Publications by authors named "Michiel J Blans"

14 Publications

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Targeted Temperature Management in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest With Shockable Rhythm: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Trial.

Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, HAGA Hospital, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center, Den Haag, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum, The Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg, The Netherlands. Department of Epidemiology and Data Science, Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The optimal targeted temperature in patients with shockable rhythm is unclear, and current guidelines recommend targeted temperature management with a correspondingly wide range between 32°C and 36°C. Our aim was to study survival and neurologic outcome associated with targeted temperature management strategy in postarrest patients with initial shockable rhythm.

Design: Observational substudy of the Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment Elevation trial.

Setting: Nineteen hospitals in The Netherlands.

Patients: The Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest trial randomized successfully resuscitated patients with shockable rhythm and absence of ST-segment elevation to a strategy of immediate or delayed coronary angiography. In this substudy, 459 patients treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia (32.0-34.0°C) or targeted normothermia (36.0-37.0°C) were included. Allocation to targeted temperature management strategy was at the discretion of the physician.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: After 90 days, 171 patients (63.6%) in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group and 129 (67.9%) in the targeted normothermia group were alive (hazard ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.62-1.18]; log-rank p = 0.35; adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.45-1.72). Patients in the mild therapeutic hypothermia group had longer ICU stay (4 d [3-7 d] vs 3 d [2-5 d]; ratio of geometric means, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.15-1.51), lower blood pressures, higher lactate levels, and increased need for inotropic support. Cerebral Performance Category scores at ICU discharge and 90-day follow-up and patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year were similar in the two groups.

Conclusions: In the context of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm and no ST-elevation, treatment with mild therapeutic hypothermia was not associated with improved 90-day survival compared with targeted normothermia. Neurologic outcomes at 90 days as well as patient-reported Mental and Physical Health Scores at 1 year did not differ between the groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005271DOI Listing
September 2021

The effect of immediate coronary angiography after cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation on left ventricular function. A sub-study of the COACT randomised trial.

Resuscitation 2021 07 28;164:93-100. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Noord West Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, The Netherlands.

Background: The effect of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients who are successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on left ventricular function is currently unknown.

Methods: This prespecified sub-study of a multicentre trial evaluated 552 patients, successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI. Patients were randomized to either undergo immediate coronary angiography or delayed coronary angiography, after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The main outcomes of this analysis were left ventricular ejection fraction and end-diastolic and systolic volumes assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or echocardiography.

Results: Data on left ventricular function was available for 397 patients. The mean (± standard deviation) left ventricular ejection fraction was 45.2% (±12.8) in the immediate angiography group and 48.4% (±13.2) in the delayed angiography group (mean difference: -3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.75 to 0.37). Median left ventricular end-diastolic volume was 177 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 169 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95-1.19). In addition, mean left ventricular end-systolic volume was 90 ml in the immediate angiography group compared to 78 ml in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means: 1.13; 95% CI 0.97-1.32).

Conclusion: In patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, immediate coronary angiography was not found to improve left ventricular dimensions or function compared with a delayed angiography strategy.

Clinical Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.04.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Data on sex differences in one-year outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation.

Data Brief 2020 Dec 12;33:106521. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients are increasingly recognized. Although it has been found that post-resuscitated women are less likely to have significant coronary artery disease (CAD) than men, data on follow-up in these patients are limited. Data for this data in brief article was obtained as a part of the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-segment elevation (COACT) trial. The data supplements the manuscript "Sex differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy" were it was found that women were less likely to have significant CAD including chronic total occlusions, and had worse survival when CAD was present. The dataset presented in this paper describes sex differences on interventions, implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks and hospitalizations due to heart failure during one-year follow-up in patients successfully resuscitated after OHCA. Data was derived through a telephone interview at one year with the patient or general practitioner. Patients in this randomized dataset reflects a homogenous study population, which can be valuable to further build on research regarding long-term sex differences and to further improve cardiac care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.106521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691722PMC
December 2020

Sex differences in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation: A COACT trial substudy.

