Publications by authors named "Michelle N Shiota"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Awe, wonder, and the human mind.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.

The human mind is unique in its ability to form, store, and manipulate elaborate conceptual models of the world; yet these models have vast, inevitable gaps. Where the models end, the potential for wonder and awe begins. Psychology research has begun to uncover distinctive implications of awe for how we perceive our environment and ourselves. More science investigating basic features of awe is needed to fulfill its promise for improving the human experience. Awe, accessible in everyday life, can be a valuable tool for enhancing well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14588DOI Listing
March 2021

Positive emotion dispositions and emotion regulation in the Italian population.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(3):e0245545. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Milan, Milan, Italy.

The goal of this large-scale study was to test the relationship between positive emotion dispositions (i.e., Joy, Contentment, Pride, Love, Compassion, Amusement, and Awe) and two strategies of emotion regulation (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) in the Italian population. 532 Italian-speaking adults completed the Dispositional Positive Emotion Scales (DPES), the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (PANAS), the Italian Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and the Big-Five Inventory (BFI). DPES scales showed high reliability. Exploratory Factor Analysis showed that a 6-factor model fits the Italian sample better. Joy and Contentment loaded on the same factor. Items assessing the other five emotions loaded on separate factors. The patterns of relationships between positive emotion dispositions, positive and negative affects traits (PANAS), and personality traits (BFI) indicated concurrent validity of the DPES. Twelve separated multiple regression models with BFI and ERQ factors as predictors and DPES factors as response variables showed that Extraversion significantly positively predicted of all DPES emotions. Agreeableness predicted Happiness, Love, Compassion, and Awe positively. Conscientiousness predicted Amusement and Love negatively and Compassion, Pride, and Happiness positively. Neuroticism predicted all emotions negatively except for Compassion. Positive emotions were significantly and positively predicted by reappraisal, and negatively predicted by suppression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245545PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924781PMC
March 2021

Effects of Therapeutic Intervention on Parentally Bereaved Children's Emotion Reactivity and Regulation 15 Years Later.

Prev Sci 2020 11;21(8):1017-1027

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871104, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1104, USA.

The Family Bereavement Program (FBP) is a family-based intervention for parentally bereaved children and surviving caregivers. Results are reported of a randomized controlled trial, examining intervention effects on emotional reactivity and regulation of young adults who participated in the program 15 years earlier. Participants (N = 152) completed four emotion challenge tasks: reactivity to negative images, detached reappraisal while viewing negative images, positive reappraisal while viewing negative images, and reengagement with positive images. Outcomes included cardiac interbeat interval (IBI), pre-ejection period (PEP), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as well as self-reported emotional experience and regulation effectiveness. Direct intervention effects and effects mediated through improved parenting were estimated. Several significant effects were observed in primary analyses; however, none remained significant after correction for familywise Type I error. Parenting mediated FBP effects on IBI during negative reactivity (b = 15.04), and on RSA during positive reengagement (b = 0.35); the latter effect was accounted for by changes in breathing. Intervention condition was a direct predictor of self-reported detached reappraisal effectiveness (b = 1.00). Intervention and gender interacted in predicting self-reported negative emotion during the negative reactivity (b = 1.04) and positive reappraisal tasks (b = 1.31) such that intervention-condition men reported more negative emotions during those tasks. Although these findings should be considered preliminary given the limited power of the corrected statistical tests, they suggest long-term effects of family intervention following the death of a parent on offspring's emotional reactivity and regulation ability that should be pursued further in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-020-01142-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7572599PMC
November 2020

Who emphasizes positivity? An exploration of emotion values in people of Latino, Asian, and European heritage living in the United States.

Emotion 2020 Mar 19. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Psychology.

