Publications by authors named "Michiaki Kubo"

559 Publications

Combined landscape of single-nucleotide variants and copy number alterations in clonal hematopoiesis.

Nat Med 2021 Jul 8;27(7):1239-1249. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Pathology and Tumor Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) in apparently healthy individuals is implicated in the development of hematological malignancies (HM) and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies of CH analyzed either single-nucleotide variants and indels (SNVs/indels) or copy number alterations (CNAs), but not both. Here, using a combination of targeted sequencing of 23 CH-related genes and array-based CNA detection of blood-derived DNA, we have delineated the landscape of CH-related SNVs/indels and CNAs in 11,234 individuals without HM from the BioBank Japan cohort, including 672 individuals with subsequent HM development, and studied the effects of these somatic alterations on mortality from HM and cardiovascular disease, as well as on hematological and cardiovascular phenotypes. The total number of both types of CH-related lesions and their clone size positively correlated with blood count abnormalities and mortality from HM. CH-related SNVs/indels and CNAs exhibited statistically significant co-occurrence in the same individuals. In particular, co-occurrence of SNVs/indels and CNAs affecting DNMT3A, TET2, JAK2 and TP53 resulted in biallelic alterations of these genes and was associated with higher HM mortality. Co-occurrence of SNVs/indels and CNAs also modulated risks for cardiovascular mortality. These findings highlight the importance of detecting both SNVs/indels and CNAs in the evaluation of CH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01411-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Comprehensive Analysis of Risk Factors for Periodontitis Focusing on the Saliva Microbiome and Polymorphism.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 14;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

Few studies have exhaustively assessed relationships among polymorphisms, the microbiome, and periodontitis. The objective of the present study was to assess associations simultaneously among polymorphisms, the microbiome, and periodontitis. We used propensity score matching with a 1:1 ratio to select subjects, and then 22 individuals (mean age ± standard deviation, 60.7 ± 9.9 years) were analyzed. After saliva collection, V3-4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to investigate microbiome composition, alpha diversity (Shannon index, Simpson index, Chao1, and abundance-based coverage estimator) and beta diversity using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on weighted and unweighted UniFrac distances. A total of 51 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to periodontitis were identified. The frequencies of SNPs were collected from Genome-Wide Association Study data. The PCoA of unweighted UniFrac distance showed a significant difference between periodontitis and control groups ( < 0.05). There were no significant differences in alpha diversity and PCoA of weighted UniFrac distance ( > 0.05). Two families (Lactobacillaceae and Desulfobulbaceae) and one species () were observed only in the periodontitis group. No SNPs showed significant expression. These results suggest that periodontitis was related to the presence of and the families Lactobacillaceae and Desulfobulbaceae but not SNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296229PMC
June 2021

Polygenic Risk Score of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis for Potential Clinical Use.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Aug 22;36(8):1481-1491. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common disease causing three-dimensional spinal deformity in as many as 3% of adolescents. Development of a method that can accurately predict the onset and progression of AIS is an immediate need for clinical practice. Because the heritability of AIS is estimated as high as 87.5% in twin studies, prediction of its onset and progression based on genetic data is a promising option. We show the usefulness of polygenic risk score (PRS) for the prediction of onset and progression of AIS. We used AIS genomewide association study (GWAS) data comprising 79,211 subjects in three cohorts and constructed a PRS based on association statistics in a discovery set including 31,999 female subjects. After calibration using a validation data set, we applied the PRS to a test data set. By integrating functional annotations showing heritability enrichment in the selection of variants, the PRS demonstrated an association with AIS susceptibility (p = 3.5 × 10 with area under the receiver-operating characteristic [AUROC] = 0.674, sensitivity = 0.644, and specificity = 0.622). The decile with the highest PRS showed an odds ratio of as high as 3.36 (p = 1.4 × 10 ) to develop AIS compared with the fifth in decile. The addition of a predictive model with only a single clinical parameter (body mass index) improved predictive ability for development of AIS (AUROC = 0.722, net reclassification improvement [NRI] 0.505 ± 0.054, p = 1.6 × 10 ), potentiating clinical use of the prediction model. Furthermore, we found the Cobb angle (CA), the severity measurement of AIS, to be a polygenic trait that showed a significant genetic correlation with AIS susceptibility (rg = 0.6, p = 3.0 × 10 ). The AIS PRS demonstrated a significant association with CA. These results indicate a shared polygenic architecture between onset and progression of AIS and the potential usefulness of PRS in clinical settings as a predictor to promote early intervention of AIS and avoid invasive surgery. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4324DOI Listing
August 2021

Genome-wide association study of more than 40,000 bipolar disorder cases provides new insights into the underlying biology.

Nat Genet 2021 06 17;53(6):817-829. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Neuroscience, Istituto Di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Bipolar disorder is a heritable mental illness with complex etiology. We performed a genome-wide association study of 41,917 bipolar disorder cases and 371,549 controls of European ancestry, which identified 64 associated genomic loci. Bipolar disorder risk alleles were enriched in genes in synaptic signaling pathways and brain-expressed genes, particularly those with high specificity of expression in neurons of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant signal enrichment was found in genes encoding targets of antipsychotics, calcium channel blockers, antiepileptics and anesthetics. Integrating expression quantitative trait locus data implicated 15 genes robustly linked to bipolar disorder via gene expression, encoding druggable targets such as HTR6, MCHR1, DCLK3 and FURIN. Analyses of bipolar disorder subtypes indicated high but imperfect genetic correlation between bipolar disorder type I and II and identified additional associated loci. Together, these results advance our understanding of the biological etiology of bipolar disorder, identify novel therapeutic leads and prioritize genes for functional follow-up studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00857-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192451PMC
June 2021

Genetic variation affects morphological retinal phenotypes extracted from UK Biobank optical coherence tomography images.