Resuscitation 2021 01 12;158:14-22. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Intensive care medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Whether sex is associated with outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unclear.

Objectives: This study examined sex differences in survival in patients with OHCA without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: Using data from the randomized controlled Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest (COACT) trial, the primary point of interest was sex differences in OHCA-related one-year survival. Secondary points of interest included the benefit of immediate coronary angiography compared to delayed angiography until after neurologic recovery, angiographic and clinical outcomes.

Results: In total, 522 patients (79.1% men) were included. Overall one-year survival was 59.6% in women and 63.4% in men (HR 1.18; 95% CI: 0.76-1.81;p = 0.47). No cardiovascular risk factors were found that modified survival. Women less often had significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (37.0% vs. 71.3%;p < 0.001), but when present, they had a worse prognosis than women without CAD (HR 3.06; 95% CI 1.31-7.19;p = 0.01). This was not the case for men (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.67-1.65;p = 0.83). In both sexes, immediate coronary angiography did not improve one-year survival compared to delayed angiography (women, odds ratio (OR) 0.87; 95% CI 0.58-1.30;p = 0.49; vs. men, OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.45-2.09;p = 0.93).

Conclusion: In OHCA patients without STEMI, we found no sex differences in overall one-year survival. Women less often had significant CAD, but when CAD was present they had worse survival than women without CAD. This was not the case for men. Both sexes did not benefit from a strategy of immediate coronary angiography as compared to delayed strategy with respect to one-year survival.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: Netherlands trial register (NTR) 4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.10.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Coronary Angiography After Cardiac Arrest Without ST Segment Elevation: One-Year Outcomes of the COACT Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2020 Dec;5(12):1358-1365

Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen, the Netherlands.

Importance: Ischemic heart disease is a common cause of cardiac arrest. However, randomized data on long-term clinical outcomes of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest in the absence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are lacking.

Objective: To determine whether immediate coronary angiography improves clinical outcomes at 1 year in patients after cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI, compared with a delayed coronary angiography strategy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A prespecified analysis of a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial evaluated 552 patients who were enrolled in 19 Dutch centers between January 8, 2015, and July 17, 2018. The study included patients who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a shockable rhythm who were successfully resuscitated without signs of STEMI. Follow-up was performed at 1 year. Data were analyzed, using the intention-to-treat principle, between August 29 and October 10, 2019.

Interventions: Immediate coronary angiography and PCI if indicated or coronary angiography and PCI if indicated, delayed until after neurologic recovery.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Survival, myocardial infarction, revascularization, implantable cardiac defibrillator shock, quality of life, hospitalization for heart failure, and the composite of death or myocardial infarction or revascularization after 1 year.

Results: At 1 year, data on 522 of 552 patients (94.6%) were available for analysis. Of these patients, 413 were men (79.1%); mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.3) years. A total of 162 of 264 patients (61.4%) in the immediate angiography group and 165 of 258 patients (64.0%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.63-1.28). The composite end point of death, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization since the index hospitalization was met in 112 patients (42.9%) in the immediate group and 104 patients (40.6%) in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.77-1.56). No significant differences between the groups were observed for the other outcomes at 1-year follow-up. For example, the rate of ICD shocks was 20.4% in the immediate group and 16.2% in the delayed group (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.66-2.64).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this trial of patients successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and without signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be superior to a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to clinical outcomes at 1 year. Coronary angiography in this patient group can therefore be delayed until after neurologic recovery without affecting outcomes.

Trial Registration: trialregister.nl Identifier: NTR4973.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.3670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489423PMC
December 2020

Ultrasound to Detect Central Venous Catheter Placement Associated Complications: A Multicenter Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

Anesthesiology 2020 04;132(4):781-794

From the Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Research VU University Medical Center (VUmc) Intensive Care, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, and Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (J.M.S., M.E.H., E.H.T.L., T.S.S., H.R.W.T., A.R.J.G., L.M.A.H., P.R.T.) the Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands (M.J.B., F.H.B.) the Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Groene Hart Hospital, Gouda, The Netherlands (M.P., B.V.).