Emotion values vary within and between individualistic and collectivistic cultural contexts. The form of collectivism prevalent in Latin America emphasizes simpatía, a cultural model that stresses the relational benefits of positivity but also the costs of negativity. This model was predicted to engender a pattern of emotion values distinct from that of the more commonly studied collectivist group, people of Asian heritage (PAH), among whom an emphasis on moderating positive and negative emotions is typically observed, and from people of European heritage (PEH), among whom authenticity in emotions is typically valued. College students of Latino ( = 659), Asian ( = 446), and European ( = 456) heritage living in the United States completed a study examining positive and negative emotion values. Mixed-model analysis of variance that included interactions among culture, emotion valence (positive, negative), value type (desirability, appropriateness), and response type (experience, expression) suggested distinct patterns of emotion values across groups. People of Latino heritage (PLH) rated positive emotions as more desirable and appropriate to experience and express than PAH (s < .001) but less desirable and appropriate to experience and express than PEH (s ≤ .001). PLH also rated negative emotions as more undesirable (s < .001) but similarly inappropriate to experience and express > .05) compared with PAH and as similarly undesirable (s > .05) but more inappropriate to experience ( < .001) compared with PEH. The emotion-value pattern that emerged was largely consistent with simpatía for PLH and provides new evidence of similarity and variation in emotion values in three distinct contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000737DOI Listing
March 2020

Emotion recognition in objects in patients with neurological disease.

Neuropsychology 2019 Nov 2;33(8):1163-1173. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: Considerable research indicates that individuals with dementia have deficits in the ability to recognize emotion in other people. The present study examined ability to detect emotional qualities of objects.

Method: Fifty-two patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 18 patients awaiting surgery for intractable epilepsy, and 159 healthy controls completed a newly developed test of ability to recognize emotional qualities of art (music and paintings), and pleasantness in simple sensory stimuli (tactile, olfactory, auditory), and to make aesthetic judgments (geometric shapes, room décor). A subset of participants also completed a test of ability to recognize emotions in other people.

Results: Patients with FTD showed a marked deficit in ability to recognize the emotions conveyed in art, compared with both healthy individuals and patients with AD (relative to controls, deficits in patients with AD only approached significance). This deficit remained robust after controlling for FTD patients' ability to recognize pleasantness in simple sensory stimuli, make aesthetic judgments, identify odors, and identify emotions in other people. Neither FTD nor AD patients showed deficits in recognizing pleasant sensory stimuli or making aesthetic judgments. Exploratory analysis of patients with epilepsy revealed no deficits in any of these domains.

Conclusion: Patients with FTD (but not AD) showed a significant, specific deficit in ability to interpret emotional messages in art, echoing FTD-related deficits in recognizing emotions in other people. This finding adds to our understanding of the impact these diseases have on the lives of patients and their caregivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823118PMC
November 2019

Responding to the emotions of others: Age differences in facial expressions and age-specific associations with relational connectedness.

Emotion 2019 Dec 7;19(8):1437-1449. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology.

Responding prosocially to the emotion of others may become increasingly important in late life, especially as partners and friends encounter a growing number of losses, challenges, and declines. Facial expressions are important avenues for communicating empathy and concern, and for signaling that help is forthcoming when needed. In a study of young, middle-aged, and older adults, we measured emotional responses (facial expressions, subjective experience, and physiological activation) to a sad, distressing film clip and a happy, uplifting film clip. Results revealed that, relative to younger adults, older adults showed more sadness and confusion/concern facial expressions during the distressing film clip. Moreover, for older adults only, more sadness and fewer disgust facial expressions during the distressing film clip were associated with higher levels of relational connectedness. These findings remained stable when accounting for subjective emotional experience, physiological activation, and trait empathy in response to the film clip. When examining the uplifting film clip, older adults showed more happiness facial expressions relative to younger adults at trend levels. More facial expressions of happiness were associated with higher levels of relational connectedness, but unlike the effect of sadness expressions, this was not moderated by age. These findings underscore an important adaptive social function of facial expressions-particularly in response to the distress of others-in late life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000534DOI Listing
December 2019

Beyond happiness: Building a science of discrete positive emotions.

