Publications by authors named "Michele R Forman"

112 Publications

Mapping a prevention strategy to reduce medically indicated preterm births: a trio of low-risk modifiable factors for the triad of the mother, fetus, and placenta.

Authors:
Michele R Forman

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab166DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of food insecurity with dietary intakes and nutritional biomarkers among US children, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2016.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: Food insecurity is associated with poorer nutrient intakes from food sources and lower dietary supplement use. However, its association with total usual nutrient intakes, inclusive of dietary supplements, and biomarkers of nutritional status among US children remains unknown.

Objective: The objective was to assess total usual nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) scores, and nutritional biomarkers by food security status, sex, and age among US children.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from 9147 children aged 1-18 y from the 2011-2016 NHANES were analyzed. Usual energy and total nutrient intakes and HEI-2015 scores were estimated using the National Cancer Institute method from 24-h dietary recalls.

Results: Overall diet quality was poor, and intakes of sodium, added sugars, and saturated fat were higher than recommended limits, regardless of food security status. Food-insecure girls and boys were at higher risk of inadequate intakes for vitamin D and magnesium, and girls also had higher risk for inadequate calcium intakes compared with their food-secure counterparts, when total intakes were examined. Choline intakes of food-insecure children were less likely to meet the adequate intake than those of their food-secure peers. No differences by food security status were noted for folate, vitamin C, iron, zinc, potassium, and sodium intakes. Food-insecure adolescent girls aged 14-18 y were at higher risk of micronutrient inadequacies than any other subgroup, with 92.8% (SE: 3.6%) at risk of inadequate intakes for vitamin D. No differences in biomarkers for vitamin D, folate, iron, and zinc were observed by food security status. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 12.7% in food-secure and 12.0% in food-insecure adolescent girls.

Conclusions: Food insecurity was associated with compromised intake of some micronutrients, especially among adolescent girls. These results highlight a need for targeted interventions to improve children's overall diet quality, including the reduction of specific nutrient inadequacies, especially among food-insecure children. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03400436.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab113DOI Listing
May 2021

TV viewing during childhood and adult type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 4;11(1):5157. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Institute for Prevention and Cancer Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Elsässerstr. 2, 79110, Freiburg, Germany.

We examined whether regular television (TV) viewing at ages 3-5 and 5-10 years is related to the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in adult women. We used data from 34,512 mother-nurse daughter dyads in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II and the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort Study. Mothers of NHS II participants completed a questionnaire on their pregnancy with the nurse and her early life experience. During 391,442 person-years of follow-up from 2001 to 2013, 1515 nurses developed T2D. Increasing levels of TV viewing at 3-5 years of age retrospectively reported by the mothers were related to a greater risk of T2D in adulthood: multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for ≤ 1, 2, and ≥ 3 h/day vs. no TV viewing were 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.28], 1.20 (95% CI 1.02-1.41), and 1.35 (95% CI 1.11-1.65), p trend = 0.002, respectively, after adjustment for early life variables, including childhood physical activity and adiposity. Retrospectively reported TV viewing for ≥ 3 h/day at 5-10 years of age was associated with a 34% greater risk of adult T2D (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.70, p trend < 0.001). Additional adjustments for adult variables, including adult TV viewing and current BMI attenuated the effect estimates (≥ 3 h/day TV viewing at 3-5 years: HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.99-1.49, p trend = 0.07; TV viewing at 5-10 years: 1.16, 95% CI 0.91-1.49, p trend = 0.09). The present study suggests that TV viewing during early childhood increases risk of T2D in adult women; adult BMI explains part of this association. Further research is required to confirm this observation and understand the mediating pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83746-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933176PMC
March 2021

A Glimmer of Hope for Medically Indicated Preterm Delivery.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Nutrition Science, College of Health and Human Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2021.0004DOI Listing
February 2021

Determinants of nutritional status during the first 1000 days of life in Lebanon: Sex of the child matters.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: The first 1000 days of life support child growth and long-term health, but few studies address this period in Lebanon and the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

Objective: To examine the determinants of nutritional status among Lebanese children ≤2 years old by child's sex.

Methods: We analysed data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 466 mother-child dyads. We classified socio-economic, maternal, and child characteristics using a hierarchical conceptual framework into distal, intermediate, and proximal levels, respectively. Sex-stratified weighted multiple linear regression was computed to identify the determinants of length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ).

Results: The mean (standard deviation) of LAZ and WLZ was -0.3 (1.6) and 0.5 (1.5) among boys and -0.1 (1.4) and 0.5 (1.0) among girls, respectively. At the distal level, maternal intermediate or high school education was associated with higher boys' LAZ (β 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2, 1.8), and less crowded households were associated with higher girls' LAZ (β 0.8, 95% CI 0.3, 1.4). At the intermediate level, maternal obesity was associated with lower girls' LAZ (β -0.9, 95% CI -1.4, -0.4). At the proximal level, birth length directly (β 0.1, 95% CI 0.0, 0.2) and breast-feeding duration inversely (β -0.1, 95% CI -0.1, -0.0) associated with girls' LAZ. For WLZ, paternal attainment of university degree or technical diploma was associated with lower boys' WLZ (β -0.9, 95% CI -1.8, -0.1). Among the proximal determinants, birthweight was directly associated with boys' WLZ (β 1.2, 95% CI 0.6, 1.8), while being a third or later child was associated with lower girls' WLZ (β -0.5, 95% CI -0.8, -0.2). Child age was directly associated with WLZ among boys and girls (β 0.1, 95% CI 0.0, 0.1).