Background: Mechanical complications arising after central venous catheter placement are mostly malposition or pneumothorax. To date, to confirm correct position and detect pneumothorax, chest x-ray film has been the reference standard, while ultrasound might be an accurate alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound to detect central venous catheter malposition and pneumothorax.

Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter, diagnostic accuracy study conducted at the intensive care unit and postanesthesia care unit. Adult patients who underwent central venous catheterization of the internal jugular vein or subclavian vein were included. Index test consisted of venous, cardiac, and lung ultrasound. Standard reference test was chest x-ray film. Primary outcome was diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound to detect malposition and pneumothorax; for malposition, sensitivity, specificity, and other accuracy parameters were estimated. For pneumothorax, because chest x-ray film is an inaccurate reference standard to diagnose it, agreement and Cohen's κ-coefficient were determined. Secondary outcomes were accuracy of ultrasound to detect clinically relevant complications and feasibility of ultrasound.

Results: In total, 758 central venous catheterizations were included. Malposition occurred in 23 (3.3%) out of 688 cases included in the analysis. Ultrasound sensitivity was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.49 to 0.86) and specificity 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.00). Pneumothorax occurred in 5 (0.7%) to 11 (1.5%) out of 756 cases according to chest x-ray film and ultrasound, respectively. In 748 out of 756 cases (98.9%), there was agreement between ultrasound and chest x-ray film with a Cohen's κ-coefficient of 0.50 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.80).

Conclusions: This multicenter study shows that the complication rate of central venous catheterization is low and that ultrasound produces a moderate sensitivity and high specificity to detect malposition. There is moderate agreement with chest x-ray film for pneumothorax. In conclusion, ultrasound is an accurate diagnostic modality to detect malposition and pneumothorax.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000003126DOI Listing
April 2020

Coronary Angiography after Cardiac Arrest without ST-Segment Elevation.

N Engl J Med 2019 Apr 18;380(15):1397-1407. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

From the Departments of Cardiology (J.S.L., G.N.J., N.W.H., N.R.), Intensive Care Medicine (P.W.G.E., H.M.O.-S.), and Epidemiology and Biostatistics (P.M.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center VUmc, the Departments of Cardiology (J.P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (A.P.J.V.), Amsterdam University Medical Center AMC, and the Departments of Cardiology (M.A.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.B.), Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, the Thorax Center, Erasmus Medical Center (L.S.D.J., E.A.D.), and the Departments of Cardiology (G.J.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (B.J.W.E.), Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, the Departments of Cardiology (M. Meuwissen) and Intensive Care Medicine (T.A.R.), Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Departments of Cardiology (H.A.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (M.J.B.), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, the Departments of Cardiology (G.B.B.) and Intensive Care Medicine (R.B.), Haga Hospital, and the Department of Cardiology, Haaglanden Medical Center (P.V.O.), The Hague, the Departments of Cardiology (P.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (I.C.C.H.), University of Groningen, Groningen, the Departments of Cardiology (M.V.) and Intensive Care Medicine (J.J.H.), University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (A.B.) and Cardiology (M.S.), Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, the Departments of Cardiology (C.C., N.R.) and Intensive Care Medicine (H.H.), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Departments of Cardiology (T.A.C.M.H.) and Intensive Care Medicine (W.R.), Noordwest Ziekenhuisgroep, Alkmaar, the Departments of Intensive Care Medicine (T.S.R.D.) and Cardiology (H.J.G.M.C.), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Department of Cardiology, Scheper Hospital, Emmen (G.A.J.J.), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (M.T.M.G.), the Department of Cardiology, Tergooi Hospital, Blaricum (K.P.), and the Department of Cardiology, Elisabeth-Tweesteden Hospital, Tilburg (M. Magro) - all in the Netherlands.

Background: Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The role of immediate coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the treatment of patients who have been successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in the absence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains uncertain.

