Publications by authors named "Michele Procacci"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Metacognition as a Predictor of Improvements in Personality Disorders.

Front Psychol 2019 8;10:170. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Third Centre of Cognitive Psychotherapy - Italian School of Cognitive Psychotherapy (SICC), Rome, Italy.

Personality Disorders (PDs) are particularly hard to treat and treatment drop-out rates are high. Several authors have agreed that psychotherapy is more successful when it focuses on the core of personality pathology. For this reason, therapists dealing with PDs need to understand the psychopathological variables that characterize this pathology and exactly what contributes to maintaining psychopathological processes. Moreover, several authors have noted that one key problem that characterizes all PDs is an impairment in understanding mental states - here termed metacognition - which could also be responsible for therapy failures. Unfortunately, a limited number of studies have investigated the role of mentalization in the process of change during psychotherapy. In this paper, we assume that poor metacognition corresponds to a core element of the general pathology of personality, impacts a series of clinical variables, generates symptoms and interpersonal problems, and causes treatment to be slower and less effective. We explored whether changes in metacognition predicted an improvement among different psychopathological variables characterizing PDs; 193 outpatients were treated at the Third Center of Cognitive Psychotherapy in Rome, Italy, and followed a structured path tailored for the different psychopathological variables that emerged from a comprehensive psychodiagnostic assessment that considered patients' symptoms, metacognitive abilities, interpersonal relationships, personality psychopathology, and global functioning. The measurements were repeated after a year of treatment. The results showed that changes in metacognitive abilities predicted improvements in the analyzed variables.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375846PMC
February 2019

Levels of Social Sharing and Clinical Implications for Severe Social Withdrawal in Patients with Personality Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2017 4;8:263. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Third Centre of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Rome, Italy.

Social sharing capacities have attracted attention from a number of fields of social cognition and have been variously defined and analyzed in numerous studies. Social sharing consists in the subjective awareness that aspects of the self's experience are held in common with other individuals. The definition of social sharing must take a variety of elements into consideration: the motivational element, the contents of the social sharing experience, the emotional responses it evokes, the behavioral outcomes, and finally, the circumstances and the skills which enable social sharing. The primary objective of this study is to explore some of the diverse forms of human social sharing and to classify them according to levels of complexity. We identify four different types of social sharing, categorized according to the nature of the content being shared and the complexity of the mindreading skills required. The second objective of this study is to consider possible applications of this graded model of social sharing experience in clinical settings. Specifically, this model may support the development of graded, focused clinical interventions for patients with personality disorders characterized by severe social withdrawal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5722791PMC
December 2017

Avoidant personality disorder and social phobia: Does mindreading make the difference?

Compr Psychiatry 2018 01 28;80:163-169. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Third Center of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Rome, Italy; SPC School of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is closely related to and partially overlaps with social phobia (SP). There is an ongoing debate as to whether AvPD and SP can be classified as separate and distinct disorders or whether these diagnoses rather reflect different degrees of severity of social anxiety. The hypothesis of this study is that in patients with AvPD and in those with AvPD and comorbid SP both interpersonal functioning and metacognitive abilities (the ability to understand mental states) are more severely impaired than they are in patients with SP only. We also hypothesise that the interpersonal and metacognitive functioning of these patients (both AvPD and AvPD+SP) is comparable to that of patients with other PD diagnoses.

Methods: To test this hypothesis, we compared four groups (22 patients with SP, 32 patients with AvPD, 43 patients with both AvPD and SP and 50 patients with other personality disorders without SP and AvPD criteria) on metacognitive abilities, interpersonal functioning and global symptomatic distress.

Results: Metacognitive ability showed significant variation among the four groups, with the lowest score observed in the AvPD group. As far as the interpersonal functioning is concerned, the lack of sociability was more severe in the AvPD group compared with the SP group. These differences were maintained even after controlling for global symptomatic distress.

Conclusion: Results are in line with the alternative model of PD, proposed in the DSM-5, as dysfunction of the self and relationships. They suggest that specific impairments in critical areas of self domains and interpersonal domains of personality functioning may serve as markers distinguishing AvPD from SP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2017.09.011DOI Listing
January 2018

Mindreading Dysfunction in Avoidant Personality Disorder Compared With Other Personality Disorders.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2016 Oct;204(10):752-757

*Terzo Centro di Psicoterapia Cognitiva, Rome; †Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Caserta; and ‡Department of Psychology, Center of Cognitive Science, University of Turin, Italy.

