms regarding the primary endpoint (PP-ZES 7.2% vs. PF-AES 4.0%; p = .21), although the composite of net adverse clinical events was higher in the PP-ZES arm (15.7 vs. 8.0%; p = .035). Stent thrombosis was low in both groups with no cases in the PP-ZES arm and 1 case in the PF-AES arm (p = .32). Regarding insulin-treated diabetics, TLF was higher in the PP-ZES arm (14.9 vs. 2.1%; p = .022).

Conclusions: Diabetics could potentially benefit from a dedicated stent, releasing sirolimus with a lipophilic carrier (amphilimus-formulation). Future trials should confirm the potential benefit of a PF-AES in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29685DOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnostic performance and clinical implications for enhancing a hybrid quantitative flow ratio-FFR revascularization decision-making strategy.

Sci Rep 2021 03 19;11(1):6425. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Koekoekslaan 1, 3435 CM, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) adoption remains low mainly due to procedural and operator related factors as well as costs. Alternatively, quantitative flow ratio (QFR) achieves a high accuracy mainly outside the intermediate zone without the need for hyperaemia and wire-use. We aimed to determine the diagnostic performance of QFR and to evaluate a QFR-FFR hybrid strategy in which FFR is measured only in the intermediate zone. This retrospective study included 289 consecutive patients who underwent invasive coronary angiography and FFR. QFR was calculated for all vessels in which FFR was measured. The QFR-FFR hybrid approach was modelled using the intermediate zone of 0.77-0.87 in which FFR-measurements are recommended. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy on a per vessel-based analysis were 84.6%, 86.3% and 85.6% for QFR and 88.0%, 92.9% and 90.3% for the QFR-FFR hybrid approach. The diagnostic accuracy of QFR-FFR hybrid strategy with invasive FFR measurement was 93.4% and resulted in a 56.7% reduction in the need for FFR. QFR has a good correlation and agreement with invasive FFR. A hybrid QFR-FFR approach could extend the use of QFR and reduces the proportion of invasive FFR-measurements needed while improving accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85933-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979768PMC
March 2021

Inflammation status modulates the effect of host genetic variation on intestinal gene expression in inflammatory bowel disease.

Nat Commun 2021 02 18;12(1):1122. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

More than 240 genetic risk loci have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but little is known about how they contribute to disease development in involved tissue. Here, we hypothesized that host genetic variation affects gene expression in an inflammation-dependent way, and investigated 299 snap-frozen intestinal biopsies from inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa from 171 IBD patients. RNA-sequencing was performed, and genotypes were determined using whole exome sequencing and genome wide genotyping. In total, 28,746 genes and 6,894,979 SNPs were included. Linear mixed models identified 8,881 independent intestinal cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs) (FDR < 0.05) and interaction analysis revealed 190 inflammation-dependent intestinal cis-eQTLs (FDR < 0.05), including known IBD-risk genes and genes encoding immune-cell receptors and antibodies. The inflammation-dependent cis-eQTL SNPs (eSNPs) mainly interact with prevalence of immune cell types. Inflammation-dependent intestinal cis-eQTLs reveal genetic susceptibility under inflammatory conditions that can help identify the cell types involved in and the pathways underlying inflammation, knowledge that may guide future drug development and profile patients for precision medicine in IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21458-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892863PMC
February 2021

Patient-tailored antithrombotic therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention.

Eur Heart J 2021 03;42(10):1038-1046

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Dual antiplatelet therapy has long been the standard of care in preventing coronary and cerebrovascular thrombotic events in patients with chronic coronary syndrome and acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, but choosing the optimal treatment duration and composition has become a major challenge. Numerous studies have shown that certain patients benefit from either shortened or extended treatment duration. Furthermore, trials evaluating novel antithrombotic strategies, such as P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy, low-dose factor Xa inhibitors on top of antiplatelet therapy, and platelet function- or genotype-guided (de-)escalation of treatment, have shown promising results. Current guidelines recommend risk stratification for tailoring treatment duration and composition. Although several risk stratification methods evaluating ischaemic and bleeding risk are available to clinicians, such as the use of risk scores, platelet function testing , and genotyping, risk stratification has not been broadly adopted in clinical practice. Multiple risk scores have been developed to determine the optimal treatment duration, but external validation studies have yielded conflicting results in terms of calibration and discrimination and there is limited evidence that their adoption improves clinical outcomes. Likewise, platelet function testing and genotyping can provide useful prognostic insights, but trials evaluating treatment strategies guided by these stratification methods have produced mixed results. This review critically appraises the currently available antithrombotic strategies and provides a viewpoint on the use of different risk stratification methods alongside clinical judgement in current clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa1097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8244639PMC
March 2021