Conclusions: Nutritional status determinants differed by child's sex in Lebanon. These findings may help inform interventions to improve child growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppe.12747DOI Listing
January 2021

REPRINT OF: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveys: I. State-Specific Prevalence Estimates of Behavioral Risk Factors.

Am J Prev Med 2020 12 18;59(6):779-786. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Division of Nutrition, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia.

Editor's Note: This article is a reprint of a previously published article. For citation purposes, please use the original publication details: Marks JS, Hogelin GC, Gentry EM, et al. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveys: I. State-specific prevalence estimates of behavioral risk factors. Am J Prev Med. 1985;1(6):1-8. The prevalence of most behavioral risk factors varies substantially among states. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking ranges from 22 percent to 38 percent. Estimates of alcohol use show geographic clustering, with lower rates in the southeastern states. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle, uncontrolled hypertension, overweight, and seatbelt use differs markedly among states. These findings represent an initial step toward the analysis of state-specific baseline risk-factor data for use in developing state programs aimed at reducing the leading causes of death in the United States.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.10.007DOI Listing
December 2020

The Gut Microbiota: A Promising Target in the Relation between Complementary Feeding and Child Undernutrition.

Adv Nutr 2021 Jun;12(3):969-979

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Child undernutrition is a major public health challenge that is persistent and disproportionately prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. Undernourished children face adverse health, economic, and social consequences that can be intergenerational. The first 1000 days of life, from conception until the child's second birthday, constitute the period of greatest vulnerability to undernutrition. The transition process from milk-based diets to solid, semi-solid, and soft food and liquids other than milk, referred to as complementary feeding (CF), occurs between the age of 6 mo and 2 y. CF practices that do not meet the WHO's guiding principles and are lacking in both quality and quantity increase susceptibility to undernutrition, restrict growth, and jeopardize child development and survival. The gut microbiota develops toward an adult-like configuration within the first 2-3 y of life. Recent studies suggest that significant changes in the gut microbial composition and functional capacity occur during the CF period, but these studies were conducted in high-income countries. Research in low- and middle-income countries, on the other hand, has implicated a disrupted gut microbiota in child undernutrition, and animal experiments reveal the potential for a causal relation. Given the growing body of evidence for a plausible role of the gut microbiota in the link between CF and undernutrition, microbiota-targeted complementary food may be a promising treatment modality for undernutrition management. The aims of this paper are to review the evidence for the relation between CF and undernutrition and to highlight the potential of the gut microbiota to be a promising target in this relation. Our summary of the current state of the knowledge in this area provides a foundation for future research and helps inform the design of interventions targeting the gut microbiota to combat child undernutrition and promote healthy growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmaa146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166545PMC
June 2021

Validity and Reproducibility of a Culture-Specific Food Frequency Questionnaire in Lebanon.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 29;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 11072020, Lebanon.

This study aims to assess the validity and reproducibility of a culture-specific semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for Lebanese adults. The 94-item FFQ captures intake of traditional Mediterranean dishes and Western food, reflective of current Lebanese nutrition transition. Among 107 participants (18-65 years), the FFQ was administered at baseline (FFQ-1) and one year thereafter (FFQ-2); 2-3 24-h recalls (24-HRs)/season were collected for a total of 8-12 over four seasons. A subset ( = 67) provided a fasting blood sample in the fall. Spearman-correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots, joint-classification and (ICC) were calculated. Mean intakes from FFQ-2 were higher than from the total 24-HRs. Correlations for diet from FFQ-2 and 24-HRs ranged from 0.17 for α-carotene to 0.65 for energy. Joint classification in the same/adjacent quartile ranged from 74.8% to 95%. FFQ-2-plasma carotenoid correlations ranged from 0.18 for lutein/zeaxanthin to 0.59 for β-carotene. Intra-class correlations for FFQ-1 and FFQ-2 ranged from 0.36 for β-cryptoxanthin to 0.85 for energy. 24-HRs carotenoid intake varied by season; combining season-specific 24-HRs proximal to biospecimen collection to the FFQ-2 improved diet-biochemical correlations. By applying dietary data from two tools with biomarkers taking into consideration seasonal variation, we report a valid, reproducible Lebanese FFQ for use in diet-disease research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692843PMC
October 2020

Nutrition and Breast Cancer Research in Arab Countries: Gaps, Opportunities, and Recommendations.

Nutr Cancer 2020 Sep 24:1-17. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

According to the WHO, Arab countries have the highest relative increase in Breast Cancer (BC) rates worldwide. Current shifts in dietary patterns in these countries are postulated as important modifiable risk factors of the disease. The objectives of this review were to examine the gaps and opportunities in the extent, range and nature of nutrition-related BC research in Arab countries. Studies ( = 286) were identified through searching 14 electronic databases. Among the gaps identified were limited international collaborations, preponderance of laboratory-based research at the expense of population-based research, focus on single supplement/nutrient/food research, limited use of dietary assessment tools, and studying nutrition in isolation of other environmental factors. Despite these gaps, several opportunities appeared. The distribution of papers among Arab countries suggested that collaboration between high and middle income countries could create a positive synergy between research expertise and wealth. In addition, the steady increase in the number of articles published during the last two decades reflected a promising momentum in nutrition and BC research in the Arab world. These gaps and opportunities constituted context-specific evidence to orient nutrition and BC research in Arab countries which could ultimately lead to development of effective interventions for prevention of BC in these countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2020.1823435DOI Listing
September 2020

Adipokines in adolescence; the associations with lung function and atopy - A cross-sectional study.

