Publications by authors named "Michelle Osse"

10 Publications

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Intradermal lipopolysaccharide challenge as an acute in vivo inflammatory model in healthy volunteers.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Aims: Whereas intravenous administration of Toll-like receptor 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to human volunteers is frequently used in clinical pharmacology studies, systemic use of LPS has practical limitations. We aimed to characterize the intradermal LPS response in healthy volunteers, and as such qualify the method as local inflammation model for clinical pharmacology studies.

Methods: Eighteen healthy male volunteers received 2 or 4 intradermal 10 ng LPS injections and 1 saline injection on the forearms. The LPS response was evaluated by noninvasive (perfusion, skin temperature and erythema) and invasive assessments (cellular and cytokine responses) in skin biopsy and blister exudate.

Results: LPS elicited a visible response and returned to baseline at 48 hours. Erythema, perfusion and temperature were statistically significant (P < .0001) over a 24-hour time course compared to saline. The protein response was dominated by an acute interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor response followed by IL-1β, IL-10 and interferon-γ. The cellular response consisted of an acute neutrophil influx followed by different monocyte subsets and dendritic cells.

Discussion: Intradermal LPS administration in humans causes an acute, localized and transient inflammatory reaction that is well-tolerated by healthy volunteers. This may be a valuable inflammation model for evaluating the pharmacological activity of anti-inflammatory investigational compounds in proof of pharmacology studies.
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July 2021

Prognostic Integrated Image-Based Immune and Molecular Profiling in Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer.

Cancer Immunol Res 2020 12 30;8(12):1508-1519. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Optimum risk stratification in early-stage endometrial cancer combines clinicopathologic factors and the molecular endometrial cancer classification defined by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). It is unclear whether analysis of intratumoral immune infiltrate improves this. We developed a machine-learning, image-based algorithm to quantify density of CD8 and CD103 immune cells in tumor epithelium and stroma in 695 stage I endometrioid endometrial cancers from the PORTEC-1 and -2 trials. The relationship between immune cell density and clinicopathologic/molecular factors was analyzed by hierarchical clustering and multiple regression. The prognostic value of immune infiltrate by cell type and location was analyzed by univariable and multivariable Cox regression, incorporating the molecular endometrial cancer classification. Tumor-infiltrating immune cell density varied substantially between cases, and more modestly by immune cell type and location. Clustering revealed three groups with high, intermediate, and low densities, with highly significant variation in the proportion of molecular endometrial cancer subgroups between them. Univariable analysis revealed intraepithelial CD8 cell density as the strongest predictor of endometrial cancer recurrence; multivariable analysis confirmed this was independent of pathologic factors and molecular subgroup. Exploratory analysis suggested this association was not uniform across molecular subgroups, but greatest in tumors with mutant p53 and absent in DNA mismatch repair-deficient cancers. Thus, this work identified that quantification of intraepithelial CD8 cells improved upon the prognostic utility of the molecular endometrial cancer classification in early-stage endometrial cancer.
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December 2020

The landscape of somatic mutations in Indonesian cervical cancer is predominated by the PI3K pathway.

Gynecol Oncol 2018 01 4;148(1):189-196. Epub 2017 Nov 4.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; Center for Gynecologic Oncology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of somatic mutations in Indonesian cervical carcinoma patients in the context of histology and human papillomavirus (HPV) type.

Methods: In total 174 somatic hot-spot mutations in 13 genes were analyzed by mass spectrometry in 137 Indonesian cervical carcinomas.

Results: In 66/137 tumors (48%) 95 mutations were identified. PIK3CA was most frequently mutated (24%), followed by FBXW7 (7%), CTNNB1 (6%), and PTEN (6%). In squamous cell carcinomas more often multiple mutations per sample (p=0.040), and more PIK3CA (p=0.039) and CTNNB1 (p=0.038) mutations were detected compared to adenocarcinomas. PIK3CA mutations were associated with HPV 16 positivity, CDKN2A mutations with HPV 52 positivity, and, interestingly, PTEN mutations with HPV negativity. Balinese tumor samples more often carried multiple mutations (p=0.019), and more CTNNB1, CDKN2A, and NRAS mutations compared to Javanese tumor samples.