The Composition and Metabolic Potential of the Human Small Intestinal Microbiota Within the Context of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Aug;15(8):1326-1338

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background And Aims: The human gastrointestinal tract harbours distinct microbial communities essential for health. Little is known about small intestinal communities, despite the small intestine playing a fundamental role in nutrient absorption and host-microbe immune homeostasis. We aimed to explore the small intestine microbial composition and metabolic potential, in the context of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD].

Methods: Metagenomes derived from faecal samples and extensive phenotypes were collected from 57 individuals with an ileostomy or ileoanal pouch, and compared with 1178 general population and 478 IBD faecal metagenomes. Microbiome features were identified using MetaPhAn2 and HUMAnN2, and association analyses were performed using multivariate linear regression.

Results: Small intestinal samples had a significantly lower bacterial diversity, compared with the general population and, to a lesser extent, IBD samples. Comparing bacterial composition, small intestinal samples clustered furthest from general population samples and closest to IBD samples with intestinal resections. Veillonella atypica, Streptococcus salivarius, and Actinomyces graevenitzii were among the species significantly enriched in the small intestine. Predicted metabolic pathways in the small intestine are predominantly involved in simple carbohydrate and energy metabolism, but also suggest a higher pro-inflammatory potential.

Conclusions: We described the bacterial composition and metabolic potential of the small intestinal microbiota. The colonic microbiome of IBD patients, particularly with intestinal resections, showed resemblance to that of the small intestine. Moreover, several features characterising the small intestinal microbiome have been previously associated with IBD. These results highlight the importance of studying the small intestinal microbiota to gain new insight into disease pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328293PMC
August 2021

Donor genetic variants as risk factors for thrombosis after liver transplantation: A genome-wide association study.

Am J Transplant 2021 09 11;21(9):3133-3147. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Surgery, Section of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Thrombosis after liver transplantation substantially impairs graft- and patient survival. Inevitably, heritable disorders of coagulation originating in the donor liver are transmitted by transplantation. We hypothesized that genetic variants in donor thrombophilia genes are associated with increased risk of posttransplant thrombosis. We genotyped 775 donors for adult recipients and 310 donors for pediatric recipients transplanted between 1993 and 2018. We determined the association between known donor thrombophilia gene variants and recipient posttransplant thrombosis. In addition, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and meta-analyzed 1085 liver transplantations. In our donor cohort, known thrombosis risk loci were not associated with posttransplant thrombosis, suggesting that it is unnecessary to exclude liver donors based on thrombosis-susceptible polymorphisms. By performing a meta-GWAS from children and adults, we identified 280 variants in 55 loci at suggestive genetic significance threshold. Downstream prioritization strategies identified biologically plausible candidate genes, among which were AK4 (rs11208611-T, p = 4.22 × 10 ) which encodes a protein that regulates cellular ATP levels and concurrent activation of AMPK and mTOR, and RGS5 (rs10917696-C, p = 2.62 × 10 ) which is involved in vascular development. We provide evidence that common genetic variants in the donor, but not previously known thrombophilia-related variants, are associated with increased risk of thrombosis after liver transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518362PMC
September 2021

Performing elective cardiac invasive procedures during the COVID-19 outbreak: a position statement from the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI).

EuroIntervention 2021 Feb;16(14):1177-1186

Interventional Cardiology Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

The rearrangement of healthcare services required to face the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to a drastic reduction in elective cardiac invasive procedures. We are already facing a "second wave" of infections and we might be dealing during the next months with a "third wave" and subsequently new waves. Therefore, during the different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic we have to face the problems of how to perform elective cardiac invasive procedures in non-COVID patients and which patients/procedures should be prioritised. In this context, the interplay between the pandemic stage, the availability of healthcare resources and the priority of specific cardiac disorders is crucial. Clear pathways for "hot" or presumed "hot" patients and "cold" patients are mandatory in each hospital. Depending on the local testing capacity and intensity of transmission in the area, healthcare facilities may test patients for SARS-CoV-2 infection before the interventional procedure, regardless of risk assessment for COVID-19. Pre-hospital testing should always be conducted in the presence of symptoms suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In cases of confirmed or suspected COVID-19 positive patients, full personal protective equipment using FFP 2/N95 masks, eye protection, gowning and gloves is indicated during cardiac interventions for healthcare workers. When patients have tested negative for COVID-19, medical masks may be sufficient. Indeed, individual patients should themselves wear medical masks during cardiac interventions and outpatient visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-20-01291DOI Listing
February 2021

