Publications by authors named "Michel Thibaudon"

42 Publications

Association between lung function of school age children and short-term exposure to air pollution and pollen: the PARIS cohort.

Thorax 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

CRESS, Inserm, INRAE, HERA Team, Université de Paris, Paris, France

Background: Daily levels of ambient air pollution and pollen may affect lung function but have rarely been studied together. We investigated short-term exposure to pollen and air pollution in relation to lung function in school-age children from a French population-based birth cohort.

Methods: This study included 1063 children from the PARIS (Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study) cohort whose lung function and FeNO measurements were performed at age 8 years old. Exposure data were collected up to 4 days before testing. We estimated daily total pollen concentration, daily allergenic risk indices for nine pollen taxa, as well as daily concentrations of three air pollutants (particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO), ozone (O)). Children with similar pollen and air pollution exposure were grouped using multidimensional longitudinal cluster analysis. Associations between clusters of pollen and air pollution exposure and respiratory indices (FEV, FVC, FeNO) were studied using multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: Four clusters of exposure were identified: no pollen and low air pollution (Cluster 1), grass pollen (Cluster 2), PM (Cluster 3) and birch/plane-tree pollen with high total pollen count (Cluster 4). Compared with children in Cluster 1, children in Cluster 2 had significantly lower FEV and FVC levels, and children from Cluster 3 had higher FeNO levels. For FEV and FVC, the associations appeared stronger in children with current asthma. Additional analysis suggested a joint effect of grass pollen and air pollution on lung function.

Conclusion: Daily ambient chemical and biological air quality could adversely influence lung function in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-215515DOI Listing
February 2021

Inventory of the Recommendations for Patients with Pollen Allergies and Evaluation of Their Scientific Relevance.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2020 10;181(11):839-852. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Aix-Marseille University and the French Clean Air Association, Marseille, France,

Pollens are responsible for allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma. The incidence of these diseases, which have adversely impacted the social and professional lives of people who are allergic to pollen, has tripled in the past 25 years. Official institutes, health care institutions, public interest groups, and mainstream news media provide people who are allergic to pollen with advice aimed at reducing their symptoms. The aim of this work was to provide an inventory of the prevention guidelines in the world and to evaluate their scientific relevance. A PubMed search was carried out using specific keywords. The scientific relevance of the recommendations was evaluated based on the publications disproving or confirming their merit. The guidelines issued by 12 countries in Europe, North America, and Australia were inventoried. The recommendations for avoidance were most often based on scientific data regarding their impact on pollen exposures, but they have not been clinically validated. Several studies provided additional details, however, that allowed the guidelines to be further substantiated. These guidelines have been adopted in numerous industrialized countries in the world, and they generally appear to be of relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000510313DOI Listing
January 2021

Atmospheric Biodetection Part I: Study of Airborne Bacterial Concentrations from January 2018 to May 2020 at Saclay, France.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 28;17(17). Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, Unité mixte de recherche CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, 91190 Saint-Aubin, France.

The monitoring of bioaerosol concentrations in the air is a relevant endeavor due to potential health risks associated with exposure to such particles and in the understanding of their role in climate. In this context, the atmospheric concentrations of bacteria were measured from January 2018 to May 2020 at Saclay, France. The aim of the study was to understand the seasonality, the daily variability, and to identify the geographical origin of airborne bacteria. 880 samples were collected daily on polycarbonate filters, extracted with purified water, and analyzed using the cultivable method and flow cytometry. A source receptor model was used to identify the origin of bacteria. A tri-modal seasonality was identified with the highest concentrations early in spring and over the summer season with the lowest during the winter season. Extreme changes occurred daily due to rapid changes in meteorological conditions and shifts from clean air masses to polluted ones. : Our work points toward bacterial concentrations originating from specific seasonal-geographical ecosystems. During pollution events, bacteria appear to rise from dense urban areas or are transported long distances from their sources. This key finding should drive future actions to better control the dispersion of potential pathogens in the air, like persistent microorganisms originating from contaminated areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504533PMC
August 2020

Clim ate change, airborne pollen, and pollution.