Conclusions: Potentially targetable somatic mutations occurred in 48% of Indonesian cervical carcinomas. The landscape of mutations is predominated by mutations concerning the PI3K pathway, and we prompt for more research on developing therapies targeting this pathway, explicitly for the more advanced stage cervical carcinoma patients.
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January 2018

Autocrine expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor ligand heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in cervical cancer.

Int J Oncol 2017 Jun 3;50(6):1947-1954. Epub 2017 May 3.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Leiden, The Netherlands.

In cervical cancer, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in 70-90% of the cases and has been associated with poor prognosis. EGFR-based therapy is currently being explored in cervical cancer. We investigated which EGFR ligand is primarily expressed in cervical cancer and which cell type functions as the major source of this ligand. We hypothesized that macrophages are the main source of EGFR ligands and that a paracrine loop between tumor cells and macrophages is responsible for ligand expression. mRNA expression analysis was performed on 32 cervical cancer cases to determine the expression of the EGFR ligands amphiregulin, β-cellulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), epiregulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB‑EGF) and transforming growth factor α (TGFα). Subsequently, protein expression was determined immunohistochemically on 36 additional cases. To assess whether macrophages are the major source of EGFR ligands, immunohistochemical double staining was performed on four representative tissue slides. Expression of the chemokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) was determined by mRNA in situ hybridization. Of the known EGFR ligands, HB‑EGF had the highest mRNA expression and HB‑EGF and EGFR protein expression were highly correlated. Tumor specimens with high EGFR expression showed higher numbers of macrophages, and higher expression of GM-CSF and CCL2, but only a small subset (9%) of macrophages was found to be HB‑EGF-positive. Strikingly, 78% of cervical cancer specimens were found to express HB‑EGF. Standardized assessment of staining intensity, using spectral imaging analysis, showed that HB‑EGF expression was higher in the tumor compartment than in the stromal compartment. These results suggest that HB‑EGF is an important EGFR ligand in cervical cancer and that cervical cancer cells are the predominant source of HB‑EGF. Therefore, we propose an autocrine EGFR stimulation model in cervical carcinomas.
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June 2017

Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR Expression is Significantly Related to an Increased Disease-Free and Disease-Specific Survival in Patients With Cervical Adenocarcinoma.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2016 Oct;26(8):1503-1509

*Department of Gynaecology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Center Gynaecology Oncology Amsterdam (CGOA), Department of Gynaecology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, †Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands, ‡Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands; and §Center Gynaecological Oncology Amsterdam (CGOA), Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objectives: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II antigens are expressed on antigen-presenting cells, that is, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. Under the influence of IFN-γ, HLA class II molecules can also be expressed on T lymphocytes, epithelial and endothelial cells. In addition, HLA class II antigens can be expressed in a variety of malignancies; however, the link with prognosis and ultimately patient survival is controversial.

Methods: The pattern of HLA-DRA expression in cervical carcinoma was studied using immunohistochemistry. In total, 124 cervical carcinomas were examined, of which 60 (48.4%) were squamous cell carcinomas and 64 (51.6%) were adenocarcinomas.

Results: In squamous cell carcinoma, HLA-DRA was expressed in 41 (68.3%) of 60 tumors, whereas in adenocarcinoma, HLA-DRA was expressed in 60 (93.8%) of 64 tumors (P < 0.001). In adenocarcinoma, HLA-DRA expression was associated with an increased disease-free survival (211.0 ± 13.0 vs 53.3 ± 30.5 months; P = 0.004) and disease-specific survival (226.45 ± 11.5 vs 75.8 ± 27.6 months; P = 0.002).