Isotype-specific Antibody Responses to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis Antigens Are Associated With the Use of Biologic Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Aug;15(8):1253-1263

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen and University Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The role of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis [MAP] in inflammatory bowel disease [IBD], especially Crohn's disease [CD] is controversial due conflicting results and lack of reproducibility and standardised tests. The current study focuses on the role of MAP in disease progression and genetic susceptibility, as MAP is likely one of many factors involved in the complex pathogenesis of IBD, potentially affecting a subgroup depending on genetic susceptibility.

Methods: Serum from 812 patients was evaluated with seven immunoglobulin [Ig] isotype-specific serology tests assessing humoral response to three different MAP antigens. For each of these in total 21 tests, the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients were used to evaluate test accuracy. Reliable assays were subsequently analysed in relation to disease characteristics and need for biologic therapy/surgery. Genome-wide genotyping was available for all participants. Genetic determinants of humoral response to MAP antigens were evaluated using genome-wide association analysis and polygenic risk scores [PRS].

Results: High IgA or IgM response to MAP2609 was associated with increased use of biologic therapy in CD and ulcerative colitis [UC] [odds ratios 2.69; 95% confidence interval 1.44-5.01; and 2.60, 1.46-4.64, respectively]. No associations were seen for risk of surgery [p-values > 0.29]. We could not identify genetic determinants nor polygenic risk scores for MAP response with genome-wide significance.

Conclusions: Extensive assays for serological response to MAP were evaluated using stringent criteria for reliability. Increased IgA and IgM response to MAP antigens was seen in patients exposed to biologic therapy, but no genetic determinants underlying this humoral response were found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8496491PMC
August 2021

Data on sex differences in one-year outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation.

Data Brief 2020 Dec 12;33:106521. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are increasingly recognized. Although it has been found that post-resuscitated women are less likely to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD) than men, data on follow-up in these patients are limited. Data for this data in brief article was obtained as a part of the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment elevation (COACT) trial. The data supplements the manuscript "Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy" were it was found that women were less likely to have significant CAD including chronic total occlusions, and had worse survival when CAD was present. The dataset presented in this paper describes sex differences on interventions, implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and hospitalizations due to heart failure during one-year follow-up in patients successfully resuscitated after OHCA. Data was derived through a telephone interview at one year with the patient or general practitioner. Patients in this randomized dataset reflects a homogenous study population, which can be valuable to further build on research regarding long-term sex differences and to further improve cardiac care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691722PMC
December 2020

Sex differences in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy.

Resuscitation 2021 01 12;158:14-22. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Whether sex is associated with outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unclear.

Objectives: This study examined sex differences in survival in patients with OHCA without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: Using data from the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest (COACT) trial, the primary point of interest was sex differences in OHCA-related one-year survival. Secondary points of interest included the benefit of immediate coronary angiography compared to delayed angiography until after neurologic recovery, angiographic and clinical outcomes.

Results: In total, 522 patients (79.1% men) were included. Overall one-year survival was 59.6% in women and 63.4% in men (HR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.76-1.81;p = 0.47). No cardiovascular risk factors were found that modified survival. Women less often had significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (37.0% vs. 71.3%;p < 0.001), but when present, they had a worse prognosis than women without CAD (HR 3.06; 95% CI 1.31-7.19;p = 0.01). This was not the case for men (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.67-1.65;p = 0.83). In both sexes, immediate coronary angiography did not improve one-year survival compared to delayed angiography (women, odds ratio (OR) 0.87; 95% CI 0.58-1.30;p = 0.49; vs. men, OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.45-2.09;p = 0.93).