The ability to reflect on one's own states of mind and those of others (metacognition or mindreading) is strongly implicated in personality disorders (PDs). Metacognition involves different abilities, and there is evidence that specific abilities can be selectively impaired in different PDs. The purposes of this study were to compare metacognitive competence in avoidant PD (AvPD) with that in other PDs and to investigate whether there is a specific profile for AvPD. Sixty-three patients with AvPD and 224 patients with other PDs were assessed using the Metacognitive Assessment Interview. AvPD patients showed difficulties with two metacognitive functions: monitoring and decentration, even when the severity of psychopathology was controlled for. These results support the hypothesis of specific profiles of metacognitive dysfunction in different PDs and highlight a close link between impaired monitoring and decentration functions and the inhibited and withdrawn personality style typical of AvPD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000536DOI Listing
October 2016

Personality Disorders and Mindreading: Specific Impairments in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Other PDs.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2015 Aug;203(8):626-31

*Terzo Centro di Psicoterapia Cognitiva & SPC School of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Rome; †Department of Psychology, Center of Cognitive Science, University of Turin, Turin; and ‡Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, Salerno, Italy.

The capacity of understanding mental states is a complex function which involves several components. Single components can be selectively impaired in specific clinical populations. It has been suggested that impairments in mindreading are central for borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, empirical findings are inconsistent, and it is debatable whether BPD presents a specific profile of mindreading impairments. The aim of this study is to compare BPD and other PDs in mindreading. Seventy-two patients with BPD and 125 patients with other PD diagnoses were assessed using the Metacognition Assessment Interview. BPD showed difficulties in two mindreading functions, differentiation and integration, even when the severity of psychopathology was controlled. These results suggest a specific mindreading impairment in BPD and a strong relationship between these impairments and the severity of psychopathology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000339DOI Listing
August 2015

Metacognitive dysfunctions in personality disorders: correlations with disorder severity and personality styles.

J Pers Disord 2014 Dec;28(6):751-66

Metacognitive impairment is crucial to explaining difficulties in life tasks of patients with personality disorders (PDs). However, several issues remain open. There is a lack of evidence that metacognitive impairments are more severe in patients with PDs. The relationship between severity of PD pathology and the extent of metacognitive impairment has not been explored, and there has not been any finding to support the linking of different PDs with specific metacognitive profiles. The authors administered the Metacognitive Assessment Interview to 198 outpatients with PDs and 108 outpatients with no PDs, differentiating overall severity from stylistic elements of personality pathology. Results showed that metacognitive impairments were more severe in the group with PDs than in the control group, and that metacognitive dysfunctions and the severity of the PD were highly associated. Positive correlations were found between specific metacognitive dysfunctions and specific personality styles. Results suggest that metacognitive impairments could be considered a common pathogenic factor for PDs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2014_28_137DOI Listing
December 2014

Differences between axes depend on where you set the bar: associations among symptoms, interpersonal relationship and alexithymia with number of personality disorder criteria.

J Pers Disord 2013 Jun 6;27(3):371-82. Epub 2012 Nov 6.

Third Center of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Rome, Italy.

Personality disorders are better understood as entities that vary according to severity along specific domains rather than a phenomenon separate from and unrelated to Axis I disorders. This study explores whether patients who were rated as having greater numbers of personality disorder traits reported greater levels of interpersonal problems, psychiatric symptoms, and alexithymia. The sample was composed of 506 consecutive patients assessed in a private outpatient center who were administered the SCID-II Symptom-Checklist (SCL-90-R), Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-47), and Toronto Alexithymia-Scale (TAS-.20). Based upon the number of personality disorder traits identified in the SCID, participants were classified into five groups: 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, and 20 or more personality disorder traits met. Comparisons between groups revealed that symptom severity and levels of interpersonal problems increased between groups as the number of personality disorder traits increased. After covarying for symptom severity, there were no significant between-groups differences for levels of alexithymia. Findings are consistent with the claims that the simple Axis I-Axis II distinction is not an optimal strategy to understand personality pathology. It instead may be more fruitful to consider group differences in terms of numbers of personality disorder traits met.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2012_26_043DOI Listing
June 2013

Associations of metacognition with symptoms, insight, and neurocognition in clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2012 Jul;200(7):644-7

Terzo Centro di Psicoterapia Cognitiva, Rome, Italy.