Methods: In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 552 patients who had cardiac arrest without signs of STEMI to undergo immediate coronary angiography or coronary angiography that was delayed until after neurologic recovery. All patients underwent PCI if indicated. The primary end point was survival at 90 days. Secondary end points included survival at 90 days with good cerebral performance or mild or moderate disability, myocardial injury, duration of catecholamine support, markers of shock, recurrence of ventricular tachycardia, duration of mechanical ventilation, major bleeding, occurrence of acute kidney injury, need for renal-replacement therapy, time to target temperature, and neurologic status at discharge from the intensive care unit.

Results: At 90 days, 176 of 273 patients (64.5%) in the immediate angiography group and 178 of 265 patients (67.2%) in the delayed angiography group were alive (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 1.27; P = 0.51). The median time to target temperature was 5.4 hours in the immediate angiography group and 4.7 hours in the delayed angiography group (ratio of geometric means, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.36). No significant differences between the groups were found in the remaining secondary end points.

Conclusions: Among patients who had been successfully resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and had no signs of STEMI, a strategy of immediate angiography was not found to be better than a strategy of delayed angiography with respect to overall survival at 90 days. (Funded by the Netherlands Heart Institute and others; COACT Netherlands Trial Register number, NTR4973.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1816897DOI Listing
April 2019

Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Internal Medicine: An International Perspective.

South Med J 2018 07;111(7):439-443

From the Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, the Division of Internal Medicine, L Sacco Hospital, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, University of Milan, Milan, Italy, the Department of Internal Medicine, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, the Netherlands, the Division of Internal Medicine, Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil, Italian Society of Internal Medicine and Italian Society of Ultrasonography in Medicine and Biology Schools in Ultrasound, Centre of Research and Learning in Ultrasound, Maggiore Hospital, Bologna, Italy, the Division of General Internal Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada, and the Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14423/SMJ.0000000000000828DOI Listing
July 2018

Bedside ultrasound to detect central venous catheter misplacement and associated iatrogenic complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Care 2018 Mar 13;22(1):65. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Research VUmc Intensive Care (REVIVE), VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Insertion of a central venous catheter (CVC) is common practice in critical care medicine. Complications arising from CVC placement are mostly due to a pneumothorax or malposition. Correct position is currently confirmed by chest x-ray, while ultrasonography might be a more suitable option. We performed a meta-analysis of the available studies with the primary aim of synthesizing information regarding detection of CVC-related complications and misplacement using ultrasound (US).

Methods: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis registered at PROSPERO (CRD42016050698). PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Articles which reported the diagnostic accuracy of US in detecting the position of CVCs and the mechanical complications associated with insertion were included. Primary outcomes were specificity and sensitivity of US. Secondary outcomes included prevalence of malposition and pneumothorax, feasibility of US examination, and time to perform and interpret both US and chest x-ray. A qualitative assessment was performed using the QUADAS-2 tool.

Results: We included 25 studies with a total of 2548 patients and 2602 CVC placements. Analysis yielded a pooled specificity of 98.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 97.8-99.5) and sensitivity of 68.2 (95% CI: 54.4-79.4). US examination was feasible in 96.8% of the cases. The prevalence of CVC malposition and pneumothorax was 6.8% and 1.1%, respectively. The mean time for US performance was 2.83 min (95% CI: 2.77-2.89 min) min, while chest x-ray performance took 34.7 min (95% CI: 32.6-36.7 min). US was feasible in 97%. Further analyses were performed by defining subgroups based on the different utilized US protocols and on intra-atrial and extra-atrial misplacement. Vascular US combined with transthoracic echocardiography was most accurate.

Conclusions: US is an accurate and feasible diagnostic modality to detect CVC malposition and iatrogenic pneumothorax. Advantages of US over chest x-ray are that it can be performed faster and does not subject patients to radiation. Vascular US combined with transthoracic echocardiography is advised. However, the results need to be interpreted with caution since included studies were often underpowered and had methodological limitations. A large multicenter study investigating optimal US protocol, among other things, is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-1989-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5851097PMC
March 2018

Cerebral Recovery Index: Reliable Help for Prediction of Neurologic Outcome After Cardiac Arrest.