Respir Med 2020 Aug - Sep;170:106063. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway; Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Norway.

Both inflammatory and mechanical effects have been proposed to explain the increased risk of asthma and reduced lung function observed in obese children and adults. The evidence regarding the potential role of obesity in the aetiology of atopy and allergy is more conflicting. The adipokines leptin and adiponectin are inflammatory markers of fat metabolism which may be involved in explaining the increased risk of asthma and reduced lung function in obese children and adults. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to study how adiponectin and leptin were associated with lung function and atopic sensitisation in adolescents. The study included 384 children at mean age 12.9 years with measurements of adiponectin, leptin, lung function and atopic sensitisation. Adiponectin and leptin levels were measured in serum, lung function was measured by spirometry and atopic sensitisation was measured by serum specific Immunoglobulin E. In linear regression models, leptin was negatively associated with forced vital capacity (FVC) (Beta: -4.13; 95% Confidence Interval: -5.83, -2.44, P < 0.001) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV) (-3.74; -5.39, -2.09, P < 0.001) after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and other covariates. No associations were observed between adiponectin and lung function or between leptin or adiponectin and atopic sensitisation. In this cross-sectional analysis of adolescents in all weight classes, leptin was negatively associated with FEV and FVC independent of BMI, but no associations were found between adiponectin and lung function. The results suggest that leptin may have a functional role in the airways of healthy children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106063DOI Listing
June 2021

Association between pre-diagnostic leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number and survival among colorectal cancer patients.

Cancer Epidemiol 2020 10 14;68:101778. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA; Department of Global Health, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA; IU Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) is considered a biomarker for mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Although previous studies have suggested a potential relationship between mtDNAcn at the time of colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis and CRC prognosis, findings have been inconsistent, and no study has specifically investigated the association of pre-diagnostic mtDNAcn with CRC survival.

Methods: We examined the association of pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn (measured by qPCR) with overall and CRC-specific survival among 587 patients in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Cox models were constructed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs).

Results: During a mean follow-up of 10.5 years, 395 deaths were identified; 180 were due to CRC. Overall, we did not observe significant associations between mtDNAcn and either overall or CRC-specific survival among all cases or by cancer location, grade, or stage. In an exploratory stratified analysis, a suggestive inverse association of mtDNAcn and overall death risk appeared among current smokers [HR (95 % CI) for 1 SD decrease in mtDNAcn = 1.50 (0.98, 2.32), P-trend = 0.06]. Reduced mtDNAcn and lower CRC-specific death risk was observed among patients aged ≤ 70.5 at diagnosis [HR (95 % CI) for 1 SD decrease of mtDNAcn = 0.71 (0.52, 0.97), P-trend = 0.03], ≤ 5 years from blood collection to diagnosis [HR (95 % CI) for 1 SD decrease in mtDNAcn = 0.65 (0.44, 0.96), P-trend = 0.03] and those consuming a low-inflammatory diet [HR (95 % CI) for 1 SD decrease in mtDNAcn = 0.61 (0.42, 0.88), P-trend = 0.009].

Conclusion: no significant associations between pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn and either overall or CRC-specific survival appeared but exploratory analysis identified potential sub-group associations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2020.101778DOI Listing
October 2020

Insulinemic Potential of Lifestyle Is Inversely Associated with Leukocyte Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in US White Adults.

J Nutr 2020 08;150(8):2156-2163

Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Poor lifestyles have been linked to insulin insensitivity/hyperinsulinemia, which may contribute to downstream changes such as inflammation and oxidative damage and the development of chronic diseases. As a biomarker of intracellular oxidative stress, leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) has been related to lifestyle factors including diet and weight. No epidemiologic study has examined the relation between combined insulinemic potential of lifestyle and mtDNA-CN.

Objectives: Our aim was to examine the association between Empirical Lifestyle Index for Hyperinsulinemia (ELIH) and leukocyte mtDNA-CN in US men and women.

Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 2835 white adults without cancers, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease at blood collection, including 2160 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 675 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. ELIH is an index based on plasma C-peptide that characterizes the insulinemic potential of lifestyle (diet, body weight, and physical activity). Relative mtDNA-CN in peripheral blood leukocytes was measured by qPCR-based assay.

Results: We found a significant inverse association between ELIH and mtDNA-CN. In multivariable-adjusted linear models, absolute least squares means ± SDs of mtDNA-CN z score across ELIH quintiles in women were as follows: Q1: 0.14 ± 0.05; Q2: 0.04 ± 0.06; Q3: 0.008 ± 0.05; Q4: 0.01 ± 0.05; and Q5: -0.06 ± 0.05 (P-trend = 0.006). Means ± SDs in men were as follows: Q1: 0.25 ± 0.09; Q2: 0.23 ± 0.09; Q3: 0.07 ± 0.09; Q4: 0.02 ± 0.09; and Q5: -0.04 ± 0.09 (P-trend = 0.007). Means ± SDs in all participants were as follows: Q1: 0.16 ± 0.05; Q2: 0.07 ± 0.05; Q3: 0.01 ± 0.05; Q4: 0.01 ± 0.05; and Q5: -0.05 ± 0.05 (P-trend = 0.0004).