Research indicates that many with schizophrenia experience deficits in metacognitive capacity or the ability to form complex representations of themselves and others. Previous work has found that metacognitive capacity in schizophrenia is correlated with symptoms, insight, and neurocognitive deficits. We sought to replicate these results in a sample of Italian participants treated in a community setting. Metacognition was assessed with the abbreviated Metacognition Assessment Scale and correlated with concurrent assessment of symptoms, insight, and neurocognitive abilities, including verbal and visual memory, premorbid intelligence, processing speed, and executive function. Correlations revealed that, consistent with previous work, lesser capacity for self-reflectivity was related to greater levels of negative symptoms, poorer insight, neurocognitive impairment (particularly impairments in verbal and visual memory) premorbid intelligence, and processing speed. Other metacognitive domains were also linked to poorer neurocognition. Results support contentions that deficits in metacognition are linked with negative symptoms, insight, and neurocognitive deficits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e31825bfb10DOI Listing
July 2012

Vulnerable self, poor understanding of others' minds, threat anticipation and cognitive biases as triggers for delusional experience in schizophrenia: a theoretical model.

Clin Psychol Psychother 2012 May-Jun;19(3):247-59. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Third Center of Cognitive Psychotherapy-Associazione di Psicologia Cognitiva-APC, Rome, Italy.

It remains unclear what processes lead to the establishment of persecutory delusions in acute phases of schizophrenia. Recently, it has been argued that persecutory delusions arise from an interaction among a range of emotional, cognitive and social factors. In this work, we explored this possibility by first discussing the relevant aspects of recent theoretical models of the causes of persecutory delusions. Then, we offered an analysis of the literature, illustrated with clinical observations suggesting that persecutory delusions are triggered during stressful intersubjective transactions by the interactions of (a) an alteration in empathetic perspective taking and in pragmatic understanding of others' minds; (b) a perception/representation of the self as vulnerable or subordinate and of the other as dominant and threatening; and (c) a hyperfunctioning of the threat/self-protection system when faced with perceived danger. Implications for future research and treatment of people suffering from this symptom are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.746DOI Listing
September 2012

Metacognitive mastery dysfunctions in personality disorder psychotherapy.

Psychiatry Res 2011 Nov 17;190(1):60-71. Epub 2011 Feb 17.

Terzo Centro di Psicoterapia Cognitiva - Scuola di Psicoterapia Cognitiva (SPC)/Training School in Cognitive Psychotherapy, Rome, Italy.

Individuals with personality disorders (PDs) have difficulties in modulating mental states and in coping with interpersonal problems according to a mentalistic formulation of the problem. In this article we analyzed the first 16 psychotherapy sessions of 14 PD patients in order to explore whether their abilities to master distress and interpersonal problems were actually impaired and how they changed during the early therapy phase. We used the Mastery Section of the Metacognition Assessment Scale, which assesses the use of mentalistic knowledge to solve problems and promote adaptation. We explored the hypotheses that a) PD patients had problems in using their mentalistic knowledge to master distress and solve social problems; b) the impairments were partially stable and only a minimal improvement could be observed during the analyzed period; c) patients' mastery preferences differed from one another; d) at the beginning of treatment the more effective strategies were those involving minimal knowledge about mental states. Results seemed to support the hypotheses; the patients examined had significant difficulties in mastery abilities, and these difficulties persisted after 16 sessions. Moreover, the attitudes towards problem-solving were not homogenous across the patients. Lastly, we discuss implications for assessment and treatment of metacognitive disorders in psychotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2010.12.032DOI Listing
November 2011

Alexithymia in personality disorders: correlations with symptoms and interpersonal functioning.

Psychiatry Res 2011 Nov 25;190(1):37-42. Epub 2010 Aug 25.

SPC Training School of Cognitive Therapy, Terzocentro Psicoterapia Cognitiva, Rome, Italy.

Impairment in the ability to recognize and make sense of emotions has been hypothesized to be present in a sub-sample of people suffering from personality disorder (PD). In particular it is possible that difficulty recognizing and expressing feelings, or alexithymia, is related to many of the symptoms and problems in making sense of social interactions which are hallmarks of PD. In this study we measured levels of alexithymia with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and explored its correlations with the overall presence of PD and different PD diagnoses, symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties. Results were largely consistent with the hypothesis. Higher levels of alexithymia were related to high levels of global psychopathology and with dysfunctional representation of interpersonal relations. A sub-sample of patients, mostly suffering from avoidant, dependent, passive-aggressive and depressive PD, had alexithymic features and, in particular reported difficulties describing their feelings to others. A patient with cluster B PD featured no alexithymia. Implications of this study for future research and treatment are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2010.07.046DOI Listing
November 2011

Deficits in theory of mind and social anxiety as independent paths to paranoid features in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2010 Dec 22;124(1-3):81-5. Epub 2010 Jul 22.

Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN 46202, United States.

Research suggests paranoia among persons with schizophrenia may be the result of a number of different psychological processes including deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and social anxiety. To test this hypothesis, this study sought to determine whether a group of highly paranoid persons with and without a ToM deficit could be detected and whether the group with paranoia and better ToM might have high levels of social anxiety. To explore this, a cluster analysis was performed on a group of 102 adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in a non-acute phase of illness on the basis of ratings of paranoid features using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and levels of ToM deficit using a factor score which summarized four different ToM assessments. Four groups were produced: High Paranoia/Poor ToM (n = 14); Low Paranoia/Good ToM (n = 22); Low Paranoia/Low Middle ToM (n=29); and High Paranoia/High Middle ToM (n = 23). Groups were then compared on self report of social anxiety. As predicted, the group with levels of high paranoid features and relatively better ToM performance had significantly higher levels of social anxiety than all other groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2010.06.019DOI Listing
December 2010

Impaired decentration in personality disorder: a series of single cases analysed with the Metacognition Assessment Scale.

Clin Psychol Psychother 2009 Sep-Oct;16(5):450-62

Third Center of Cognitive Psychotherapy-Rome, Italy.

Background: There is growing support for the idea that an impaired understanding of others' mental states is an underlying feature of personality disorder (PD). Only recently has there begun to be evidence of impairments to subjects' ability to infer and reason about others' intentions and emotions, and detach from their own perspective when doing so.

Method: We analysed the transcripts from the first 16 psychotherapy sessions of 14 PD patients. Scales for understanding others' minds from the Metacognition Assessment Scale were used.

Results: Patients were generally able to describe others' mental states, although, at times, they had problems. There was, on the other hand, an inability to decentre while reasoning about others, and this was common to all the patients.

Conclusions: PDs indeed feature a poor decentration, which is not easily identified with the usual lab tasks. Implications for further research and treatment are discussed.

Key Practitioner Message: *Patients with personality disorders have substantial difficulties in adopting others' point of view and standing back from their own, and grasping that they are not the center of other peoples' thoughts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.619DOI Listing
January 2010

Metacognition and schizophrenia: the capacity for self-reflectivity as a predictor for prospective assessments of work performance over six months.

Schizophr Res 2010 Sep 19;122(1-3):124-30. Epub 2009 May 19.

Roudebush VA Medical Center and the Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.

Research has indicated that many with schizophrenia experience deficits in metacognitive capacity, defined as impairments in the ability to think about thinking. These difficulties are related to, but not reducible to symptoms and have been hypothesized to function as an independent impediment to psychosocial function. To explore the possibility that deficits in one domain of metacognition, self-reflectivity, are a barrier to effective work function, 56 participants with schizophrenia were categorized into three groups according to their capacity for self reflection based on an interview conducted prior to accepting a job placement. Blind ratings of work performance of these three groups over the next six months were then compared. Results of repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the group rated as having the highest level of metacognition, that is, able to see that their conclusions are subjective and fallible, had higher ratings of work performance over time than groups with medium and low levels of self reflectivity. These findings were found to persist even when impairment on a test of executive function was controlled for statistically. Results are interpreted as consistent with emerging models that deficits in metacognition may be key features of severe mental illness which affect function. Clinical and theoretic implications are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2009.04.024DOI Listing
September 2010

An intensive case analysis of client metacognition in a good-outcome psychotherapy: Lisa's case.

Psychother Res 2008 Nov;18(6):667-76

Terzo Centro di Psicoterapia Cognitiva, Rome, Italy 00161.

The authors analyzed the successful case of Lisa, a client with major depression, using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale (MAS). Consistently with the literature on depression, the authors hypothesize that Lisa's ability to reflect on mental states--here metacognition--is marginally affected. The authors found that Lisa was better at describing her own mind rather than understanding the mind of the others. Furthermore, the most severe impairment was in using metacognition to cope with mental state source of distress and to enact strategies to solve interpersonal problems. During the therapy such difficulties improved progressively. Limitations and implications of these findings are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10503300802220132DOI Listing
November 2008

How states of mind change in psychotherapy: an intensive case analysis of Lisa's case using the Grid of Problematic States.

Psychother Res 2008 Nov;18(6):645-56

SPC Training School of Cognitive Therapy, Terzo Centro Psicoterapia Cognitiva, Rome, Italy.