PLoS Genet 2021 May 12;17(5):e1009497. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Life Course Sciences, Section of Ophthalmology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) enables non-invasive imaging of the retina and is used to diagnose and manage ophthalmic diseases including glaucoma. We present the first large-scale genome-wide association study of inner retinal morphology using phenotypes derived from OCT images of 31,434 UK Biobank participants. We identify 46 loci associated with thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer or ganglion cell inner plexiform layer. Only one of these loci has been associated with glaucoma, and despite its clear role as a biomarker for the disease, Mendelian randomisation does not support inner retinal thickness being on the same genetic causal pathway as glaucoma. We extracted overall retinal thickness at the fovea, representative of foveal hypoplasia, with which three of the 46 SNPs were associated. We additionally associate these three loci with visual acuity. In contrast to the Mendelian causes of severe foveal hypoplasia, our results suggest a spectrum of foveal hypoplasia, in part genetically determined, with consequences on visual function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143408PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide association study of epilepsy in a Japanese population identified an associated region at chromosome 12q24.

Epilepsia 2021 Jun 29;62(6):1391-1400. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurodevelopmental Disorder Genetics, Institute of Brain Science, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Science, Aichi, Japan.

Objective: Although a number of genes responsible for epilepsy have been identified through Mendelian genetic approaches, and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have implicated several susceptibility loci, the role of ethnic-specific markers remains to be fully explored. We aimed to identify novel genetic associations with epilepsy in a Japanese population.

Methods: We conducted a GWAS on 1825 patients with a variety of epilepsies and 7975 control individuals. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis of epilepsy-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using Japanese eQTL data.

Results: We identified a novel region, which is ~2 Mb (lead SNP rs149212747, p = 8.57 × 10 ), at chromosome 12q24 as a risk for epilepsy. Most of these loci were polymorphic in East Asian populations including Japanese, but monomorphic in the European population. This region harbors 24 transcripts including genes expressed in the brain such as CUX2, ATXN2, BRAP, ALDH2, ERP29, TRAFD1, HECTD4, RPL6, PTPN11, and RPH3A. The eQTL analysis revealed that the associated SNPs are also correlated to differential expression of genes at 12q24.

Significance: These findings suggest that a gene or genes in the CUX2-RPH3A ~2-Mb region contribute to the pathology of epilepsy in the Japanese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16911DOI Listing
June 2021

Incorporating European GWAS findings improve polygenic risk prediction accuracy of breast cancer among East Asians.

Genet Epidemiol 2021 Jul 19;45(5):471-484. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, Vanderbilt Genetics Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been largely focused on European (EUR) populations. However, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) derived from EUR have been shown to perform worse in non-EURs compared with EURs. In this study, we aim to improve PRS prediction in East Asians (EASs). We introduce a rescaled meta-analysis framework to combine both EUR (N = 122,175) and EAS (N = 30,801) GWAS summary statistics. To improve PRS prediction in EASs, we use a scaling factor to up-weight the EAS data, such that the resulting effect size estimates are more relevant to EASs. We then derive PRSs for EAS from the rescaled meta-analysis results of EAS and EUR data. Evaluated in an independent EAS validation data set, this approach increases the prediction liability-adjusted Nagelkerke's pseudo R by 40%, 41%, and 5%, respectively, compared with PRSs derived from an EAS GWAS only, EUR GWAS only, and conventional fixed-effects meta-analysis of EAS and EUR data. The PRS derived from the rescaled meta-analysis approach achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.6059, higher than AUC = 0.5782, 0.5809, 0.6008 for EAS, EUR, and conventional meta-analysis of EAS and EUR. We further compare PRSs constructed by single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have different linkage disequilibrium (LD) scores and minor allele frequencies (MAFs) between EUR and EAS, and observe that lower LD scores or MAF in EAS correspond to poorer PRS performance (AUC = 0.5677, 0.5530, respectively) than higher LD scores or MAF (AUC = 0.589, 0.5993, respectively). We finally build a PRS stratified by LD score differences in EUR and EAS using rescaled meta-analysis, and obtain an AUC of 0.6096, with improvement over other strategies investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22382DOI Listing
July 2021

Genome-wide association study of serum prostate-specific antigen levels based on 1000 Genomes imputed data in Japanese: the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study.

Nagoya J Med Sci 2021 Feb;83(1):183-194

Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Prostate cancer is emerging as a significant global public health burden. The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer has increased in Japan, as westernized lifestyles become more popular. Recent advances in genetic epidemiology, including genome-wide association studies (GWASs), have identified considerable numbers of human genetic factors associated with diseases. Several GWASs have reported significant loci associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. One GWAS, which was based on classic GWAS microarray measurements, has been reported for Japanese so far. In the present study, we conducted a GWAS of serum PSA using 1000Genomes imputed GWAS data (n =1,216) from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study, to detect candidate novel genetic loci that influence serum PSA levels in Japanese. The association of SNPs/genetic variants with serum PSA as a continuous variable was tested using the linear Wald test. SNP rs10000006 in (sphingomyelin synthase 2) on chromosome 4 had genome-wide significance ( <5×10), and eight variants on three chromosomes (chromosomes 12, 14, 15) had genome-wide suggestive levels of significance ( <1×10). With an independent data set from the J-MICC Shizuoka Study (n = 2,447), the association of the SNP with blood PSA levels was not replicated. Although our GWAS failed to detect novel loci associated with serum PSA levels in the Japanese cohort, it confirmed the significant effects of previously reported genetic loci on PSA levels in Japanese. Importantly, our results confirmed the significance of SNPs also in Japanese, implying that consideration of individual genetic information in prostate cancer diagnosis may be possible in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18999/nagjms.83.1.183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938099PMC
February 2021