Conclusions: Hyperinsulinemic lifestyles (i.e., higher ELIH) were associated with lower leukocyte mtDNA-CN among subjects without major diseases, suggesting that the difference in lifestyle insulinemic potential may be related to excessive oxidative stress damage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398789PMC
August 2020

Exclusive breastfeeding during the 40-day rest period and at six months in Lebanon: a cross-sectional study.

Int Breastfeed J 2020 05 19;15(1):45. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47906, USA.

Background: Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months of life with well-established benefits to the mother and child. The traditional practice of the 40-day rest period helps establish and maintain exclusive breastfeeding. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and examine the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 40 days and at 6 months in Lebanon.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011-2012 as part of the "Early Life Nutrition and Health in Lebanon" study. A nationally representative sample of 1005 children aged five years or younger and their mothers was drawn from households using a stratified cluster sampling design. Trained nutritionists interviewed eligible mothers about sociodemographic characteristics of the household and maternal and child characteristics including infant feeding practices. Anthropometric measurements of the mother and child were collected. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the characteristics associated with exclusive breastfeeding.

Results: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 41.5% at 40 days and 12.3% at 6 months. Children in families with three or more children had higher odds of exclusive breastfeeding for 40 days (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 1.76, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.19, 2.60). Children in families owning two or more cars had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding for 40 days (AOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24, 0.83) and at 6 months (AOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14, 0.77). Similarly, children delivered via Caesarian section had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding for 40 days (AOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.34, 0.71) and at 6 months (AOR 0.39, 95% CI 0.24, 0.65). The odds of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months were lower among children of overweight (AOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26, 0.95) or obese (AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.98) mothers.

Conclusions: The association between higher socio-economic status, as reflected by car ownership, and C-section delivery with lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding persisted across the first 6 months in Lebanon. Future research should investigate the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in prospective cohort studies and help to better understand the cultural practice of the 40-day rest period in relation to breastfeeding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13006-020-00289-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236524PMC
May 2020

In utero exposure to the Great Chinese Famine and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in midlife.

Neurology 2020 05 10;94(19):e1996-e2004. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

From the Department of Preventive Medicine (Yun Li), School of Public Health, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan; Department of Nutritional Sciences (Yun Li, X.G.), Pennsylvania State University, State College; Department of Nutrition (Yanping Li), Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Department of Neurology (M.E.G.), Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston; Departments of Neurology (Y. Liu) and Cardiology (J.S., S.W.), Kailuan General Hospital, North China University of Science and Technology; Department of Neurosurgery (P.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan; Department of Neurology (S.Z.), The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China; and Department of Nutrition Science (M.R.F.), Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Objective: To investigate whether in utero exposure to the Great Chinese Famine in 1959 to 1961 was associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in adulthood.

Methods: In this cohort analysis, we included 97,399 participants of the Kailuan Study who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline (2006). Cases of incident ICH were confirmed by medical record review. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for ICH according to in utero famine exposure status.

Results: Among 97,399 participants in the current analyses, 6.3% (n = 6,160) had been prenatally exposed to the Great Chinese Famine. During a median 9.0 years of follow-up (2006-2015), we identified 724 cases of incident ICH. After adjustment for potential confounders, the HR of ICH was 1.99 (95% CI 1.39-2.85) for in utero famine-exposed individuals vs individuals who were not exposed to the famine. When exposure to famine and severity of famine were examined jointly, the adjusted HR was 2.99 (95% CI 1.21-7.39) for in utero exposure to severe famine and 1.94 (95% CI 1.32-2.84) for in utero exposure to less severe famine relative to those without exposure to famine.

Conclusions: Individuals with in utero exposure to famine, especially those exposed to severe famine, were more likely to have ICH in midlife, highlighting the role of nutritional factors in susceptibility to this severe cerebral condition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282880PMC
May 2020

Breast Cancer and Nutrition: A Paradigm for Prevention in 3D Across the Life Course.

Authors:
Michele R Forman

Front Oncol 2020 18;10:129. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University Cancer Center, Center for Aging and the Life Course, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States.

Breast cancer, the most common cancer in women worldwide, has recognized reproductive and anthropometric risk factors including age at menarche and adult height. Yet the age a woman attains her adult height or experiences menarche for example is simply the timing of the major life event at the end of a long trail of exposures that began . The objective of this article is to investigate through a review of the literature the role of nutrition in breast cancer prevention through three dimensions (D). Each D offers a different lens. The First D identifies of exposures or conditions that convey vulnerability or protection from breast cancer. The Second addresses the of the exposure; and the ( D) examines the pace, i.e., how rapid or slow the young woman experiences her growth and development. Birthweight illustrative of the First D reveals a strong signal across the life course on BC risk, but the risk group varies from low to high birthweight. Stressful life events like being a pubertal aged girl living in a household with an unemployed father during the Great Depression or high levels of environmental contaminants exposure are representative of the Second D. Height velocity at specific ages and weight loss in postmenopausal years are illustrative of anthropometric trajectories that reveal an adaptive biosystem that provides a contextual state to interact with the other two Ds. This article presents a new paradigm of nutrition and breast cancer prevention through the lens of three very different dimensions. It is the premise of this article that all three dimensions are essential tasks to tease apart the life course and identify windows for preventive strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040200PMC
February 2020

Food insecurity and the extremes of childhood weight: defining windows of vulnerability.