Am Psychol 2017 Oct;72(7):617-643

Greater Good Science Center, University of California, Berkeley.

While trait positive emotionality and state positive-valence affect have long been the subject of intense study, the importance of differentiating among several "discrete" positive emotions has only recently begun to receive serious attention. In this article, we synthesize existing literature on positive emotion differentiation, proposing that the positive emotions are best described as branches of a "family tree" emerging from a common ancestor mediating adaptive management of fitness-critical resources (e.g., food). Examples are presented of research indicating the importance of differentiating several positive emotion constructs. We then offer a new theoretical framework, built upon a foundation of phylogenetic, neuroscience, and behavioral evidence, that accounts for core features as well as mechanisms for differentiation. We propose several directions for future research suggested by this framework and develop implications for the application of positive emotion research to translational issues in clinical psychology and the science of behavior change. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0040456DOI Listing
October 2017

Going off script: Effects of awe on memory for script-typical and -irrelevant narrative detail.

Emotion 2017 09 23;17(6):938-952. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University.

People often filter their experience of new events through knowledge they already have; for example, encoding new events by relying on prototypical event "scripts" at the expense of actual details. Previous research suggests that positive affect often increases this tendency. Three studies assessed whether awe-an emotion elicited by perceived vastness, and thought to promote cognitive accommodation-has the opposite effect, reducing rather than increasing reliance on event scripts. True/false questions on details of a short story about a romantic dinner were used to determine whether awe (a) reduces the tendency to impute script-consistent but false details into memory, and/or (b) promotes memory of unexpected details. Across studies we consistently found support for the first effect; evidence for the second was less consistent. Effects were partially mediated by subjective awe, and independent of other aspects of subjective affect. Results suggest that awe reduces reliance on internal knowledge in processing new events. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000277DOI Listing
September 2017

Short alleles, bigger smiles? The effect of 5-HTTLPR on positive emotional expressions.

Emotion 2015 Aug 1;15(4):438-48. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Department of Psychology and Institute for Personality and Social Research, University of California, Berkeley.

The present research examined the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene on objectively coded positive emotional expressions (i.e., laughing and smiling behavior objectively coded using the Facial Action Coding System). Three studies with independent samples of participants were conducted. Study 1 examined young adults watching still cartoons. Study 2 examined young, middle-aged, and older adults watching a thematically ambiguous yet subtly amusing film clip. Study 3 examined middle-aged and older spouses discussing an area of marital conflict (that typically produces both positive and negative emotion). Aggregating data across studies, results showed that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR predicted heightened positive emotional expressions. Results remained stable when controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with the notion that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR functions as an emotion amplifier, which may confer heightened susceptibility to environmental conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4861141PMC
August 2015

An insecure base: Attachment style and orienting response to positive stimuli.

Psychophysiology 2015 Jul 25;52(7):905-9. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

In adults as in infants, psychological attachment to close others provides a "secure base" for exploration and pursuit of opportunities. Insecure attachment is likely to interfere with this function. The present study examined the association of individual differences in adult attachment style with peripheral physiological measures of automatic orienting to several kinds of positive, rewarding stimuli. Attachment style was largely unrelated to extent of heart rate deceleration in response to the appearance of positive emotion-eliciting images. However, attachment avoidance was associated with reduced skin conductance responding to the onset of several kinds of positive stimuli. These findings suggest that working models of relationships with close others have complex implications for the early stages of responding to opportunities for reward presented by the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12422DOI Listing
July 2015

Turn down the volume or change the channel? Emotional effects of detached versus positive reappraisal.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2012 Sep 2;103(3):416-29. Epub 2012 Jul 2.

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871104, Tempe, AZ 85287-1104, USA.