Relationship of hemoglobin level and plasma coproporphyrin-I concentrations as an endogenous probe for phenotyping OATP1B.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Jul 7;14(4):1403-1411. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medication Use Analysis and Clinical Research, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Japan.

Plasma coproporphyrin-I (CP-I) concentration is used as a sensitive and selective endogenous probe for phenotyping organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B (OATP1B) activity in many studies. CP-I is produced in the process of heme synthesis, but the relationship between plasma CP-I concentrations and heme synthesis activity is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between plasma CP-I concentration and hemoglobin level as a biomarker of heme synthesis activity. The data of 391 subjects selected from the Japanese general population were analyzed. One hundred twenty-six participants had OATP1B1*15 allele, 11 of whom were homozygous (OATP1B1*15/*15). Multiple regression analysis identified hemoglobin level as an independent variable associated with plasma CP-I concentration (p < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation was observed between hemoglobin level and plasma CP-I concentration in participants without OATP1B1*15 allele (n = 265; r  = 0.35, p < 0.0001) and with OATP1B1*15 allele (n = 126; r  =0.27, p = 0.0022). However, Kruskal-Wallis test showed no large difference in Kruskal-Wallis statistics between the distribution of plasma CP-I concentrations and that of ratio of plasma CP-I to hemoglobin among six OATP1B1 polymorphism groups. These findings suggest that the hemoglobin level seems to reflect biosynthesis of CP-I. However, correction by hemoglobin level is not required when using basal plasma CP-I concentration for phenotyping OATP1B activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.12996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8301560PMC
July 2021

A genome-wide association study on confection consumption in a Japanese population: the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study.

Br J Nutr 2021 Feb 26:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Laboratory for Genotyping Development, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Kanagawa, Japan.

Differences in individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to cultural, social or environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that genetic variants within sweet taste receptor genes family were associated with sweet taste perception and the intake of sweet foods. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect confection consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data on confection consumption using 14 073 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We used a semi-quantitative FFQ to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with confection consumption was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake and principal component analysis components 1-3. Furthermore, the analysis was repeated adjusting for alcohol intake (g/d) in addition to the above-described variables. We found 418 SNP located in 12q24 that were associated with confection consumption. SNP with the ten lowest P-values were located on nine genes including at the BRAP, ACAD10 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 regions on 12q24.12-13. After adjustment for alcohol intake, no variant was associated with confections intake with genome-wide significance. In conclusion, we found a significant number of SNP located on 12q24 genes that were associated with confections intake before adjustment for alcohol intake. However, all of them lost statistical significance after adjustment for alcohol intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521000684DOI Listing
February 2021

Regional differences in genes and variants causing retinitis pigmentosa in Japan.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2021 May 25;65(3):338-343. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate the regional differences in the genes and variants causing retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in Japan STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multicenter study METHODS: In total, 1204 probands of each pedigree clinically diagnosed with nonsyndromic RP were enrolled from 5 Japanese facilities. The regions were divided into the Tohoku region, the Kanto and Chubu regions, and the Kyushu region according to the location of the hospitals where the participants were enrolled. We compared the proportions of the causative genes and the distributions of the pathogenic variants among these 3 regions.

Results: The proportions of genetically solved cases were 29.4% in the Tohoku region (n = 500), 29.6% in the Kanto and Chubu regions (n = 196), and 29.7% in the Kyushu region (n = 508), which did not differ statistically (P = .99). No significant regional differences in the proportions of each causative gene in genetically solved patients were observed after correction by multiple testing. Among the 29 pathogenic variants detected in all 3 regions, only p.(Pro347Leu) in RHO was an autosomal dominant variant; the remaining 28 variants were found in autosomal recessive genes. Conversely, 78.6% (275/350) of the pathogenic variants were detected only in a single region, and 6 pathogenic variants (p.[Asn3062fs] in EYS, p.[Ala315fs] in EYS, p.[Arg872fs] in RP1, p.[Ala126Val] in RDH12, p.[Arg41Trp] in CRX, and p.[Gly381fs] in PRPF31) were frequently found in ≥ 4 patients in the single region.

Conclusion: We observed region-specific pathogenic variants in the Japanese population. Further investigations of causative genes in multiple regions in Japan will contribute to the expansion of the catalog of genetic variants causing RP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10384-021-00824-wDOI Listing
May 2021

Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 127 open-angle glaucoma loci with consistent effect across ancestries.