Int J Epidemiol 2020 04;49(2):519-527

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Background: Weight extremes and food insecurity (FIS) represent public-health challenges, yet their associations in childhood remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal time-specific relationship between FIS and risk of overweight/obesity and underweight in kindergarten through 8th grade.

Methods: In the prospective Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (1998-2007) of 6368 children, household FIS was assessed by the validated US Household Food Security Survey Module in kindergarten, 3rd, 5th and 8th grades. Multivariable linear-regression and Poisson-regression models were computed.

Results: Compared with children experiencing food security (FS), children exposed to FIS in 5th grade had 0.19 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07-0.30] and 0.17 (0.06-0.27) higher body mass index z-score (BMIZ) in the 5th and 8th grades, respectively, whereas FIS in the 8th grade was associated with a 0.29 (0.19-0.40) higher BMIZ at the same wave, after adjusting for covariates and FIS at earlier waves. Children with FIS vs FS had 27% (relative risk: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.07-1.51), 21% (1.21, 1.08-1.35) and 28% (1.28, 1.07-1.53) higher risk of overweight/obesity in the 3rd, 5th and 8th grades, respectively, adjusting for covariates and FIS at prior wave(s). Children with FIS vs FS in kindergarten had a 2.76-fold (1.22-6.25) higher risk of underweight in the 8th grade.

Conclusions: Proximal exposure to household FIS was associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity in the 3rd, 5th and 8th grades. FIS in kindergarten was associated with a risk of underweight in the 8th grade. Thus, FIS coexists in weight extremes during vulnerable early-life windows in the USA, similarly to the global burden of FIS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyz233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266558PMC
April 2020

Pre-diagnostic leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number and colorectal cancer risk.

Carcinogenesis 2019 12;40(12):1462-1468

Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is susceptible to oxidative stress and mutation. Few epidemiological studies have assessed the relationship between mtDNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), with inconsistent findings. In this study, we examined the association between pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn and CRC risk in a case-control study of 324 female cases and 658 matched controls nested within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). Relative mtDNAcn in peripheral blood leukocytes was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based assay. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of interest. Results showed lower log-mtDNAcn was significantly associated with increased risk of CRC, in a dose-dependent relationship (P for trend < 0.0001). Compared to the fourth quartile, multivariable-adjusted OR [95% confidence interval (CI)] was 1.10 (0.69, 1.76) for the third quartile, 1.40 (0.89, 2.19) for the second quartile and 2.19 (1.43, 3.35) for the first quartile. In analysis by anatomic subsite of CRC, we found a significant inverse association for proximal colon cancer [lowest versus highest quartile, multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) = 3.31 (1.70, 6.45), P for trend = 0.0003]. Additionally, stratified analysis according to the follow-up time since blood collection showed that the inverse association between mtDNAcn and CRC remained significant among individuals with ≥ 5 years' follow-up, and marginally significant among those with ≥ 10 years' follow-up since mtDNAcn testing, suggesting that mtDNAcn may serve as a long-term predictor for risk of CRC. In conclusion, pre-diagnostic leukocyte mtDNAcn was inversely associated with CRC risk. Further basic experimental studies are needed to explore the underlying biological mechanisms linking mtDNAcn to CRC carcinogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgz159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346713PMC
December 2019

Quality of Life after Dietary Self-Management Intervention for Persons with Early Stage CKD.

Nephrol Nurs J 2019 Jan-Feb;46(1):23-47

Distinguished Professor and Head, Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Dietary recommendations that potentially delay the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be perceived as restrictive and unpalatable, negatively impacting quality of life (QOL). This pilot study examined the effect of a six-week small group intervention, "Self-Management of Dietary Intake Using Mindful Eating," on QOL, health literacy, and dietary self-efficacy among persons with CKD Stages 1-3. Improvements (n=19) were found from pre-test to post-test in total scores for Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form-36 (p=0.003), health literacy (p=0.001), and self-efficacy (p=0.003). The intervention had promising results for improving both diet management and QOL, which supports further testing in randomized control trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
July 2019

Timing of household food insecurity exposures and asthma in a cohort of US school-aged children.

BMJ Open 2019 02 22;8(11):e021683. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

Objective: Food insecurity is positively associated with asthma, the most common chronic childhood disease, yet directionality is unclear. The objective was to determine the association between exposure to food insecurity in early childhood and the odds of asthma later in childhood.

Design: Data from four waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) cohort, a prospective, dual-frame, multistage probability cluster sampling study of school-aged US children were entered in multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for covariates. Exposures to food insecurity were based on parental responses to the validated USDA 18-item module at each wave.

Setting: Public and private primary and secondary schools between 1998 and 2007.

Participants: At its inception (1999), the ECLS-K had 20 578 kindergarteners; by the spring of eighth grade (2007), the cohort dropped to 9725 due to attrition. Children missing an exposure, outcome or confounding variable were excluded, final n=6731.

Primary Outcome Measure: Child's diagnosis of asthma by a healthcare professional as reported by the parent.