Cognitive reappraisal, or changing one's interpretation of an event in order to alter the emotional response to it, is thought to be a healthy and an effective emotion regulation strategy. Although researchers recognize several distinct varieties of reappraisal, few studies have explicitly compared the effects of multiple reappraisal strategies on emotional responding. The present study compares the effects of detached and positive reappraisal on thought content, subjective emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and facial expressions of emotion while viewing film clips evoking sadness and disgust. Although both forms of reappraisal reduced overall emotional responding to unpleasant stimuli, the effects of detached reappraisal were stronger in this regard, and positive reappraisal was more likely to maintain subjective experience and facial expression of stimulus-appropriate positive emotions. The two reappraisal strategies also produced somewhat different profiles of physiological responding. Differences between detached and positive reappraisal with respect to subjective experience and facial expression were more pronounced among men than women; the reverse was true for differences with respect to physiological responding. Beyond these effects on individual emotion response systems, detached and positive reappraisal also had somewhat different effects on coherence in change across response systems. Implications for our understanding of emotion regulation processes, and for emotion theory more broadly, are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0029208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3672229PMC
September 2012

What is shared, what is different? Core relational themes and expressive displays of eight positive emotions.

Cogn Emot 2013 21;27(1):37-52. Epub 2012 Jun 21.

Department of Chicano/Latino Studies, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-5100, USA.

Understanding positive emotions' shared and differentiating features can yield valuable insight into the structure of positive emotion space and identify emotion states, or aspects of emotion states, that are most relevant for particular psychological processes and outcomes. We report two studies that examined core relational themes (Study 1) and expressive displays (Study 2) for eight positive emotion constructs--amusement, awe, contentment, gratitude, interest, joy, love, and pride. Across studies, all eight emotions shared one quality: high positive valence. Distinctive core relational theme and expressive display patterns were found for four emotions--amusement, awe, interest, and pride. Gratitude was associated with a distinct core relational theme but not an expressive display. Joy and love were each associated with a distinct expressive display but their core relational themes also characterised pride and gratitude, respectively. Contentment was associated with a distinct expressive display but not a core relational theme. The implications of this work for the study of positive emotion are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2012.683852DOI Listing
July 2013

Feeling good: autonomic nervous system responding in five positive emotions.

Emotion 2011 Dec;11(6):1368-78

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1104, USA.

Although dozens of studies have examined the autonomic nervous system (ANS) aspects of negative emotions, less is known about ANS responding in positive emotion. An evolutionary framework was used to define five positive emotions in terms of fitness-enhancing function, and to guide hypotheses regarding autonomic responding. In a repeated measures design, participants viewed sets of visual images eliciting these positive emotions (anticipatory enthusiasm, attachment love, nurturant love, amusement, and awe) plus an emotionally neutral state. Peripheral measures of sympathetic and vagal parasympathetic activation were assessed. Results indicated that the emotion conditions were characterized by qualitatively distinct profiles of autonomic activation, suggesting the existence of multiple, physiologically distinct positive emotions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024278DOI Listing
December 2011

Anger and sadness in response to an emotionally neutral film: evidence for age-specific associations with well-being.

Psychol Aging 2012 Jun 15;27(2):305-17. Epub 2011 Aug 15.

Institute of Personality and Social Research, University of California, Berkeley 94720-5050, USA.

When the association between emotion and well-being is being considered, positive emotions usually come to mind. However, negative emotions serve important adaptive functions and particular negative emotions may be especially adaptive at different stages of adult development. We examined the associations between self-reported negative emotions in response to an emotionally neutral, thematically ambiguous film and subjective well-being among 76 young (age 20-29), 73 middle-aged (age 40-49), and 73 older (age 60-69) adults. Results indicated that higher self-reported anger in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for middle-aged adults, but not for young and older adults. Higher self-reported sadness in response to the film was associated with higher well-being for older adults, but not for young and middle-aged adults. These findings were stronger for cognitive well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life) than for affective well-being (i.e., ratio of dispositional positive to negative affect) and were specific to these emotions (not found for self-reported disgust or fear) and to the emotionally neutral film (not found for sad or disgusting films). Results are discussed in terms of the functions that anger and sadness are thought to serve and the control opportunities afforded in midlife and late life that render these functions differentially adaptive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3261314PMC
June 2012

Greater sadness reactivity in late life.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2011 Apr 22;6(2):186-94. Epub 2010 Jul 22.