Crit Care Med 2017 Aug;45(8):e789-e797

1Department of clinical neurophysiology and neurology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.2Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.3Department of neurology, Rijnstate hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands.4Intensive Care Center, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.5Department of Intensive Care, Rijnstate hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands.

Objective: Early electroencephalography measures contribute to outcome prediction of comatose patients after cardiac arrest. We present predictive values of a new cerebral recovery index, based on a combination of quantitative electroencephalography measures, extracted every hour, and combined by the use of a random forest classifier.

Design: Prospective observational cohort study.

Setting: Medical ICU of two large teaching hospitals in the Netherlands.

Patients: Two hundred eighty-three consecutive comatose patients after cardiac arrest.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Continuous electroencephalography was recorded during the first 3 days. Outcome at 6 months was dichotomized as good (Cerebral Performance Category 1-2, no or moderate disability) or poor (Cerebral Performance Category 3-5, severe disability, comatose, or death). Nine quantitative electroencephalography measures were extracted. Patients were randomly divided over a training and validation set. Within the training set, a random forest classifier was fitted for each hour after cardiac arrest. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in the validation set. The relative contributions of resuscitation parameters and patient characteristics were evaluated. The cerebral recovery index ranges from 0 (prediction of death) to 1 (prediction of full recovery). Poor outcome could be predicted at a threshold of 0.34 without false positives at a sensitivity of 56% at 12 hours after cardiac arrest. At 24 hours, sensitivity of 65% with a false positive rate of 6% was obtained. Good neurologic outcome could be predicted with sensitivities of 63% and 58% at a false positive rate of 6% and 7% at 12 and 24 hours, respectively. Adding patient characteristics was of limited additional predictive value.

Conclusions: A cerebral recovery index based on a combination of intermittently extracted, optimally combined quantitative electroencephalography measures provides unequalled prognostic value for comatose patients after cardiac arrest and enables bedside EEG interpretation of unexperienced readers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000002412DOI Listing
August 2017

[Limitations to medical treatment; discussing treatment limitation, and stubbornness in practice].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2015 ;159:A9243

Rijnstate Ziekenhuis, afd. Interne Geneeskunde/Intensive Care, Arnhem.

Many courses for caregivers are aimed at teaching them to commence medical treatment as soon as possible in an acute situation. However, this treatment may not always be in line with the patient's wishes. In this article we describe three patients who received treatment despite their wish not to be treated. More attention should be given to talking to patients about their advanced directives; we suggest how these discussions can be initiated in the daily care of our patients.
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December 2015

Treatment of electroencephalographic status epilepticus after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (TELSTAR): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2014 Nov 6;15:433. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Clinical Neurophysiology group, MIRA - Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Hallenweg 15, 7522NB Enschede, The Netherlands.

Background: Electroencephalographic (EEG) status epilepticus is described in 10 to 35% of patients with postanoxic encephalopathy after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation and is associated with case fatality rates of 90 to 100%. It is unclear whether these EEG patterns represent a condition to be treated with anticonvulsants to improve outcome, or an expression of severe ischemic damage, in which treatment is futile.

Methods/design: TELSTAR is a multicenter clinical trial with two parallel groups, randomized treatment allocation, open label treatment, and blinded endpoint evaluation (PROBE design). We aim to enroll 172 adult patients with postanoxic encephalopathy and electroencephalographic status epilepticus after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, admitted to the ICU, in whom continuous EEG monitoring is started within 24 hours after admission. Patients are randomly assigned to either medical treatment to suppress all electrographic seizure activity, or no treatment of electroencephalographic status epilepticus. Antiepileptic treatment is based on guidelines for treatment of overt status epilepticus and is started within 3 hours after the diagnosis. If status epilepticus returns during tapering of sedative medication after suppression of all epileptiform activity for 2 × 24 hours, it will be considered refractory. The primary outcome measure is neurological outcome defined as the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score at 3 months, dichotomized into 'good' (CPC 1 to 2 = no or moderate neurological disability) and 'poor' (CPC 3 to 5 = severe disability, coma, or death). Secondary outcome measures include mortality and, for patients surviving up to 12 months, cognitive functioning, health related quality of life, and depression.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02056236. Date of registration: 4 February 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-15-433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4237766PMC
November 2014

Electroencephalogram predicts outcome in patients with postanoxic coma during mild therapeutic hypothermia.