Conclusion: In OHCA patients without STEMI, we found no sex differences in overall one-year survival. Women less often had significant CAD, but when CAD was present they had worse survival than women without CAD. This was not the case for men. Both sexes did not benefit from a strategy of immediate coronary angiography as compared to delayed strategy with respect to one-year survival.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: Netherlands trial register (NTR) 4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.10.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Older Patients with NSTE-ACS Using Oral Anticoagulation: A Sub-Analysis of the POPular Age Trial.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 12;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, 3435CM Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.

There are no randomised data on which antiplatelet agent to use in elderly patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and an indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC). The randomised POPular Age trial, in patients of 70 years or older with NSTE-ACS, showed a reduction in bleeding without increasing thrombotic events in patients using clopidogrel as compared to ticagrelor. In this sub-analysis of the POPular AGE trial, we compare clopidogrel with ticagrelor in patients with a need for oral anticoagulation. The follow-up duration was one year. The primary bleeding outcome was Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major and minor bleeding. The primary thrombotic outcome consisted of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. The primary net clinical benefit outcome was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and PLATO major and minor bleeding. A total of 184/1011 (18.2%) patients on OAC were included in this subanalysis; 83 were randomized to clopidogrel and 101 to ticagrelor. The primary bleeding outcome was lower in the clopidogrel group (17/83, 20.9%) compared to the ticagrelor group (33/101, 33.5%; = 0.051), as was the thrombotic outcome (7/83, 8.4% vs. 19/101, 19.2%; = 0.035) and the primary net clinical benefit outcome (23/83, 27.7% vs. 49/101, 48.5%; = 0.003). In this subgroup of patients using OAC, clopidogrel reduced PLATO major and minor bleeding compared to ticagrelor without increasing thrombotic risk. This analysis therefore suggests that, in line with the POPular Age trial, clopidogrel is a better option than ticagrelor in NSTE-ACS patients ≥70 years using OAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9103249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601891PMC
October 2020

Comparison of the Sapien 3 versus the ACURATE neo valve system: A propensity score analysis.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 03 4;97(4):E597-E606. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To compare the outcomes of transfemoral ACURATE neo (NEO) and Sapien 3 (S3) patients in terms of device success and clinical safety outcomes using a propensity score analysis.

Background: Differences in clinical outcomes between the latest-generation balloon-expandable S3 and self-expanding NEO in a "real-world transfemoral TAVI population" are still unclear.

Methods: We compared up to 6 months clinical outcomes using a propensity score analysis (inverse probability of treatment weighting [IPTW]) to account for differences in baseline characteristics.

Results: A total of 345 patients underwent transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with either NEO or S3 at two centers in the Netherlands. Composite device success and early safety endpoints were comparable between NEO and S3 (Device success: IPTW-adjusted OR: 0.35 [95% CI: 0.12-1.18], and early safety: IPTW-adjusted OR: 0.51 [95% CI: 0.19-1.38]). Six-months mortality was 5.3 versus 3.6%, stroke was 2.8 versus 3.3%, and pacemaker rate was 6.1 versus 8.6%, respectively with p = NS. Mean aortic gradient was lower in the NEO group (5.72 ± 2.47 vs. 9.05 ± 3.48; p = <.001), with a comparable rate of moderate or severe paravalvular leak (0 versus 2.1%; p = NS).

Conclusions: Device success and clinical safety outcomes were comparable for both valves. Up to 6-months follow-up clinical outcomes and mortality rate remained excellent. Mean aortic gradient was lower after ACURATE neo implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984444PMC
March 2021

Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Without ST Segment Elevation: One-Year Outcomes of the COACT Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2020 Dec;5(12):1358-1365

Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, the Netherlands.

Importance: Ischemic heart disease is a common cause of cardiac arrest. However, randomized data on long-term clinical outcomes of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest in the absence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are lacking.

Objective: To determine whether immediate coronary angiography improves clinical outcomes at 1 year in patients after cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI, compared with a delayed coronary angiography strategy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A prespecified analysis of a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial evaluated 552 patients who were enrolled in 19 Dutch centers between January 8, 2015, and July 17, 2018. The study included patients who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a shockable rhythm who were successfully resuscitated without signs of STEMI. Follow-up was performed at 1 year. Data were analyzed, using the intention-to-treat principle, between August 29 and October 10, 2019.