Allergy 2020 09 25;75(9):2354-2356. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Réseau National de Surveillance Aérobiologique, Le Plat du Pin, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14538DOI Listing
September 2020

ARIA digital anamorphosis: Digital transformation of health and care in airway diseases from research to practice.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Tari Haahtela Torsten Zuberbier Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Anna Bedbrook Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich G Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Marina Erhola Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Maddalena Illario Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Marek Jutel Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Ltt Le Désirée E Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Erik Melén Joaquim Mullol Marek Niedoszytko Mikaëla Odemyr Yoshitaka Okamoto Nikos G Papadopoulos Vincenzo Patella Oliver Pfaar Nhân Pham-Thi Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Mikhail Sofiev Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Ana Todo-Bom Peter-Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Arzu Yorgancioglu Ioana Agache Cezmi A Akdis Rute Almeida Ignacio J Ansotegui Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagaña Eric D Bateman Annabelle Bédard Martin Bedolla-Barajas Sven Becker Kazi S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Michael Bewick Slawomir Bialek Nils E Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Matteo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Isabelle Bosse Jacques Bouchard Louis-Philippe Boulet Rodolphe Bourret Koen Boussery Fluvio Braido Vitalis Briedis Andrew Briggs Christopher E Brightling Jan Brozek Guy Brusselle Luisa Brussino Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Moises A Calderon Paulo Camargos Thierry Camuzat Luis Caraballo Ana-Maria Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Niels H Chavannes Ekaterine Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Jaime Correia de Sousa David J Costa Anne-Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejan Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Giulia De Feo Govert De Vries Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Gerard Dray Ruta Dubakiene Stephen R Durham Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Mina Gaga Yehia El-Gamal Enrico Heffler Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Jean-Luc Fauquert Alessandro Fiocchi Antje Fink-Wagner Jean-François Fontaine José M Fuentes Perez Bilun Gemicioğlu Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Philippe Gevaert René Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam Yunuen R Huerta Villalobos Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Tomohisa Iinuma Ewa Jassem Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Musa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Rostislav Kouznetsov Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Stefania La Grutta Lisa Leonardini Henrik Ljungberg Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Catarina Lopes-Pereira Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Bassam Mahboub Michaël Makris Joao Malva Patrick Manning Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Pedro Carreiro-Martins Mika Makela Eve Mathieu-Dupas Marcus Maurer Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Yann Micheli Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Dimitirios I Mitsias Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leyla Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Björn Nordlund Ettore Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robyn O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle L Onorato Valentina Orlando Solange Ouedraogo Julia Palamarchuk Isabella Pali-Schöll Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Gianni Passalacqua Jean-Louis Pépin Ema Paulino Ruby Pawankar Jim Phillips Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Davor Plavec Todor A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Fotis Psarros Benoit Pugin Francesca Puggioni Pablo Quinones-Delgado Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Frederico S Regateiro Sietze Reitsma Daniela Rivero-Yeverino Graham Roberts Nicolas Roche Erendira Rodriguez-Zagal Christine Rolland Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Nelson Rosario Antonino Romano Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Joaquin Sastre Glenis K Scadding Sophie Scheire Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier Holger J Schünemann Faradiba Sarquis Serpa Mohamed Shamji Juan-Carlos Sisul Mikhail Sofiev Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova François Spertini Otto Spranger Cristiana Stellato Rafael Stelmach Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Mondher Toumi Omar Usmani Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Marilyn Urrutia Pereira Rianne van der Kleij Michiel Van Eerd Olivier Vandenplas Tuula Vasankari Antonio Vaz Carneiro Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Yun Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Osman M Yusuf Heather J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario E Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan Shan Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Allergy 2021 01 23;76(1):168-190. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Digital anamorphosis is used to define a distorted image of health and care that may be viewed correctly using digital tools and strategies. MASK digital anamorphosis represents the process used by MASK to develop the digital transformation of health and care in rhinitis. It strengthens the ARIA change management strategy in the prevention and management of airway disease. The MASK strategy is based on validated digital tools. Using the MASK digital tool and the CARAT online enhanced clinical framework, solutions for practical steps of digital enhancement of care are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14422DOI Listing
January 2021

Biological weed control to relieve millions from Ambrosia allergies in Europe.