Nat Commun 2021 02 24;12(1):1258. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is a heritable common cause of blindness world-wide. To identify risk loci, we conduct a large multi-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies on a total of 34,179 cases and 349,321 controls, identifying 44 previously unreported risk loci and confirming 83 loci that were previously known. The majority of loci have broadly consistent effects across European, Asian and African ancestries. Cross-ancestry data improve fine-mapping of causal variants for several loci. Integration of multiple lines of genetic evidence support the functional relevance of the identified POAG risk loci and highlight potential contributions of several genes to POAG pathogenesis, including SVEP1, RERE, VCAM1, ZNF638, CLIC5, SLC2A12, YAP1, MXRA5, and SMAD6. Several drug compounds targeting POAG risk genes may be potential glaucoma therapeutic candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20851-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904932PMC
February 2021

Whole genome sequencing of 45 Japanese patients with intellectual disability.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 05 24;185(5):1468-1480. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Mental Retardation and Birth Defect Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors, originating before the age of 18 years. However, the genetic etiologies of ID are still incompletely elucidated due to the wide range of clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been applied as a single-step clinical diagnostic tool for ID because it detects genetic variations with a wide range of resolution from single nucleotide variants (SNVs) to structural variants (SVs). To explore the causative genes for ID, we employed WGS in 45 patients from 44 unrelated Japanese families and performed a stepwise screening approach focusing on the coding variants in the genes. Here, we report 12 pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants: seven heterozygous variants of ADNP, SATB2, ANKRD11, PTEN, TCF4, SPAST, and KCNA2, three hemizygous variants of SMS, SLC6A8, and IQSEC2, and one homozygous variant in AGTPBP1. Of these, four were considered novel. Furthermore, a novel 76 kb deletion containing exons 1 and 2 in DYRK1A was identified. We confirmed the clinical and genetic heterogeneity and high frequency of de novo causative variants (8/12, 66.7%). This is the first report of WGS analysis in Japanese patients with ID. Our results would provide insight into the correlation between novel variants and expanded phenotypes of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247954PMC
May 2021

Assessing the relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and kidney function employing mendelian randomization in a Japanese community based J-MICC Study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine.

Background: Inflammation is thought to be a risk factor for kidney disease. However, discussion is controversial whether inflammatory status is either a cause or an outcome of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the causal relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using mendelian randomization (MR) approaches.

Methods: A total of 10,521 participants of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort Study was analyzed in this study. We used two-sample MR approaches (the inverse-variance weighted (IVW), the weighted median (WM), and the MR-Egger method) to estimate the effect of genetically determined hs-CRP on kidney function. We selected four and three hs-CRP associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as two instrumental variables (IV): IV and IV, based on SNPs previously identified in European and Asian populations. IV and IV explained 3.4% and 3.9% of the variation in hs-CRP, respectively.

Results: Using the IV, genetically determined hs-CRP was not significantly associated with eGFR in the IVW and the WM methods (estimate per 1 unit increase in ln(hs-CRP), 95%CI: 0.000, -0.019 to 0.020 and -0.003, -0.019 to 0.014). For IV, we found similar results using the IVW and the WM methods (estimate, 95% CI: -0.005, -0.020 to 0.010 and -0.004, -0.020 to 0.012). The MR-Egger method also showed no causal relationships between hs-CRP and eGFR (IV: -0.008, -0.058 to 0.042; IV: 0.001, -0.036 to 0.036).

Conclusions: Our two-sample MR analyses with different IVs did not support a causal effect of hs-CRP on eGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200540DOI Listing
February 2021

Transethnic analysis of the human leukocyte antigen region for ulcerative colitis reveals not only shared but also ethnicity-specific disease associations.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr;30(5):356-369

Schools of Mathematics and Statistics and BioSciences and Melbourne Integrative Genomics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut. Genetic association studies have identified the highly variable human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region as the strongest susceptibility locus for IBD and specifically DRB1*01:03 as a determining factor for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, for most of the association signal such as delineation could not be made because of tight structures of linkage disequilibrium within the HLA. The aim of this study was therefore to further characterize the HLA signal using a transethnic approach. We performed a comprehensive fine mapping of single HLA alleles in UC in a cohort of 9272 individuals with African American, East Asian, Puerto Rican, Indian and Iranian descent and 40 691 previously analyzed Caucasians, additionally analyzing whole HLA haplotypes. We computationally characterized the binding of associated HLA alleles to human self-peptides and analyzed the physicochemical properties of the HLA proteins and predicted self-peptidomes. Highlighting alleles of the HLA-DRB1*15 group and their correlated HLA-DQ-DR haplotypes, we not only identified consistent associations (regarding effects directions/magnitudes) across different ethnicities but also identified population-specific signals (regarding differences in allele frequencies). We observed that DRB1*01:03 is mostly present in individuals of Western European descent and hardly present in non-Caucasian individuals. We found peptides predicted to bind to risk HLA alleles to be rich in positively charged amino acids. We conclude that the HLA plays an important role for UC susceptibility across different ethnicities. This research further implicates specific features of peptides that are predicted to bind risk and protective HLA proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098114PMC
April 2021

Population-based Screening for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Variants in Japan.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Dec 11. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama.

Background & Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. A small proportion of CRCs can be attributed to recognizable hereditary germline variants of known CRC susceptibility genes. To better understand cancer risk, it is necessary to explore the prevalence of hereditary CRC and pathogenic variants of multiple cancer-predisposing genes in non-European populations.

Methods: We analyzed the coding regions of 27 cancer-predisposing genes in 12,503 unselected Japanese CRC patients and 23,705 controls by target sequencing and genome-wide SNP chip. Their clinical significance was assessed using ClinVar and the guidelines by ACMG/AMP.