Interventions: Immediate coronary angiography and PCI if indicated or coronary angiography and PCI if indicated, delayed until after neurologic recovery.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Survival, myocardial infarction, revascularization, implantable cardiac defibrillator shock, quality of life, hospitalization for heart failure, and the composite of death or myocardial infarction or revascularization after 1 year.

Results: At 1 year, data on 522 of 552 patients (94.6%) were available for analysis. Of these patients, 413 were men (79.1%); mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.3) years. A total of 162 of 264 patients (61.4%) in the immediate angiography group and 165 of 258 patients (64.0%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.28). The composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization since the index hospitalization was met in 112 patients (42.9%) in the immediate group and 104 patients (40.6%) in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.77-1.56). No significant differences between the groups were observed for the other outcomes at 1-year follow-up. For example, the rate of ICD shocks was 20.4% in the immediate group and 16.2% in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.66-2.64).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this trial of patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be superior to a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to clinical outcomes at 1 year. Coronary angiography in this patient group can therefore be delayed until after neurologic recovery without affecting outcomes.

Trial Registration: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489423PMC
December 2020

Iatrogenic dissection of the ascending aorta after transcatheter aortic valve implantation treated conservatively.

Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2020 Sep 22;39(9):547-549. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Interventional Cardiology Department, Division Heart & Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU), Utrecht, Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repc.2019.12.008DOI Listing
September 2020

Environmental factors associated with biological use and surgery in inflammatory bowel disease.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 23;36(4):1022-1034. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background And Aim: While major efforts were made studying the complex etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including environmental factors, less is known about underlying causes leading to the heterogeneous and highly variable course of disease. As cigarette smoking cessation is the best-known environmental factor with beneficial effect in Crohn's disease (CD), more exposome factors are likely involved. Further insights into the role of the exposome in heterogeneity of disease might not only further knowledge of underlying pathways, but also allow for better risk stratification.

Methods: Seven hundred twenty-eight IBD patients completed the validated Groningen IBD Environmental Questionnaire, collecting exposome data for 93 exposome factors. Associations with disease course, that is, for need for surgery or biological therapy, were evaluated using univariate and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression modeling.

Results: No significant associations were seen after Bonferroni correction. However, 11 novel exposome factors were identified with P < 0.05. Two factors were associated with course of CD and ulcerative colitis (UC): beer (CD OR0.3/UC OR0.3) and cannabis (0.5/2.2). While in CD, carpet flooring (0.5) was associated with biological use, and four factors were associated with surgery: working shifts (1.8), appendectomy (2.4), frequent tooth brushing (2.8), and large household size (0.1). For UC, migrants more often required biologicals (10.2). Childhood underweight (3.4), amphetamine use (6.2), and cocaine use (4.8) were associated with surgery. Five factors were replicated.

Conclusions: We identified 16 environmental factors nominally associated with biological use and surgery in established IBD. These new insights form an important stepping stone to guide research on biological pathways involved, risk stratification, tailor-made interventions, and preventive strategies in IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247347PMC
April 2021

Latent cytomegalovirus infection does not influence long-term disease outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease, but is associated with later onset of disease.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2020 Aug 7;55(8):891-896. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in the general population. CMV infection negatively affects disease course in transplant recipients and HIV patients. Whereas primary CMV infections may occur sporadically in seronegative patients, all seropositive patients with inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBD) are at risk for CMV reactivation due to the inflammatory mucosal and use of immunosuppressive medication. It is unclear whether latent CMV infection, and risk of reactivations, influences long-term disease outcomes. In this study, we aim to explore whether CMV infection affects disease outcomes in IBD patients.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional cohort study with 1404 patients with IBD from a single center. Clinical characteristics and disease outcomes were prospectively collected. We scrutinized CMV serology test results and performed additional CMV serology testing if serum was available.

Results: Out of 699 IBD patients with CMV serology, 303 (43.3%) were seropositive, comparable to the general Dutch population. CMV seropositivity was associated with older age, longer IBD disease duration, non-Western origin, birth outside the Netherlands and a lower educational level (-values ≤ .004). CMV seropositivity was not associated with more complicated long-term disease outcomes of IBD (-values > .05). Seropositive patients presented with symptoms and were diagnosed at an older age compared to seronegative patients (-values < .01).