Nat Commun 2020 04 21;11(1):1745. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, 1700, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Invasive alien species (IAS) can substantially affect ecosystem services and human well-being. However, quantitative assessments of their impact on human health are rare and the benefits of implementing IAS management likely to be underestimated. Here we report the effects of the allergenic plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia on public health in Europe and the potential impact of the accidentally introduced leaf beetle Ophraella communa on the number of patients and healthcare costs. We find that, prior to the establishment of O. communa, some 13.5 million persons suffered from Ambrosia-induced allergies in Europe, causing costs of Euro 7.4 billion annually. Our projections reveal that biological control of A. artemisiifolia will reduce the number of patients by approximately 2.3 million and the health costs by Euro 1.1 billion per year. Our conservative calculations indicate that the currently discussed economic costs of IAS underestimate the real costs and thus also the benefits from biological control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15586-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174423PMC
April 2020

"Whole" vs. "fragmented" approach to EAACI pollen season definitions: A multicenter study in six Southern European cities.

Allergy 2020 07 11;75(7):1659-1671. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Immunology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: The adequate definition of pollen seasons is essential to facilitate a correct diagnosis, treatment choice, and outcome assessment in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. A position paper by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) proposed season definitions for Northern and Middle Europe.

Objective: To test the pollen season definitions proposed by EAACI in six Mediterranean cities for seven pollen taxa.

Methods: As part of the @IT.2020 multi-center study, pollen counts for Poaceae, Oleaceae, Fagales, Cupressaceae, Urticaceae (Parietaria spp.), and Compositae (Ambrosia spp., Artemisia spp.) were collected from January 1 to December 31, 2018. Based on these data, pollen seasons were identified according to EAACI criteria. A unified monitoring period for patients in AIT trials was created and assessed for feasibility.

Results: The analysis revealed a great heterogeneity between the different locations in terms of pattern and length of the examined pollen seasons. Further, we found a fragmentation of pollen seasons in several segments (max. 8) separated by periods of low pollen counts (intercurrent periods). Potential monitoring periods included often many recording days with low pollen exposure (max. 341 days).

Conclusion: The Mediterranean climate leads to challenging pollen exposure times. Monitoring periods for AIT trials based on existing definitions may include many intermittent days with low pollen concentrations. Therefore, it is necessary to find an adapted pollen season definition as individual solution for each pollen and geographical area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14153DOI Listing
July 2020

Interactions Between Air Pollution and Pollen Season for Rhinitis Using Mobile Technology: A MASK-POLLAR Study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 03 28;8(3):1063-1073.e4. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Several studies have suggested an interaction between air pollution and pollen exposure with an impact on allergy symptoms. However, large studies with real-life data are not available.

Objective: To investigate associations between major air pollutants (ozone and particulate matter with a diameter of <2.5 μm) and allergic rhinitis (AR) control during grass and birch pollen seasons as well as outside the pollen season.

Methods: The daily impact of allergic symptoms was recorded by the Allergy Diary (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK [MASK-air]) app (a validated mHealth tool for rhinitis management) using visual analog scales (VASs) in Northern and Central Europe users in 2017 and 2018. Uncontrolled AR was defined using symptoms and medications. Pollutant levels were assessed using the System for Integrated modeLing of Atmospheric coMposition database. Pollen seasons were assessed by regions using Google Trends. Generalized estimating equation models were used to account for repeated measures per user, adjusting for sex, age, treatment, and country. Analyses were stratified by pollen seasons to investigate interactions between air pollutants and pollen exposure.

Results: A total of 3323 geolocated individuals (36,440 VAS-days) were studied. Associations between uncontrolled rhinitis and pollutants were stronger during the grass pollen season. Days with uncontrolled AR increased by 25% for an interquartile range increase in ozone levels during the grass pollen season (odds ratio of 1.25 [95% CI, 1.11-1.41] in 2017 and of 1.14 [95% CI, 1.04-1.25] in 2018). A similar trend was found for particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm, especially in 2017.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the relationship between uncontrolled AR and air pollution is modified by the presence of grass pollens. This study confirms the impact of pollutants in the grass pollen season but not in the birch pollen season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.11.022DOI Listing
March 2020

Pollen season is reflected on symptom load for grass and birch pollen-induced allergic rhinitis in different geographic areas-An EAACI Task Force Report.

Allergy 2020 05 1;75(5):1099-1106. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

German Pollen Information Service Foundation, Berlin, Germany.

Background: The effectiveness of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis (AR) depends on the definition of pollen exposure intensity or time period. We recently evaluated pollen and symptom data from Germany to examine the new definitions of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) on pollen season and peak pollen period start and end. Now, we aim to confirm the feasibility of these definitions to properly mirror symptom loads for grass and birch pollen-induced allergic rhinitis in other European geographical areas such as Austria, Finland and France, and therefore their suitability for AIT and clinical practice support.