Results: Household food insecurity (vs food security) in the year before kindergarten and in second grade had a higher odds of asthma by 18% (95% CI 1.17 to 1.20) and 55% (95% CI 1.51 to 1.55). After removing asthmatics before third grade from the model, food insecurity in second grade was associated with higher odds of asthma at fifth or eighth grades (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.53 to 1.58), whereas food insecurity in the year before kindergarten had a lower odds at fifth or eighth grades.

Conclusions: Food insecurity in the year before kindergarten and in second grade were associated with a higher odds of asthma in third grade. Food insecurity in second grade retained the signal for increased odds of asthma after third and through eighth grades. Additional research is needed to explore childhood windows of vulnerability to asthma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278782PMC
February 2019

The interaction of personal, contextual, and study characteristics and their effect on recruitment and participation of pregnant women in research: a qualitative study in Lebanon.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2018 11 29;18(1):155. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Declining participation rates are impeding health research. Little is known about factors influencing the decision to participate in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Therefore, this paper reports on the various individual factors and their with contextual factors in influencing participation in research among pregnant women and the recommendations to enhance their recruitment in Lebanon.

Methods: This study used a qualitative research design drawing on focus groups and in-depth interviews. The Theoretical Domain Framework guided data collection and analysis. The three participant groups included: Group 1-Pregnant women (n = 25) attending public pre-natal events and antenatal clinics in Beirut; Group 2-Pregnant women (n = 6) already enrolled in the ongoing Mother and Infant Nutritional Assessment birth cohort study; Group 3-Key informants (n = 13) including health care workers involved in recruiting pregnant women. Conversations were audio recorded, transcribed, translated into English, and thematically analyzed.

Results: Three main factors influencing participation were revealed, with each factor encompassing several sub-themes: (1) personal factors (altruism, self-confidence, personal interest in the topic, previous understanding of the nature and purpose of research, education level, and previous research experience), (2) contextual factors (societal factors, family and friends), and (3) study characteristics (burden of the study, ethical considerations, incentives, and research interpersonal skills and physician endorsement to participate). The results suggested a dynamic interaction among the identified factors, forming two intersecting axes, with a four-quadrant configuration. The y- and x-axes represented personal factors and contextual factors, respectively. Individuals positioned on the lower-left quadrant were the least likely to participate; those on the upper-right quadrant were the most likely to participate; while those on the upper-left and lower-right quadrants were indecisive. Study characteristics seemed to affect the decision of pregnant women to participate situated in any of the four quadrants. Specific recommendations to improve participation were also identified.

Conclusions: Our findings suggested an interaction of personal factors, contextual factors, and study characteristics affecting subjects' participation. This interaction integrates factors into a novel dynamic framework that could be used in future studies. The recommendations identified may help improve participation of pregnant women in health research hence enhancing the quality and generalizability of research findings in LMIC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-018-0616-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267028PMC
November 2018

Longitudinal associations of family functioning with body mass index in Mexican-origin adolescents living in the U.S.

Prev Med 2019 01 9;118:309-316. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States of America. Electronic address:

Mexican-origin adolescents have a high prevalence of obesity. Research is needed to understand how family context may shape adolescent BMI. This study examined longitudinal associations of family functioning variables with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's modified BMI z-score (BMIaz) in 1175 Mexican-origin adolescents, and explored interactions with acculturation. Adolescents (50% female, aged 11-13 y in 2005-06) were identified from an ongoing cohort study of Mexican-origin adults in Houston, TX, and were assessed three times from 2005-06 to 2010-11. In multivariate linear mixed models stratified by gender, we assessed longitudinal associations of family cohesion and family conflict with adolescent BMIaz and explored interactions with language acculturation. We disaggregated the between- (mean) and within-person (individual deviation) components of family cohesion and family conflict to assess the effects on BMIaz. Approximately one-third of adolescents were obese at baseline, and BMIaz declined during the study. In girls, higher mean family cohesion and conflict were associated with steeper declines in BMIaz. Parental linguistic acculturation modified the relationship between within-person deviation in family cohesion and BMIaz in girls, such that high parental U.S. acculturation was associated with a stronger inverse association. There were no significant associations in boys. These findings highlight the potential importance of the family context to female adolescent BMI and the promise of addressing family context in obesity-related interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.11.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467205PMC
January 2019

Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and healthy ageing.

BMJ 2018 10 17;363:k4263. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6191823PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k4263DOI Listing
October 2018

Weight estimation among multi-racial/ethnic infants and children aged 0-5·9 years in the USA: simple tools for a critical measure.

Public Health Nutr 2019 01 18;22(1):147-156. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

3Department of Nutritional Sciences,University of Texas at Austin,Austin,TX,USA.

Objective: In resource-constrained facilities or during resuscitation, immediate paediatric weight estimation remains a fundamental challenge. We aimed to develop and validate weight estimation models based on ulna length and forearm width and circumference measured by simple and portable tools; and to compare them against previous methods (advanced paediatric life support (APLS), Theron and Traub-Johnson formulas).

Design: Cross-sectional analysis of anthropometric measurements. Four ulna- and forearm-based weight estimation models were developed in the training set (n 1016). Assessment of bias, precision and accuracy was examined in the validation set (n 457).

Setting: National Children's Study-Formative Research in Anthropometry (2011-2012).

Subjects: Multi-racial/ethnic infants and children aged <6 years (n 1473).