This study uses the Grid of Problematic States (GPS) to examine Lisa's case, one of the most successful in the York Psychotherapy Depression Project. This study tried to assess whether the contents of mental experience form stable clusters consistent with a diagnosis of depression. It was possible with the GPS to pinpoint problematic states typical of depression and trace the transitional states occurring in Lisa between two different mental states: depressive and well-being. The GPS analysis suggested that the treatment successfully managed to deal with symptoms and to change the patient's thought themes and emotions. At the end of treatment, Lisa was less sad and displayed some anger, and a state of being nurtured emerged.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10503300802183686DOI Listing
November 2008

Metacognition in schizophrenia: associations with multiple assessments of executive function.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2008 May;196(5):384-9

Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.

Deficits in metacognitive capacity, or the abilities to think about thinking, are thought to be a key barrier to functioning in schizophrenia. Although metacognitive function may be linked to executive function, it is unclear how the different domains of each phenomenon are related to one another. Accordingly, we assessed 4 domains of metacognition on the basis of a self-generated narrative using the Metacognition Assessment Scale. These were correlated with subtests of the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System which assessed 2 domains of executive function: mental flexibility and inhibition. Participants were 49 men with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in a postacute phase of illness. Spearman Rho correlations revealed awareness of one's thoughts and feelings were more closely linked to performance on tests which required mental flexibility while recognizing others' needs, and independent relationships were more closely linked to performance on tasks which required inhibitory control. Results suggest different domains of metacognition may be influenced by and influence different neurocognitive processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181710916DOI Listing
May 2008

Toward a model of self pathology underlying personality disorders: narratives, metacognition, interpersonal cycles and decision-making processes.

J Pers Disord 2006 Dec;20(6):597-617

Associazione di Psicologia Cognitiva (APC), Rome, Italy.

If we want to explain the links between the various and heterogeneous elements--symptoms, dysfunctional forms of behavior and poor social functioning--making up personality disorders, we need model a self pathology that portrays dysfunctions, the links among them, and how their interactions maintain disorders over time. In our view, the most likely elements of self pathology are: a. problematic contents (thoughts and emotions)--experienced subjectively as states of mind and organized in the form of narratives; b. shortfalls in the ability, termed meta-cognition, to reflect on mental states, both of oneself and of others; c. pathogenic interpersonal schemas; and d. maladaptive decision-making processes. These elements get altered in the various personality disorders and interact to form typical pathological organizations. This article seeks to describe a model of self pathology in personality disorders and discuss its current scientific status based on a literature review that spans several disciplines. The model is illustrated with an example of how the pathogenic elements can interact to form personality disorder. Lastly, the limitations and advantages of the model are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2006.20.6.597DOI Listing
December 2006

Metarepresentative functions in borderline personality disorder.

J Pers Disord 2005 Dec;19(6):690-710

Terzo Centro di Psicoterapia Cognitiva-Training School in Cognitive Psychotherapy, Scuola di Psicoterapia Cognitiva (SPC), Rome, Italy.

Many authors consider that patients suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are hampered in their ability to metarepresent, which is the correct ascribing of states of mind to oneself and to others and the reflecting thereon. Although the ability to mentalize is generally described as being uniform, various authors pinpoint problems which appear to be of a diverse psychological nature. Some describe difficulties in identifying emotions or a shortfall in their regulation, others identify a lack of integration between representations of self and those of others, and yet others focus on the failure to distinguish between fantasy and reality. In the present research all sessions during the first year of therapy of four patients suffering from BPD were tape-recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed using the Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS), which is designed for the evaluation of the ability to metarepresent in clinical reports. The results support the hypothesis that there is a metarepresentation impairment in BPD but that it is more selective than was thought until now. In particular, such patients maintain their ability to identify internal states, whereas they are impaired in the integration of representations of self and others and in the differentiation between fantasy and reality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2005.19.6.690DOI Listing
December 2005

Assessing problematic States in patients' narratives: the grid of problematic States.

Psychother Res 2003 Jan;13(3):337-53

The authors present the theoretical background, development, and validation of a new psychotherapy process rating tool: Grid of Problematic States (GPS). The GPS is based on Horowitz's states of mind theory, which describes recurrent patterns of experience and behavior. Meaningful changes in the observed states indicate therapeutic change. The GPS is designed for use with transcripts from psychotherapy sessions and focuses on narrative episodes within the patient dialogue. The GPS was applied to a completely transcribed cognitive psychotherapy with a patient diagnosed as mild major depressive. The authors demonstrated that the GPS could reliably assess disorganization and the development of stable construct clusters of thought themes, emotions, and somatic sensations. The interpretation of results is consistent with the patient's clinical assessment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ptr/kpg032DOI Listing
January 2003
-->