Methods: Data from twenty-three pollen monitoring stations from three countries in Europe and for 3 years (2014-2016) were used to investigate the correlation between birch and grass pollen concentrations during the birch and grass pollen season defined via the EAACI criteria, and total nasal symptom and medication scores as reported with the aid of the patient's hay-fever diary (PHD). In addition, we conducted a statistical analysis, together with a graphical investigation, to reveal correlations and dependencies between the studied parameters.

Results: The analysis demonstrated that the definitions of pollen season as well as peak pollen period start and end as proposed by the EAACI are correlated to pollen-induced symptom loads reported by PHD users during birch and grass pollen season. A statistically significant correlation (slightly higher for birch) has been found between the Total Nasal Symptom and Medication Score (TNSMS) and the pollen concentration levels. Moreover, the maximum symptom levels occurred mostly within the peak pollen periods (PPP) following the EAACI criteria.

Conclusions: Based on our analyses, we confirm the validity of the EAACI definitions on pollen season for both birch and grass and for a variety of geographical locations for the four European countries (including Germany from a previous publication) analyzed so far. On this basis, the use of the EAACI definitions is supported in future clinical trials on AIT as well as in daily routine for optimal patient care. Further evaluation of the EAACI criteria in other European regions is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14111DOI Listing
May 2020

Next-generation ARIA care pathways for rhinitis and asthma: a model for multimorbid chronic diseases.

Authors:
J Jean Bousquet Holger J Schünemann Alkis Togias Marina Erhola Peter W Hellings Torsten Zuberbier Ioana Agache Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Sven Becker Martin Bedolla-Barajas Michael Bewick Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bosse Louis P Boulet Jean Marc Bourrez Guy Brusselle Niels Chavannes Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Mina Gaga Tari Haahtela Maddalena Illario Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene L T T Le Desiree Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Enrica Menditto Joaquin Mullol Yashitaka Okamoto Nikos Papadopoulos Nhân Pham-Thi Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Nicolas Roche Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Tuula Vasankari Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Cezmi A Akdis Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagana Eric Bateman Anna Bedbrook K S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Slawomir Bialek Nils Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Mateo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Jacques Bouchard Vitalis Briedis Christofer E Brightling Jan Brozek Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Giorgo W Canonica Victoria Cardona Ana M Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Eka Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Elaine Colgan Jaime Correia de Sousa Anne Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejand Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Antoni Dedeu Giulia De Feo Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Marc Dykewickz Ruta Dubakiene Motohiro Ebisawa Yaya El-Gamal Esben Eller Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Antjie Fink-Wagner Alessandro Fiocchi Jean F Fontaine Bilun Gemicioğlu Peter Schmid-Grendelmeir Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam John O'B Hourihane Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Maddalena Illario Juan C Ivancevich Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Marek Jutel Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Mussa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Lisa Leonardini Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Gert Marien Bassam Mahboub Joao Malva Patrick Manning Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Eve Mathieu-Dupas Poalo M Matricardi Eric Melén Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralf Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leila Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Enrico Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robin O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle Onorato Solange Ouedraogo Isabella Pali-Schöll Susanna Palkonen Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Jean-Louis Pépin Ana-Maria Pereira Oliver Pfaar Ema Paulino Jim Phillips Robert Picard Davor Plavec Ted A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Benoit Pugin Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Sietze Reitsma Xavier Rodo Antonino Romano Nelson Rosario Menahenm Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Juan-Carlos Sisul Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova Otto Spranger Cristina Stellato Rafael Stelmach Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Ana Todo-Bom Peter V Tomazic Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Rianne van der Kleij Olivier Vandenplas Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Y Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Arzu Yorgancioglu Osman M Yusuf Heahter J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan S Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Clin Transl Allergy 2019 9;9:44. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

260University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Background: In all societies, the burden and cost of allergic and chronic respiratory diseases are increasing rapidly. Most economies are struggling to deliver modern health care effectively. There is a need to support the transformation of the health care system into integrated care with organizational health literacy.