Results: Developed Models 1-4 had high predictive precision (R 2=0·91-0·97). Mean percentage errors between predicted and measured weight were significantly smaller across the developed models (0·1-0·7 %) v. the APLS, Theron and Traub-Johnson formulas (-1·7, 9·2 and -4·9 %, respectively). Root-mean-squared percentage error was overall smaller among Models 1-4 v. the three existing methods (range=7·5-8·7 v. 9·8-13·3 %). Further, Models 1-4 were within 10 and 20 % of actual weight in 72-87 and 95-99 % of the weight estimations, respectively, which outperformed any of the three existing methods.

Conclusions: Ulna length, forearm width and forearm circumference by simple and portable tools could serve as valid and reliable surrogate measures of weight among infants and children aged <6 years with improved precision over the existing age- or length-based methods. Further validation of these models in physically impaired or non-ambulatory children is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980018002549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312489PMC
January 2019

The Association of Television Viewing in Childhood With Overweight and Obesity Throughout the Life Course.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 02;188(2):282-293

Department of Nutrition Science, College of Health and Human Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

Few studies have addressed the association between television viewing time in childhood and overweight/obesity across the life course. Among 30,921 mother-daughter dyads from the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort (2001) and the Nurses' Health Study II (1989 and 1991), the following information was collected: daughter's television viewing time and physical activity (PA) level at ages 3-5 and 5-10 years, somatotype at ages 5 and 10 years, and body mass index at age 18 years and in adulthood (ages 26-45 years). According to multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, television viewing at least 4 hours/day versus no television at ages 3-5 years was associated with odds ratios of overweight/obesity of 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.17) at age 5 years, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.86) at age 10 years, 1.31 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.70) at age 18 years, and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.59) in adulthood. A composite variable of high television viewing time/low PA level versus low television viewing time/high PA level at ages 3-5 years was associated with odds ratios of overweight/obesity ranging from 3.22 (95% CI: 2.23, 4.65) at age 5 years to 1.82 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.45) in adulthood. Findings were similar at ages 5-10 years. Long hours of television viewing in childhood alone and in combination with low PA levels were consistently associated with overweight/obesity throughout life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357794PMC
February 2019

Age at Introduction of Solid Food and Obesity Throughout the Life Course.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2018 10 11;26(10):1611-1618. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between age at solid food (SF) introduction and obesity throughout the life course.

Methods: Among 31,816 mother- nurse daughter dyads in the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort Study and the Nurses' Health Study II, information was collected on age at SF introduction, body somatotype at ages 5 and 10, and Body Mass Index at age 18 and in adulthood. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for obesity throughout life were estimated using logistic regression models with adjustment for parental and nurse daughter covariates.

Results: Nurse daughters introduced to SF at ≥ 9 months versus 6 to 9 months had marginally higher age-adjusted (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.47) and covariate-adjusted (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.47) odds of obesity at age 5. Age at SF introduction was not related to obesity at ages 10 and 18 or in adulthood.

Conclusions: Late age at SF introduction was marginally associated with obesity at age 5, but this association did not persist throughout the life course.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.22277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6168355PMC
October 2018

The associations between weight-related anthropometrics during childhood and lung function in late childhood: a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Pulm Med 2018 Jan 19;18(1):10. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Department of Paediatrics, Stavanger University Hospital, POB 8100, N-4068, Stavanger, Norway.

Background: An association between body weight in childhood and subsequent lung function and asthma has been suggested, but few longitudinal studies exist. Our aim was to explore whether weight-related anthropometric measurements through childhood were associated with lung function in late childhood.

Methods: From an original nested case-control study, a cohort study was conducted, where lung function was measured in 463 children aged 12.8 years, and anthropometry was measured at several ages from birth through 12.8 years of age. Associations between anthropometrics and lung function were analysed using multiple linear and fractional polynomial regression analysis.

Results: Birthweight and body mass index (BMI; kg/m) at different ages through childhood were positively associated with forced vital capacity in percent of predicted (FVC %) and forced expiratory volume in the first second in percent of predicted (FEV%) at 12.8 years of age. BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and skinfolds at 12.8 years of age and the change in BMI from early to late childhood were positively associated with FVC % and FEV% and negatively associated with FEV/FVC and forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC/FVC. Interaction analyses showed that positive associations between anthropometrics other than BMI and lung function were mainly found in girls. Inverse U-shaped associations were found between BMI at the ages of 10.8/11.8 (girls/boys) and 12.8 years (both genders) and FVC % and FEV% at 12.8 years of age.

Conclusions: Weight-related anthropometrics through childhood may influence lung function in late childhood. These findings may be physiological or associated with air flow limitation. Inverse U-shaped associations suggest a differential impact on lung function in normal-weight and overweight children.

Trial Registration: This study was observational without any health care intervention for the participants. Therefore, no trial registration number is available.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-017-0567-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5775530PMC
January 2018

Maternal inflammatory diet and adverse pregnancy outcomes: Circulating cytokines and genomic imprinting as potential regulators?

Epigenetics 2017 08 5;12(8):688-697. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

h Department of Biological Sciences , North Carolina State University, Raleigh , NC , USA.