Conclusions: CMV seropositivity does not influence disease outcomes of IBD patients and seems to be associated with a delay in IBD onset. Guidelines regarding CMV screening in patients with IBD are currently based on a low level of evidence. These data support the recommendation that routine CMV serology measurement is not necessary in the clinical care of IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2020.1786853DOI Listing
August 2020

Infectious stentitis after treatment of coarctation of the aorta: a case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2020 Jun 3;4(3):1-5. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Aortitis is a rare condition that can be caused by inflammatory or infectious aetiologies. The clinical presentation of aortitis includes a heterogeneous range of symptoms and clinical signs.

Case Summary: We present a 53-year-old man whose medical history included presence of a ventricular septal defect, a bicuspid aortic valve, and coarctation of the aorta. The coarctation was treated with percutaneous stent implantation. One and a half years later, he presented to our hospital with complaints of fatigue, night sweats, and shivers. Physical examination revealed a fever, tachycardia, and hypertension. Imaging studies showed no signs of endocarditis. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) showed an increase in F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake at the distal end of the stent in the descending aorta. Blood cultures revealed a and antibiotic treatment was adjusted accordingly. The patients' functional status improved quickly, the fever resolved, and the laboratory markers of inflammation returned to normal.

Discussion: Aortitis is extremely rare after stent implantation. Risk factors for aortitis include congenital vascular malformation and stent implantation. Computed tomography is currently the imaging study of choice for aortitis, while PET-CT seems ideal for identification of stent infection. Mortality associated with infectious aortitis ranges from 21% to 44%, with generally higher mortality if managed with antibiotics alone. The differential diagnosis of stent infection should be taken into account in patients presenting with fever and chills after previous stent procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319810PMC
June 2020

Donor tobacco smoking is associated with postoperative thrombosis after primary liver transplantation.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 10 25;18(10):2590-2600. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Department of Surgery, Section of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: Thrombosis after liver transplantation is a leading cause of graft loss, morbidity, and mortality. Several known recipient- and surgery-related characteristics have been associated with increased risk of thrombosis after transplantation. Potential donor-related risk factors, however, remain largely undefined.

Objectives: We aimed to identify risk factors for early post-transplantation thrombosis (<90 days) and to determine the impact of early postoperative thrombosis on long-term graft and patient survival.

Patients/methods: A post hoc analysis was performed of an observational cohort study including all primary, adult liver transplantations performed between 1993 and 2018. Donor-, recipient-, and surgery-related characteristics were collected. Competing risk model analyses and multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for developing early post-transplant thrombosis and graft failure.

Results: From a total of 748 adult liver transplantations, 58 recipients (7.8%) developed a thrombosis after a median of 7 days. Post-transplantation thrombotic events included 25 hepatic artery thromboses, 13 portal vein thromboses, and 22 other thrombotic complications. Donor history of smoking was independently associated with early postoperative thrombosis (odds ratio [OR] 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-4.52). Development of early post-transplant thrombosis was independently associated with patient mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 3.61; 95% CI 1.54-8.46) and graft failure (HR 5.80, 95% CI 3.26-10.33), respectively.

Conclusion: Donor history of smoking conveys a more than two-fold increased risk of thrombosis after liver transplantation, independent of other factors. Post-transplant thrombosis was independently associated with decreased patient and graft survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590074PMC
October 2020

Mapping interventional cardiology in Europe: the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) Atlas Project.

Eur Heart J 2020 07;41(27):2579-2588

Städtische Kliniken Neuss, Lukaskrankenhaus GmbH, Neuss, Germany.

Aims: The European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) Atlas of Interventional Cardiology has been developed to map interventional practice across European Society of Cardiology (ESC) member countries. Here we present the main findings of a 16-country survey in which we examine the national availability of interventional infrastructure, human resource, and procedure volumes.

Methods And Results: Sixteen ESC member countries participated in the EAPCI Atlas survey. Interventional data were collected by the National Cardiac Society of each participating country. An annual median of 5131 [interquartile range (IQR) 4013-5801] diagnostic heart procedures per million people were reported, ranging from <2500 in Egypt and Romania to >7000 in Turkey and Germany. Procedure rates showed significant correlation (r = 0.67, P = 0.013) with gross national income (GNI) per capita. An annual median of 2478 (IQR 1690-2633) percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) per million people were reported, ranging from <1000 in Egypt and Romania to >3000 in Switzerland, Poland, and Germany. Procedure rates showed significant correlation with GNI per capita (r = 0.62, P = 0.014). An annual median of 48.2 (IQR 29.1-105.2) transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures per million people were performed, varying from <25 per million people in Egypt, Romania, Turkey, and Poland to >100 per million people in Denmark, France, Switzerland, and Germany. Procedure rates showed significant correlation with national GNI per capita (r = 0.92, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The first report from the EAPCI Atlas has shown considerable international heterogeneity in interventional cardiology procedure volumes. The heterogeneity showed association with national economic resource, a reflection no doubt of the technological costs of developing an interventional cardiology service.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa475DOI Listing
July 2020