Conclusions: Upregulation of HLA-DRA is significantly related to an increased disease-free and disease-specific survival in cervical adenocarcinoma. These data warrant further analysis of the functional role of HLA-DRA in these tumors.
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October 2016

Precise Classification of Cervical Carcinomas Combined with Somatic Mutation Profiling Contributes to Predicting Disease Outcome.

PLoS One 2015 21;10(7):e0133670. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Center for Gynecologic Oncology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC), and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) are the most common histological subtypes of cervical cancer. Differences in the somatic mutation profiles of these subtypes have been suggested. We investigated the prevalence of somatic hot-spot mutations in three well-defined cohorts of SCC, AC, and ASC and determined the additional value of mutation profiling in predicting disease outcome relative to well-established prognostic parameters.

Materials And Methods: Clinicopathological data were collected for 301 cervical tumors classified as SCC (n=166), AC (n=55), or ASC (n=80). Mass spectrometry was used to analyze 171 somatic hot-spot mutations in 13 relevant genes.

Results: In 103 (34%) tumors, 123 mutations were detected (36% in SCC, 38% in AC, and 28% in ASC), mostly in PIK3CA (20%) and KRAS (7%). PIK3CA mutations occurred more frequently in SCC than AC (25% vs. 11%, P=0.025), whereas KRAS mutations occurred more frequently in AC than SCC (24% vs. 3%, P<0.001) and ASC (24% vs. 3%, P<0.001). A positive mutation status correlated with worse disease-free survival (HR 1.57, P=0.043). In multivariate analysis, tumor diameter, parametrial infiltration, and lymph node metastasis, but not the presence of a somatic mutation, were independent predictors of survival.

Conclusion: Potentially targetable somatic mutations occurred in 34% of cervical tumors with different distributions among histological subtypes. Precise classification of cervical carcinomas in combination with mutation profiling is valuable for predicting disease outcome and may guide the development and selection of tumor-specific treatment approaches.
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May 2016

Molecular backgrounds of ERAP1 downregulation in cervical carcinoma.

Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) 2015 4;2015:367837. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, L1-Q, 2333 ZA Leiden, Netherlands.

The antigen processing machinery (APM) plays an important role in immune recognition of virally infected and transformed cells. Defective expression of the APM component ERAP1 is associated with progression and poor clinical outcome in cervical carcinoma. However, the underlying mechanisms of ERAP1 protein downregulation remain to be established. We investigated ERAP1 mRNA expression levels in 14 patients with established ERAP1 protein downregulation. To further examine the possible pretranscriptional mechanisms of ERAP1 downregulation, ERAP1 DNA mutation status was analyzed alongside existing data on various single nucleotide polymorphisms. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity at various loci in the ERAP1 gene was investigated. In cases with ERAP1 protein downregulation, ERAP1 mRNA quantities were found to be significantly lower than in a cohort with normal ERAP1 protein expression (P = 0.001). Loss of heterozygosity was demonstrated to occur in up to 50% of tumors with ERAP1 downregulation. Our data indicate that ERAP1 downregulation is associated with loss of heterozygosity. These data provide the first insight into in vivo mechanisms of ERAP1 downregulation in cervical carcinoma.
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March 2016

Incidence Changes of Human Papillomavirus in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Effects on Survival in the Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1980-2009.

Anticancer Res 2015 Jul;35(7):4015-22

Department of Head and Neck Oncology and Surgery, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Aim: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), with an increasing incidence. The present study aimed to determine the changing incidence of HPV in patients with OPSCC in the period 1980-2009 and its influence on survival.

Patients And Methods: We randomly sampled 158 patients from a cohort of 828 patients with OPSCC stratified by decade (1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2009). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material was tested for HPV DNA by SPF-10 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemically stained for p16 and p53.