Institute of Personality & Social Research, University of California, 4143 Tolman Hall #5050, Berkeley, CA 94720-5050, USA.

Although previous research suggests that overall emotional reactivity does not change with normal aging, it is possible that different emotions follow different developmental courses. We examined emotional reactivity to films selected to elicit sadness, disgust, and a neutral state in young, middle-aged and older adults (total N = 222). Physiology and expressive behavior were measured continuously and reports of subjective emotional experience were obtained following each film. Results indicated that older adults reported greater sadness in response to all films and greater physiological responses to the sadness film than did the younger age groups. There were no age differences found in self-reported disgust or in behavioral expressions of sadness or disgust in response to any film. The age differences that were found were maintained even after controlling for pre-film self-reported sadness and for personal experiences of loss. These findings support the notion that sadness reactivity is heightened with age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsq069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3073392PMC
April 2011

Influence of different positive emotions on persuasion processing: a functional evolutionary approach.

Emotion 2010 Apr;10(2):190-206

Department of Marketing, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Much research has found that positive affect facilitates increased reliance on heuristics in cognition. However, theories proposing distinct evolutionary fitness-enhancing functions for specific positive emotions also predict important differences among the consequences of different positive emotion states. Two experiments investigated how six positive emotions influenced the processing of persuasive messages. Using different methods to induce emotions and assess processing, we showed that the positive emotions of anticipatory enthusiasm, amusement, and attachment love tended to facilitate greater acceptance of weak persuasive messages (consistent with previous research), whereas the positive emotions of awe and nurturant love reduced persuasion by weak messages. In addition, a series of mediation analyses suggested that the effects distinguishing different positive emotions from a neutral control condition were best accounted for by different mediators rather than by one common mediator. These findings build upon approaches that link affective valence to certain types of processing, documenting emotion-specific effects on cognition that are consistent with functional evolutionary accounts of discrete positive emotions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018421DOI Listing
April 2010

Music, Lyrics, and Dangerous Things.

Eur J Soc Psychol 2009 Dec;39(7):1250-1254

Arizona State University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802339PMC
December 2009

Effects of aging on experimentally instructed detached reappraisal, positive reappraisal, and emotional behavior suppression.

Psychol Aging 2009 Dec;24(4):890-900

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1104, USA.

Emotion regulation includes multiple strategies that rely on different underlying abilities and that may be affected differently by aging. We assessed young, middle-aged, and older adults' ability to implement 3 emotion regulation strategies (detached reappraisal, positive reappraisal, and behavior suppression) in a laboratory setting, using standardized emotional stimuli and a multimethod approach to assessing regulation success. Results revealed age-related decline in ability to implement detached reappraisal, enhancement of ability to implement positive reappraisal, and maintenance of ability to implement behavior suppression. We discuss these findings in terms of their implications for emotion theory and for promoting successful aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2805117PMC
December 2009

Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia is associated with tonic positive emotionality.

Emotion 2009 Apr;9(2):265-270

Department of Psychology, University of California.

Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSAREST) indexes important aspects of individual differences in emotionality. In the present investigation, the authors address whether RSAREST is associated with tonic positive or negative emotionality, and whether RSAREST relates to phasic emotional responding to discrete positive emotion-eliciting stimuli. Across an 8-month, multiassessment study of first-year university students (n = 80), individual differences in RSAREST were associated with positive but not negative tonic emotionality, assessed at the level of personality traits, long-term moods, the disposition toward optimism, and baseline reports of current emotional states. RSAREST was not related to increased positive emotion, or stimulus-specific emotion, in response to compassion-, awe-, or pride-inducing stimuli. These findings suggest that resting RSA indexes aspects of a person's tonic positive emotionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015383DOI Listing
April 2009

Birds of a feather don't always fly farthest: similarity in Big Five personality predicts more negative marital satisfaction trajectories in long-term marriages.