TNFα-Antagonist Use and Mucosal Inflammation Are Associated with Increased Intestinal Expression of SARS-CoV-2 Host Protease TMPRSS2 in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Gastroenterology 2021 06 15;160(7):2621-2622. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834454PMC
June 2021

Epinephrine stress testing during cardiac catheterization in patients with aortic coarctation.

Am Heart J 2020 07 13;225:78-87. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: The severity of aortic coarctation (CoA) may be underestimated during cardiac catheterization. We aimed to investigate whether epinephrine stress testing improves clinical decision making and outcome in CoA.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated CoA patients >50 kg with a peak systolic gradient (PSG) ≤20 mm Hg during cardiac catheterization who underwent epinephrine stress testing. Subsequent interventional management (stenting or balloon dilatation), complications, and medium-term clinical outcome were assessed.

Results: Fifty CoA patients underwent cardiac catheterization with epinephrine stress testing. Patients with a high epinephrine PSG (>20 mm Hg; n = 24) were younger and more likely to have a hypertensive response to exercise compared to patients with a low epinephrine PSG (≤20 mm Hg; n = 26). In total, 21 patients (88%) with a high epinephrine PSG underwent intervention, and 20 patients (77%) with a low epinephrine PSG were treated conservatively. After a mean follow-up of 25 ± 18 months, there was a lower prevalence of hypertension in patients with a high epinephrine PSG who underwent intervention compared to patients with a low epinephrine PSG treated conservatively (19% vs. 76%; P = .001). In a multivariate model, intervention was independently associated with a 14.3-mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure (P = .001) and a decrease in the use of antihypertensive agents.

Conclusions: In CoA patients with a low baseline PSG but high epinephrine PSG, percutaneous intervention is associated with a substantial reduction in systemic blood pressure and the use of antihypertensive medication. Accordingly, epinephrine stress testing may be a useful addition in the evaluation of CoA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.05.007DOI Listing
July 2020

Predicted efficacy of a pharmacogenetic passport for inflammatory bowel disease.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 06 3;51(11):1105-1115. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: High inter-individual variability in therapeutic response to drugs used in the management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) leads to high morbidity and high costs. Genetic variants predictive of thiopurine-induced myelosuppression, thiopurine-induced pancreatitis and immunogenicity of Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) antagonists have been identified, but uptake of pre-treatment pharmacogenetic testing into clinical guidelines has been slow.

Aim: To explore the efficacy of a pharmacogenetic passport for IBD that includes multiple pharmacogenetic predictors of response.

Methods: Patients with IBD exposed to thiopurines and/or TNFα antagonists were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of thiopurine toxicity and/or immunogenicity of TNFα antagonists. All patients were genotyped using both whole-exome sequencing and the Illumina Global Screening Array. An in-house-developed computational pipeline translated genetic data into an IBD pharmacogenetic passport that predicted risks for thiopurine toxicity and immunogenicity of TNFα antagonists per patient. Using pharmacogenetic-guided treatment guidelines, we calculated clinical efficacy estimates for pharmacogenetic testing for IBD.

Results: Among 710 patients with IBD exposed to thiopurines and/or TNFα antagonists, 150 adverse drug responses occurred and our pharmacogenetic passport would have predicted 54 (36%) of these. Using a pharmacogenetic passport for IBD that includes genetic variants predictive of thiopurine-induced myelosuppression, thiopurine-induced pancreatitis, and immunogenicity of TNFα antagonists, 24 patients need to be genotyped to prevent one of these adverse drug responses.

Conclusions: This study highlights the clinical efficacy of a pharmacogenetic passport for IBD. Implementation of such a pharmacogenetic passport into clinical management of IBD may contribute to a reduction in adverse drug responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318341PMC
June 2020
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