Results: We identified 4,804 variants in the 27 genes and annotated them as pathogenic in 397 and benign variants in 941, of which 43.6% were novel. In total, 3.3% of the unselected CRC patients and 1.5% of the controls had a pathogenic variant. The pathogenic variants of MSH2 (odds ratio (OR) = 18.1), MLH1 (OR = 8.6), MSH6 (OR = 4.9), APC (OR = 49.4), BRIP1 (OR=3.6), BRCA1 (OR = 2.6), BRCA2 (OR = 1.9), and TP53 (OR = 1.7) were significantly associated with CRC development in the Japanese population (P-values<0.01, FDR<0.05). These pathogenic variants were significantly associated with diagnosis age and personal/family history of cancer. In total, at least 3.5% of the Japanese CRC population had a pathogenic variant or CNV of the 27 cancer-predisposing genes, indicating hereditary cancers.

Conclusions: This largest study of CRC heredity in Asia can contribute to the development of guidelines for genetic testing and variant interpretation for heritable CRCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.12.007DOI Listing
December 2020

Transferability of Ancestry-Specific and Cross-Ancestry CYP2A6 Activity Genetic Risk Scores in African and European Populations.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR; 3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine), a highly heritable index of nicotine metabolic inactivation by the CYP2A6 enzyme, is associated with numerous smoking behaviors and diseases, as well as unique cessation outcomes. However, the NMR cannot be measured in nonsmokers, former smokers, or intermittent smokers, for example, in evaluating tobacco-related disease risk. Traditional pharmacogenetic groupings based on CYP2A6 * alleles capture a modest portion of NMR variation. We previously created a CYP2A6 weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) for European (EUR)-ancestry populations by incorporating independent signals from genome-wide association studies to capture a larger proportion of NMR variation. However, CYP2A6 genetic architecture is unique to ancestral populations. In this study, we developed and replicated an African-ancestry (AFR) wGRS, which captured 30-35% of the variation in NMR. We demonstrated model robustness against known environmental sources of NMR variation. Furthermore, despite the vast diversity within AFR populations, we showed that the AFR wGRS was consistent between different US geographical regions and unaltered by fine AFR population substructure. The AFR and EUR wGRSs can distinguish slow from normal metabolizers in their respective populations, and were able to reflect unique smoking cessation pharmacotherapy outcomes previously observed for the NMR. Additionally, we evaluated the utility of a cross-ancestry wGRS, and the capacity of EUR, AFR, and cross-ancestry wGRSs to predict the NMR within stratified or admixed AFR-EUR populations. Overall, our findings establish the clinical benefit of applying ancestry-specific wGRSs, demonstrating superiority of the AFR wGRS in AFRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187466PMC
December 2020

A genome-wide association study in Japanese identified one variant associated with a preference for a Japanese dietary pattern.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 06 6;75(6):937-945. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima, Japan.

Background/objectives: Individual eating habits may be influenced by genetic factors, in addition to environmental factors. Previous studies suggested that adherence to Japanese food patterns was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population to find genetic variations that affect adherence to a Japanese food pattern.

Subjects/methods: We analyzed GWAS data using 14,079 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. We made a Japanese food score based on six food groups. Association of the imputed variants with the Japanese food score was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, total energy intake, alcohol intake (g/day), and principal components 1-10 omitting variants in the major histocompatibility region.

Results: We found one SNP in the 14q11.2 locus that was significantly associated with the Japanese food score with P values <5 × 10. Functional annotation revealed that the expression levels of two genes (BCL2L2, SLC22A17) were significantly inversely associated with this SNP. These genes are known to be related to olfaction and obesity.

Conclusion: We found a new SNP that was associated with the Japanese food score in a Japanese population. This SNP is inversely associated with genes link to olfaction and obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00823-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Study design and baseline characteristics of a population-based prospective cohort study of dementia in Japan: the Japan Prospective Studies Collaboration for Aging and Dementia (JPSC-AD).

Environ Health Prev Med 2020 Oct 31;25(1):64. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Hisayama Research Institute for Lifestyle Diseases, Fukuoka, Japan.

Background: The burden of dementia is growing rapidly and has become a medical and social problem in Japan. Prospective cohort studies have been considered an effective methodology to clarify the risk factors and the etiology of dementia. We aimed to perform a large-scale dementia cohort study to elucidate environmental and genetic risk factors for dementia, as well as their interaction.

Methods: The Japan Prospective Studies Collaboration for Aging and Dementia (JPSC-AD) is a multisite, population-based prospective cohort study of dementia, which was designed to enroll approximately 10,000 community-dwelling residents aged 65 years or older from 8 sites in Japan and to follow them up prospectively for at least 5 years. Baseline exposure data, including lifestyles, medical information, diets, physical activities, blood pressure, cognitive function, blood test, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and DNA samples, were collected with a pre-specified protocol and standardized measurement methods. The primary outcome was the development of dementia and its subtypes. The diagnosis of dementia was adjudicated by an endpoint adjudication committee using standard criteria and clinical information according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Revised Edition. For brain MRI, three-dimensional acquisition of T1-weighted images was performed. Individual participant data were pooled for data analyses.

Results: The baseline survey was conducted from 2016 to 2018. The follow-up surveys are ongoing. A total of 11,410 individuals aged 65 years or older participated in the study. The mean age was 74.4 years, and 41.9% were male. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 8.5% in overall participants. However, it was 16.4% among three sites where additional home visit and/or nursing home visit surveys were performed. Approximately two-thirds of dementia cases at baseline were Alzheimer's disease.