Psychol Aging 2007 Dec;22(4):666-75

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University - Main Capmpus, Tempe, AZ 85287-1104, USA.

Decades of research suggest that similarity in demographics, values, activities, and attitudes predicts higher marital satisfaction. The present study examined the relationship between similarity in Big Five personality factors and initial levels and 12-year trajectories of marital satisfaction in long-term couples, who were in their 40s and 60s at the beginning of the study. Across the entire sample, greater overall personality similarity predicted more negative slopes in marital satisfaction trajectories. In addition, spousal similarity on Conscientiousness and Extraversion more strongly predicted negative marital satisfaction outcomes among the midlife sample than among the older sample. Results are discussed in terms of the different life tasks faced by young, midlife, and older adults, and the implications of these tasks for the "ingredients" of marital satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.22.4.666DOI Listing
December 2007

Context matters: the benefits and costs of expressing positive emotion among survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

Emotion 2007 Nov;7(4):824-37

Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

Positive emotions promote adjustment to aversive life events. However, evolutionary theory and empirical research on trauma disclosure suggest that in the context of stigmatized events, expressing positive emotions might incur social costs. To test this thesis, the authors coded genuine (Duchenne) smiling and laughter and also non-Duchenne smiling from videotapes of late-adolescent and young adult women, approximately half with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), as they described the most distressing event of their lives. Consistent with previous studies, genuine positive emotional expression was generally associated with better social adjustment two years later. However, as anticipated, CSA survivors who expressed positive emotion in the context of describing a past CSA experience had poorer long-term social adjustment, whereas CSA survivors who expressed positive emotion while describing a nonabuse experience had improved social adjustment. These findings suggest that the benefits of positive emotional expression may often be context specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.7.4.824DOI Listing
November 2007

Silver linings and candles in the dark: differences among positive coping strategies in predicting subjective well-being.

Emotion 2006 May;6(2):335-9

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Ideal coping strategies enhance positive aspects of well-being as well as reduce distress. Although researchers have identified several "positive coping" strategies, it is unclear which are most strongly associated with well-being or whether all strategies are equally appropriate for all kinds of stressors. Participants completed well-being measures, and described the most negative event of the day and their emotion regulation strategies for the next 7 days. Dispositional use of positive emotion-inducing coping strategies was most strongly associated with positive aspects of well-being. Use of positive coping did not decrease with increased objective stress during the week, and use of particular strategies was partly predicted by the types of stressors that were reported. Implications for theories of positive coping are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.6.2.335DOI Listing
May 2006

The faces of positive emotion: prototype displays of awe, amusement, and pride.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003 Dec;1000:296-9

Institute for Personality and Social Research, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-5050, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1280.029DOI Listing
December 2003

New displays and new emotions: a commentary on Rozin and Cohen (2003).

Emotion 2003 Mar;3(1):86-91; discussion 92-6

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley 94720-1650, USA.

In this article, the authors elaborate on 3 ideas advanced in P. Rozin and A. B. Cohen's (2003) innovative study of facial expression. Taking a cue from their discovery of new expressive behaviors (e.g., the narrowed eyebrows), the authors review recent studies showing that emotions are conveyed in more channels than usually studied, including posture, gaze patterns, voice, and touch. Building on their claim that confusion has a distinct display, the authors review evidence showing distinct displays for 3 self-conscious emotions (embarrassment, shame, and pride), 5 positive emotions (amusement, desire, happiness, love, interest), and sympathy and compassion. Finally, the authors offer a functional definition of emotion to integrate these findings on "new" displays and emotions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1528-3542.3.1.86DOI Listing
March 2003