Main Body: As an example for chronic disease care, MASK (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK), a new project of the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) initiative, and POLLAR (Impact of Air POLLution on Asthma and Rhinitis, EIT Health), in collaboration with professional and patient organizations in the field of allergy and airway diseases, are proposing real-life ICPs centred around the patient with rhinitis, and using mHealth to monitor environmental exposure. Three aspects of care pathways are being developed: (i) Patient participation, health literacy and self-care through technology-assisted "patient activation", (ii) Implementation of care pathways by pharmacists and (iii) Next-generation guidelines assessing the recommendations of GRADE guidelines in rhinitis and asthma using real-world evidence (RWE) obtained through mobile technology. The EU and global political agendas are of great importance in supporting the digital transformation of health and care, and MASK has been recognized by DG Santé as a Good Practice in the field of digitally-enabled, integrated, person-centred care.

Conclusion: In 20 years, ARIA has considerably evolved from the first multimorbidity guideline in respiratory diseases to the digital transformation of health and care with a strong political involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13601-019-0279-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734297PMC
September 2019

Exposure to Cypress Pollens and Subsequent Symptoms: A Panel Study.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2019 7;180(2):135-141. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Pulmonology Department, Marseille Public University Hospital System, Marseille, France,

Objective: The objective of this panel study was to document the relationship between exposure to cypress pollen and allergic symptoms.

Methods: The study group included 47 patients with allergy to cypress pollen who completed a daily diary and a weekly evaluation of quality of life (QoL) during the cypress pollen season. Different patients were included in three consecutive pollen seasons: 2014-2015, 2015-2016, and 2016-2017. Daily cypress pollen counts were obtained from the National Aerobiological Network. Air pollution and meteorological data were recorded on a daily basis. The pollen-symptoms relationship was quantified by calculating odds ratios for an increase of 1 log of grains of pollen/m3, taking into account potential confounding factors. The QoL score was expressed with a beta coefficient that increased with 1 grain of pollen/m3.

Results: There was a marked increase in rhinitis and ocular symptoms during the pollen season, with a plateau effect at high levels of exposure, but no relationship with bronchial symptoms. The QoL score had a linear and significant relationship with the cypress pollen count. We did not detect any threshold level.

Conclusion: This panel study demonstrated a significant association between exposure to cypress pollens and allergic symptoms, with a plateau effect for high exposures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000501223DOI Listing
November 2019

[Forests and allergies].

Sante Publique 2019 May;S1(HS):35-42

Objective: Many research papers have addressed the beneficial qualities of forests in promoting mental and physical health. However, we should also be clear that forest environments could have detrimental effects. Some of them, which are of allergic nature, have hitherto been largely neglected.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search has allowed us to achieve an initial synthesis on this matter. The emphasis was on temperate forests, especially on French forests.

Results: Anemophilous pollen from deciduous trees is the major factor causing respiratory allergies in connection with forests. The risks are focused between mid-winter and late spring. Ash, hornbeam and birch pollen and, more incidentally, oak and beech pollen induce allergic reactions not only in the forests, but also at great distances. As a result of its high humidity and because decaying organic matter is very abundant, the forest environment presents also a breeding ground for mould growth. Accordingly, fungal spores can lead to allergic manifestations recalling pollinosis. Lastly, the "other" allergies mainly include contact dermatitis symptoms, which affect wood workers first and foremost. However, the pine processionary moth, whose zone of infestation is rapidly spreading northwards and whose setae contain several relevant allergens, represents one particular case.

Conclusion: Allergic reactions observed in forests or originating in forests are sufficiently frequent to justify to set up a wide-reaching system for aerobiological and epidemiological monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/spub.190.0035DOI Listing
May 2019

Five-Year Data on Pollen Monitoring, Distribution and Health Impact of Allergenic Plants in Bucharest and the Southeastern Region of Romania.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 May 15;55(5). Epub 2019 May 15.

Réseau National de Surveillance Aérobiologique, 69690 Brussieu, France.