Results: DNA from 146 patients was suitable for HPV detection. HPV DNA was detected in 13/47 (28%), 18/47 (38%), and 20/52 (38%) patients in the cohorts of 1980-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2009, respectively (p-value for trend=0.269). Lack of further increase during the most recent decade is inconsistent with the rising incidence and higher prevalence reported in other Western countries. Patients with HPV-positive OPSCC had a better survival in spite of higher tumor stage.
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July 2015

Expression of coinhibitory receptors on T cells in the microenvironment of usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is related to proinflammatory effector T cells and an increased recurrence-free survival.

Int J Cancer 2015 Feb 15;136(4):E95-106. Epub 2014 Sep 15.

Department of Gynaecology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Human papillomavirus-induced usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) are infiltrated by immune cells but apparently not cleared. A potential explanation for this is an impaired T cell effector function by an immunesuppressive milieu, coinfiltrating regulatory T cells or the expression of coinhibitory molecules. Here, the role of these potential inhibitory mechanisms was evaluated by a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of T cell infiltration in the context of FoxP3, Tbet, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, programmed cell death 1, T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM3), natural killer cell lectin-like receptor A (NKG2A) and galectins-1, -3 and -9. Paraffin-embedded tissues of primary uVIN lesions (n=43), recurrent uVIN lesions (n=20), vulvar carcinoma (n=21) and healthy vulvar tissue (n=26) were studied. We show that the vulva constitutes an area intensely surveyed by CD8+, CD4+, Tbet+ and regulatory T cell populations, parts of which express the examined coinhibitory molecules. In uVIN especially, the number of regulatory T cells and TIM3+ T cells increased. The expression of the coinhibitory markers TIM3 and NKG2A probably reflected a higher degree of T cell activation as a dense infiltration with stromal CD8+TIM3+ T cells and CD3+NKG2A+ T cells was related to the absence of recurrences and/or a prolonged recurrence-free survival. A dense coinfiltrate with regulatory T cells was negatively associated with the time to recurrence, most dominantly when the stromal CD8+TIM3+ infiltration was limited. This notion was sustained in vulvar carcinoma's where the numbers of regulatory T cells progressively increased to outnumber coinfiltrating CD8+TIM3+ T cells and CD3+NKG2A+ T cells.
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February 2015

Clinical characteristics associated with development of recurrence and progression in usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2013 Oct;23(8):1476-83

*Departments of Gynecology, †Pathology, ‡Medical Statistics, and §Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, TheNetherlands.

Objective: To identify clinical characteristics associated with recurrence and progression in patients with usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN), which may function as prognostic factors and aid in the treatment of patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease of the genital tract.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed in 73 patients with uVIN treated at the Leiden University Medical Center between 1990 and 2012. All medical records were reviewed for demographics, treatment type, pathology reports, and recurrence and progression rates.

Results: The mean age of diagnosis was 43 years, and uVIN was symptomatic in 60.1% of the patients. The median follow-up time was 49 months. High-risk HPV was found in 86.3% of the patients. Smoking was reported in 76.8% of the patients. Eleven of 73 patients were immune compromised. Multicentric HPV-related disease of the cervix or vagina was reported in 75.3% of the patients. Recurrences were diagnosed in 50.7% of the patients after first treatment type that consisted of excision (45.2%), laser (34.2%), imiquimod (8.2%), and combination of excision and laser (12.3%). Higher recurrence rates were only correlated with multifocality of uVIN lesions. Excision, imiquimod therapy, and unifocal lesions showed an increased recurrence-free survival. Human papillomavirus type, smoking, multicentric disease, use of topical steroids, and positive surgical borders were not related to a shorter recurrence-free survival. Progression into vulvar carcinoma occurred in 11 (15.1%) of the patients, 4 of whom were immune compromised. These patients showed a shorter progression-free survival of 54 versus 71.5 months.

Conclusion: There are no clinical characteristics that form prognostic factors in uVIN, except for multifocality of lesions, which is correlated with a higher recurrence rate. Furthermore, progression of uVIN to carcinoma was accelerated and increased in immune-compromised patients, suggesting that studies of local immunity in uVIN may reveal potentialprognostic factors and aid in the development of new treatment modalities.
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October 2013