Conclusions: The prospective cohort data from the JPSC-AD will provide valuable insights regarding the risk factors and etiology of dementia as well as for the development of predictive models and diagnostic markers for the future onset of dementia. The findings of this study will improve our understanding of dementia and provide helpful information to establish effective preventive strategies for dementia in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12199-020-00903-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603740PMC
October 2020

Association of an IGHV3-66 gene variant with Kawasaki disease.

J Hum Genet 2021 May 26;66(5):475-489. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan.

In a meta-analysis of three GWAS for susceptibility to Kawasaki disease (KD) conducted in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan and follow-up studies with a total of 11,265 subjects (3428 cases and 7837 controls), a significantly associated SNV in the immunoglobulin heavy variable gene (IGHV) cluster in 14q33.32 was identified (rs4774175; OR = 1.20, P = 6.0 × 10). Investigation of nonsynonymous SNVs of the IGHV cluster in 9335 Japanese subjects identified the C allele of rs6423677, located in IGHV3-66, as the most significant reproducible association (OR = 1.25, P = 6.8 × 10 in 3603 cases and 5731 controls). We observed highly skewed allelic usage of IGHV3-66, wherein the rs6423677 A allele was nearly abolished in the transcripts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of both KD patients and healthy adults. Association of the high-expression allele with KD strongly indicates some active roles of B-cells or endogenous immunoglobulins in the disease pathogenesis. Considering that significant association of SNVs in the IGHV region with disease susceptibility was previously known only for rheumatic heart disease (RHD), a complication of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), these observations suggest that common B-cell related mechanisms may mediate the symptomology of KD and ARF as well as RHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-00864-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585995PMC
May 2021

Population-specific and trans-ancestry genome-wide analyses identify distinct and shared genetic risk loci for coronary artery disease.

Nat Genet 2020 11 5;52(11):1169-1177. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

To elucidate the genetics of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Japanese population, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide association study of 168,228 individuals of Japanese ancestry (25,892 cases and 142,336 controls) with genotype imputation using a newly developed reference panel of Japanese haplotypes including 1,781 CAD cases and 2,636 controls. We detected eight new susceptibility loci and Japanese-specific rare variants contributing to disease severity and increased cardiovascular mortality. We then conducted a trans-ancestry meta-analysis and discovered 35 additional new loci. Using the meta-analysis results, we derived a polygenic risk score (PRS) for CAD, which outperformed those derived from either Japanese or European genome-wide association studies. The PRS prioritized risk factors among various clinical parameters and segregated individuals with increased risk of long-term cardiovascular mortality. Our data improve the clinical characterization of CAD genetics and suggest the utility of trans-ancestry meta-analysis for PRS derivation in non-European populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0705-3DOI Listing
November 2020

A multi-ethnic meta-analysis identifies novel genes, including ACSL5, associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Commun Biol 2020 09 23;3(1):526. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Division of Neurology, National Hospital Organization, Sagamihara National Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive motor neuron disease that affects people of all ethnicities. Approximately 90% of ALS cases are sporadic and thought to have multifactorial pathogenesis. To understand the genetics of sporadic ALS, we conducted a genome-wide association study using 1,173 sporadic ALS cases and 8,925 controls in a Japanese population. A combined meta-analysis of our Japanese cohort with individuals of European ancestry revealed a significant association at the ACSL5 locus (top SNP p = 2.97 × 10). We validated the association with ACSL5 in a replication study with a Chinese population and an independent Japanese population (1941 ALS cases, 3821 controls; top SNP p = 1.82 × 10). In the combined meta-analysis, the intronic ACSL5 SNP rs3736947 showed the strongest association (p = 7.81 × 10). Using a gene-based analysis of the full multi-ethnic dataset, we uncovered additional genes significantly associated with ALS: ERGIC1, RAPGEF5, FNBP1, and ATXN3. These results advance our understanding of the genetic basis of sporadic ALS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01251-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511394PMC
September 2020

Substantially Increased Plasma Coproporphyrin-I Concentrations Associated With OATP1B1*15 Allele in Japanese General Population.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 01 5;14(1):382-388. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Medication Use Analysis and Clinical Research, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan.

Coproporphyrin-I (CP-I) in plasma is a sensitive and specific endogenous probe for phenotyping organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B (OATP1B, encoded by SLCO1B). A few small-scale studies suggested that plasma CP-I concentration is affected by OATP1B1 polymorphism, but detailed studies are lacking. In this large-scale study, we measured plasma CP-I concentrations in 391 subjects from the Japanese general population, and evaluated the relationship between plasma CP-I concentrations and OATP1B1 polymorphisms to further assess the utility of plasma CP-I concentrations as an endogenous OATP1B probe. Plasma CP-I concentrations were 0.45 ± 0.12, 0.47 ± 0.16, 0.47 ± 0.20, 0.50 ± 0.15, 0.54 ± 0.14, and 0.74 ± 0.31 ng/mL in participants with OATP1B1*1b/*1b (n = 103), *1a/*1b (n = 122), *1a/*1a (n = 40), *1b/*15 (n = 74), *1a/*15 (n = 41), and *15/*15 (n = 11), respectively, showing an ascending rank order with significant difference (P < 0.0001). Post hoc analysis revealed significant increases in plasma CP-I concentration in OATP1B1*1b/*15 (P = 0.036), *1a/*15 (P = 0.0005), and *15/*15 (P = 0.0003) groups compared with the OATP1B1*1b/*1b group. There was no significant difference among OATP1B genotypes in plasma concentration of 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid, a uremic toxin reported to decrease OATP1B activity in vivo. These findings confirm the utility of plasma CP-I concentrations as an endogenous biomarker for phenotyping of OATP1B activity. Plasma CP-I concentration is potentially useful for the study of drug-drug interactions via OATP1B or individual dose adjustment of OATP1B substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.12889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877856PMC
January 2021

Genomic Analysis of Germline Variation Associated with Survival of Patients with Colorectal Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy Plus Biologics in CALGB/SWOG 80405 (Alliance).