Crit Care Med 2015 Jan;43(1):159-67

1Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, MIRA, Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. 2Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. 3Department of Neurology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands. 4Department of Intensive Care, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. 5Department of Intensive Care, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands.

Objective: To assess the value of electroencephalogram for prediction of outcome of comatose patients after cardiac arrest treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Medical ICU.

Patients: One hundred forty-two patients with postanoxic encephalopathy after cardiac arrest, who were treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia.

Measurements And Main Results: Continuous electroencephalogram was recorded during the first 5 days of ICU admission. Visual classification of electroencephalogram patterns was performed in 5-minute epochs at 12 and 24 hours after cardiac arrest by two independent observers, blinded for patients' conditions and outcomes. Patterns were classified as isoelectric, low voltage, epileptiform, burst-suppression, diffusely slowed, or normal. Burst-suppression was subdivided into patterns with and without identical bursts. Primary outcome measure was the neurologic outcome based on each patient's best achieved Cerebral Performance Category score within 6 months after inclusion. 67 patients (47%) had favorable outcome (Cerebral Performance Category, 1-2). In patients with favorable outcome, electroencephalogram patterns improved within 24 hours after cardiac arrest, mostly toward diffusely slowed or normal. At 24 hours after cardiac arrest, the combined group of isoelectric, low voltage, and "burst-suppression with identical bursts" was associated with poor outcome with a sensitivity of 48% (95% CI, 35-61) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 94-100). At 12 hours, normal or diffusely slowed electroencephalogram patterns were associated with good outcome with a sensitivity of 56% (95% CI, 41-70) and a specificity of 96% (95% CI, 86-100).

Conclusions: Electroencephalogram allows reliable prediction of both good and poor neurologic outcome of patients with postanoxic encephalopathy treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia within 24 hours after cardiac arrest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000000626DOI Listing
January 2015

Unstandardized treatment of electroencephalographic status epilepticus does not improve outcome of comatose patients after cardiac arrest.

Front Neurol 2014 31;5:39. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Clinical Neurophysiology, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente , Enschede , Netherlands ; Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente , Enschede , Netherlands.

Objective: Electroencephalographic status epilepticus occurs in 9-35% of comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Mortality is 90-100%. It is unclear whether (some) seizure patterns represent a condition in which anti-epileptic treatment may improve outcome, or severe ischemic damage, in which treatment is futile. We explored current treatment practice and its effect on patients' outcome.

Methods: We retrospectively identified patients that were treated with anti-epileptic drugs from our prospective cohort study on the value of continuous electroencephalography (EEG) in comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Outcome at 6 months was dichotomized between "good" [cerebral performance category (CPC) 1 or 2] and "poor" (CPC 3, 4, or 5). EEG analyses were done at 24 h after cardiac arrest and during anti-epileptic treatment. Unequivocal seizures and generalized periodic discharges during more than 30 min were classified as status epilepticus.

Results: Thirty-one (22%) out of 139 patients were treated with anti-epileptic drugs (phenytoin, levetiracetam, valproate, clonazepam, propofol, midazolam), of whom 24 had status epilepticus. Dosages were moderate, barbiturates were not used, medication induced burst-suppression not achieved, and treatment improved electroencephalographic status epilepticus patterns temporarily (<6 h). Twenty-three patients treated for status epilepticus (96%) died. In patients with status epilepticus at 24 h, there was no difference in outcome between those treated with and without anti-epileptic drugs.

Conclusion: In comatose patients after cardiac arrest complicated by electroencephalographic status epilepticus, current practice includes unstandardized, moderate treatment with anti-epileptic drugs. Although widely used, this does probably not improve patients' outcome. A randomized controlled trial to estimate the effect of standardized, aggressive treatment, directed at complete suppression of epileptiform activity during at least 24 h, is needed and in preparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2014.00039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3978332PMC
April 2014
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