Excessive inflammation during pregnancy alters homeostatic mechanisms of the developing fetus and has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. An anti-inflammatory diet could be a promising avenue to combat the pro-inflammatory state of pregnancy, particularly in obese women, but we lack mechanistic data linking this dietary pattern during pregnancy to inflammation and birth outcomes. In an ethnically diverse cohort of 1057 mother-child pairs, we estimated the relationships between dietary inflammatory potential [measured via the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII™)] and birth outcomes overall, as well as by offspring sex and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). In a subset of women, we also explored associations between E-DII, circulating cytokines (n = 105), and offspring methylation (n = 338) as potential modulators of these relationships using linear regression. Adjusted regression models revealed that women with pro-inflammatory diets had elevated rates of preterm birth among female offspring [β = -0.22, standard error (SE) = 0.07, P<0.01], but not male offspring (β=0.09, SE = 0.06, P<0.12) (P = 0.003). Similarly, we observed pro-inflammatory diets were associated with higher rates of caesarean delivery among obese women (β = 0.17, SE = 0.08, P = 0.03), but not among women with BMI <25 kg/m (P = 0.02). We observed consistent inverse associations between maternal inflammatory cytokine concentrations (IL-12, IL-17, IL-4, IL-6, and TNFα) and lower methylation at the MEG3 regulatory sequence (P<0.05); however, results did not support the link between maternal E-DII and circulating cytokines. We replicate work by others on the association between maternal inflammatory diet and adverse pregnancy outcomes and provide the first empirical evidence supporting the inverse association between circulating cytokine concentrations and offspring methylation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2017.1347241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5687326PMC
August 2017

The Associations of Height-for-Age, Weight-for-Age, and Weight-for-Height With Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2017 07;39(5):376-381

*Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center ‡Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston †Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX §Department of Nutrition Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Height at diagnosis has been analyzed in connection with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Most prior studies have compared cases to national reference data derived from previous birth cohorts. Our objective was to determine the association of height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at time of diagnosis with the odds ratio (OR) of ALL in a case-control study (N=498) with a contemporaneous population of age-matched, sex-matched, and ethnicity-matched controls. We hypothesized that cases would have greater mean HAZ at time of diagnosis/interview, after adjustment for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ). HAZ was not associated with ALL. For each 1 SD increase in WAZ the OR of ALL was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68-0.99). The OR of ALL was increased among children who had either a WAZ ≤-2 (OR, 5.10; 95% CI, 1.85-16.75) or WHZ of ≤-2 (OR, 5.27; 95% CI, 1.65-23.61). Previous findings of taller height among ALL cases may arise from the choice of control populations. Children with low WAZ or WHZ were at increased odds of ALL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0000000000000874DOI Listing
July 2017

Exposure to preeclampsia in utero affects growth from birth to late childhood dependent on child's sex and severity of exposure: Follow-up of a nested case-control study.

PLoS One 2017 9;12(5):e0176627. Epub 2017 May 9.

Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background And Objective: An adverse intrauterine environment may affect offspring growth and development. Our aim was to explore whether preeclampsia (PE) exposure in utero influences growth from birth to 13 years.

Methods: In a nested case-control study, 229 children were exposed to PE (mild/moderate: n = 164, severe: n = 54) and 385 were unexposed. Length/height and weight were abstracted from records at birth, 3 and 6 months, 1 and 4 years, and measured along with waist circumference and skinfolds at follow-up at 11/12 (girls/boys) and 13 years (both sexes). Associations between PE and z-scores for growth were analyzed by multiple linear and fractional polynomial regression with adjustment for potential confounders.

Results: In boys, exposure to mild/moderate PE was positively associated with linear growth after 0.5 years, but severe PE was negatively associated with linear growth in all ages. In girls, both exposure to mild/moderate and severe PE were negatively associated with linear growth. Exposure to PE was negatively associated with weight and body mass index (BMI) during infancy, but positively associated with weight and BMI thereafter, except that boys exposed to severe PE consistently had a lower weight and BMI compared to the unexposed. Exposure to severe PE only was positively associated with waist-to-height ratio at 11/12 (girls/boys) and 13 years (both sexes).

Conclusions: From birth to adolescence, linear growth, weight and BMI trajectories differed between the sexes by severity of exposure to PE. In general, PE exposure was negatively associated with linear growth, while in girls; positive associations with weight and BMI were observed. This underlines fetal life as a particularly sensitive period affecting subsequent growth and this may have implications for targeted approaches for healthy growth and development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176627PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5423584PMC
September 2017

Self-management of dietary intake using mindful eating to improve dietary intake for individuals with early stage chronic kidney disease.

J Behav Med 2017 Oct 15;40(5):702-711. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

Department of Nutritional Sciences and Population Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Using mindful eating to improve specific dietary recommendations has not been adequately studied. This feasibility study examined an intervention, self-management of dietary intake using mindful eating, with 19 participants that had mild to moderate chronic kidney disease, using a prospective, single group, pretest-posttest design. The intervention had six weekly classes focused on self-management using mindful eating, goal-setting, problem-solving, and food label reading. Weight, body mass index (BMI), 3-day 24-h dietary recalls and fasting blood samples were measured. Participants improved significantly in mean weight (203.21 ± 42.98 vs 199.91 ± 40.36 lbs; P = 0.03) and BMI (32.02 ± 5.22 vs 31.57 ± 5.27 kg/m; P = 0.04), but not in dietary intake nor blood measures with the exception of cis-beta-carotene levels (0.020 + 0.012 vs 0.026 + 0.012 mcg/mL; P = 0.008), which correlates to fruit and vegetable servings. These promising results warrant further testing of the intervention in randomized control trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-017-9835-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5996381PMC
October 2017