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jan 21;27(1):267-275. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Purpose: Irinotecan/5-fluorouracil (5-FU; FOLFIRI) or oxaliplatin/5-FU (FOLFOX), combined with bevacizumab or cetuximab, are approved, first-line treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We aimed at identifying germline variants associated with survival in patients with mCRC treated with these regimens in Cancer and Leukemia Group B/SWOG 80405.

Experimental Design: Patients with mCRC receiving either FOLFOX or FOLFIRI were randomized to either cetuximab or bevacizumab. DNA from peripheral blood was genotyped for approximately 700,000 SNPs. The association between SNPs and overall survival (OS) was tested in 613 patients of genetically estimated European ancestry using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: The four most significant SNPs associated with OS were three haplotypic SNPs between microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 () and LIM domain only 3 (, representative HR, 1.56; = 1.30 × 10), and rs11644916 in (HR, 1.39, = 4.26 × 10). is a well-established tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer, and rs11644916 (G>A) conferred shorter OS. Median OS for patients with the AA, AG, or GG genotypes was 18.4, 25.6, or 36.4 months, respectively. In 90 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), rs11649255 in [in almost complete linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs11644916], was associated with shorter OS (HR, 2.24, = 0.0096). Using rs11648673 in (in very high LD with rs11644916 and with functional evidence), luciferase activity in three colorectal cancer cell lines was reduced.

Conclusions: This is the first large genome-wide association study ever conducted in patients with mCRC treated with first-line standard treatment in a randomized phase III trial. A common SNP in conferred worse OS and the effect was replicated in TCGA. Further studies in colorectal cancer experimental models are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785628PMC
January 2021

A genome-wide association study on fish consumption in a Japanese population-the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 03 7;75(3):480-488. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan.

Background/objective: Although benefits of fish consumption for health are well known, a significant percentage of individuals dislike eating fish. Fish consumption may be influenced by genetic factors in addition to environmental factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect fish consumption in a Japanese population.

Methods: We performed a two-stage GWAS on fish consumption using 13,739 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study, and 2845 replication samples from the other population. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake. Association of the imputed variants with fish consumption was analyzed by separate linear regression models per variant, with adjustments for age, sex, energy intake, principal component analysis components 1-10, and alcohol intake (g/day). We also performed conditional analysis.

Results: We found 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 12q24 and 14q32.12 that were associated with fish consumption. The 19 SNPs were located at 11 genes including six lead SNPs at the BRAP, ACAD10, ALDH2, NAA25, and HECTD4 regions on 12q24.12-13, and CCDC197 region on 14q32.12. In replication samples, all five SNPs located on chromosome 12 were replicated successfully, but the one on chromosome 14 was not. Conditional analyses revealed that the five lead variants in chromosome 12 were in fact the same signal.

Conclusion: We found that new SNPs in the 12q24 locus were related to fish intake in two Japanese populations. The associations between SNPs on chromosome 12 and fish intake were strongly confounded by drinking status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-00702-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Endogenization and excision of human herpesvirus 6 in human genomes.

PLoS Genet 2020 08 10;16(8):e1008915. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Laboratory for Statistical and Translational Genetics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

Sequences homologous to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are integrated within the nuclear genome of about 1% of humans, but it is not clear how this came about. It is also uncertain whether integrated HHV-6 can reactivate into an infectious virus. HHV-6 integrates into telomeres, and this has recently been associated with polymorphisms affecting MOV10L1. MOV10L1 is located on the subtelomere of chromosome 22q (chr22q) and is required to make PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). As piRNAs block germline integration of transposons, piRNA-mediated repression of HHV-6 integration has been proposed to explain this association. In vitro, recombination of the HHV-6 genome along its terminal direct repeats (DRs) leads to excision from the telomere and viral reactivation, but the expected "solo-DR scar" has not been described in vivo. Here we screened for integrated HHV-6 in 7,485 Japanese subjects using whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Integrated HHV-6 was associated with polymorphisms on chr22q. However, in contrast to prior work, we find that the reported MOV10L1 polymorphism is physically linked to an ancient endogenous HHV-6A variant integrated into the telomere of chr22q in East Asians. Unexpectedly, an HHV-6B variant has also endogenized in chr22q; two endogenous HHV-6 variants at this locus thus account for 72% of all integrated HHV-6 in Japan. We also report human genomes carrying only one portion of the HHV-6B genome, a solo-DR, supporting in vivo excision and possible viral reactivation. Together these results explain the recently-reported association between integrated HHV-6 and MOV10L1/piRNAs, suggest potential exaptation of HHV-6 in its coevolution with human chr22q, and clarify the evolution and risk of reactivation of the only intact (non-retro)viral genome known to be present in human germlines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444522PMC
August 2020

Chromosomal alterations among age-related haematopoietic clones in Japan.

Nature 2020 08 24;584(7819):130-135. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Laboratory for Statistical and Translational Genetics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

The extent to which the biology of oncogenesis and ageing are shaped by factors that distinguish human populations is unknown. Haematopoietic clones with acquired mutations become common with advancing age and can lead to blood cancers. Here we describe shared and population-specific patterns of genomic mutations and clonal selection in haematopoietic cells on the basis of 33,250 autosomal mosaic chromosomal alterations that we detected in 179,417 Japanese participants in the BioBank Japan cohort and compared with analogous data from the UK Biobank. In this long-lived Japanese population, mosaic chromosomal alterations were detected in more than 35.0% (s.e.m., 1.4%) of individuals older than 90 years, which suggests that such clones trend towards inevitability with advancing age. Japanese and European individuals exhibited key differences in the genomic locations of mutations in their respective haematopoietic clones; these differences predicted the relative rates of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (which is more common among European individuals) and T cell leukaemia (which is more common among Japanese individuals) in these populations. Three different mutational precursors of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (including trisomy 12, loss of chromosomes 13q and 13q, and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity) were between two and six times less common among Japanese individuals, which suggests that the Japanese and European populations differ in selective pressures on clones long before the development of clinically apparent chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Japanese and British populations also exhibited very different rates of clones that arose from B and T cell lineages, which predicted the relative rates of B and T cell cancers in these populations. We identified six previously undescribed loci at which inherited variants predispose to mosaic chromosomal alterations that duplicate or remove the inherited risk alleles, including large-effect rare variants at NBN, MRE11 and CTU2 (odds ratio, 28-91). We suggest that selective pressures on clones are modulated by factors that are specific to human populations. Further genomic characterization of clonal selection and cancer in populations from around the world is therefore warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2426-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489641PMC
August 2020

Genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies GP2 gene risk variants for pancreatic cancer.

Nat Commun 2020 06 24;11(1):3175. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, 464-8681, Japan.

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. To identify risk loci, we perform a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies comprising 2,039 pancreatic cancer patients and 32,592 controls in the Japanese population. Here, we identify 3 (13q12.2, 13q22.1, and 16p12.3) genome-wide significant loci (P < 5.0 × 10), of which 16p12.3 has not been reported in the Western population. The lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 16p12.3 is rs78193826 (odds ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-1.66, P = 4.28 × 10), an Asian-specific, nonsynonymous glycoprotein 2 (GP2) gene variant. Associations between selected GP2 gene variants and pancreatic cancer are replicated in 10,822 additional cases and controls of East Asian origin. Functional analyses using cell lines provide supporting evidence of the effect of rs78193826 on KRAS activity. These findings suggest that GP2 gene variants are probably associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility in populations of East Asian ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16711-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314803PMC
June 2020

Genomewide Meta-Analysis Validates a Role for S1PR1 in Microtubule Targeting Agent-Induced Sensory Peripheral Neuropathy.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2020 09 2;108(3):625-634. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Microtubule targeting agents (MTAs) are anticancer therapies commonly prescribed for breast cancer and other solid tumors. Sensory peripheral neuropathy (PN) is the major dose-limiting toxicity for MTAs and can limit clinical efficacy. The current pharmacogenomic study aimed to identify genetic variations that explain patient susceptibility and drive mechanisms underlying development of MTA-induced PN. A meta-analysis of genomewide association studies (GWAS) from two clinical cohorts treated with MTAs (Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 40502 and CALGB 40101) was conducted using a Cox regression model with cumulative dose to first instance of grade 2 or higher PN. Summary statistics from a GWAS of European subjects (n = 469) in CALGB 40502 that estimated cause-specific risk of PN were meta-analyzed with those from a previously published GWAS of European ancestry (n = 855) from CALGB 40101 that estimated the risk of PN. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in an enhancer region downstream of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1 encoding S1PR ; e.g., rs74497159, β per allele log hazard ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 0.591 (0.254-0.928), β per allele log hazard ratio (95% CI) = 0.693 (0.334-1.053); P  = 3.62 × 10 ) were the most highly ranked associations based on P values with risk of developing grade 2 and higher PN. In silico functional analysis identified multiple regulatory elements and potential enhancer activity for S1PR1 within this genomic region. Inhibition of S1PR function in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human sensory neurons shows partial protection against paclitaxel-induced neurite damage. These pharmacogenetic findings further support ongoing clinical evaluations to target S1PR as a therapeutic strategy for prevention and/or treatment of MTA-induced neuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718413PMC
September 2020

Large-scale genome-wide association study in a Japanese population identifies novel susceptibility loci across different diseases.

Nat Genet 2020 07 8;52(7):669-679. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Laboratory for Bone and Joint Diseases, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

The overwhelming majority of participants in current genetic studies are of European ancestry. To elucidate disease biology in the East Asian population, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with 212,453 Japanese individuals across 42 diseases. We detected 320 independent signals in 276 loci for 27 diseases, with 25 novel loci (P < 9.58 × 10). East Asian-specific missense variants were identified as candidate causal variants for three novel loci, and we successfully replicated two of them by analyzing independent Japanese cohorts; p.R220W of ATG16L2 (associated with coronary artery disease) and p.V326A of POT1 (associated with lung cancer). We further investigated enrichment of heritability within 2,868 annotations of genome-wide transcription factor occupancy, and identified 378 significant enrichments across nine diseases (false discovery rate < 0.05) (for example, NKX3-1 for prostate cancer). This large-scale GWAS in a Japanese population provides insights into the etiology of complex diseases and highlights the importance of performing GWAS in non-European populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0640-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968075PMC
July 2020
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