Respiratory allergies induced by allergenic pollen represent an important public health problem with increasing prevalence and severity in Europe. Romania has no aerobiology network and pollen measurements have been done for about ten years in the west region only. We established the first pollen monitoring center in the capital of Bucharest in 2013, based on collaboration with the Réseau National de Surveillance Aérobiologique (RNSA) from France. The aim of our paper is to present results from five years of pollen monitoring in the city center of Bucharest and preliminary data on distribution and health impact of some allergenic plants, mainly , which is considered a real danger for the public health. Our data show a significant atmospheric amount and a longer season than previously considered of grass () pollen and short period with a high level of pollen, while tree pollen looks less important in this area. The plant distribution data provided by specialists and information from affected persons showed the wide and increasing spread of in Bucharest and other cities from the south region. Preliminary health data from allergists confirmed that the number of patients with allergies to pollen is increasing from one year to another and almost all patients describe a high urban exposure from their living or working place. We consider that the recently implemented Law 62/2018 against may help reduce weed distribution and the atmospheric pollen load, but a more complex and coordinated strategy for controlling urban vegetation and reducing biologic pollution is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina55050140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572317PMC
May 2019

Near-ground effect of height on pollen exposure.

Environ Res 2019 07 29;174:160-169. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Center of Allergy & Environment (ZAUM), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Technical University and Helmholtz Center Munich, Germany.

The effect of height on pollen concentration is not well documented and little is known about the near-ground vertical profile of airborne pollen. This is important as most measuring stations are on roofs, but patient exposure is at ground level. Our study used a big data approach to estimate the near-ground vertical profile of pollen concentrations based on a global study of paired stations located at different heights. We analyzed paired sampling stations located at different heights between 1.5 and 50 m above ground level (AGL). This provided pollen data from 59 Hirst-type volumetric traps from 25 different areas, mainly in Europe, but also covering North America and Australia, resulting in about 2,000,000 daily pollen concentrations analyzed. The daily ratio of the amounts of pollen from different heights per location was used, and the values of the lower station were divided by the higher station. The lower station of paired traps recorded more pollen than the higher trap. However, while the effect of height on pollen concentration was clear, it was also limited (average ratio 1.3, range 0.7-2.2). The standard deviation of the pollen ratio was highly variable when the lower station was located close to the ground level (below 10 m AGL). We show that pollen concentrations measured at >10 m are representative for background near-ground levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.04.027DOI Listing
July 2019

Google Trends and pollen concentrations in allergy and airway diseases in France.

Allergy 2019 10 28;74(10):1910-1919. Epub 2019 Jul 28.

RNSA (Réseau National de Surveillance Aérobiologique), Brussieu, France.

Background: Google Trends (GTs) is a web-based surveillance tool that explores the searching trends of specific queries via Google. This tool proposes to reflect the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis and asthma. However, the validation of GTs against pollen concentrations is missing at the country level.

Objectives: In the present study, we used GTs (a) to compare the terms related to allergy in France, (b) to assess seasonal variations across the country for 5 years and (c) to compare GTs and pollen concentrations for 2016.

Methods: Google Trends queries were initially searched to investigate the terms reflecting pollen and allergic diseases. 13- and 5-year GTs were used in France. Then, 5-year GTs were assessed in all metropolitan French regions to assess the seasonality of GTs. Finally, GTs were compared with pollen concentrations (Réseau National de Surveillance en Aerobiology) for 2016 in seven regions (GTs) and corresponding cities (pollen concentrations).

Results: The combination of searches for "allergy" as a disease, "pollen" as a disease cause and "ragweed" as a plant was needed to fully assess the pollen season in France. "Asthma" did not show any seasonality. Using the 5-year GTs, an annual and clear seasonality of queries was found in all regions depending on the predicted pollen exposure for spring and a summer peak but not for winter peaks. The agreement between GT queries and pollen concentrations is usually poor except for spring trees and grasses. Moreover, cypress pollens are insufficiently reported by GTs.

Conclusions: Google Trends cannot predict the pollen season in France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.13804DOI Listing
October 2019

Temperature-related changes in airborne allergenic pollen abundance and seasonality across the northern hemisphere: a retrospective data analysis.

Lancet Planet Health 2019 03;3(3):e124-e131

US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Ongoing climate change might, through rising temperatures, alter allergenic pollen biology across the northern hemisphere. We aimed to analyse trends in pollen seasonality and pollen load and to establish whether there are specific climate-related links to any observed changes.

Methods: For this retrospective data analysis, we did an extensive search for global datasets with 20 years or more of airborne pollen data that consistently recorded pollen season indices (eg, duration and intensity). 17 locations across three continents with long-term (approximately 26 years on average) quantitative records of seasonal concentrations of multiple pollen (aeroallergen) taxa met the selection criteria. These datasets were analysed in the context of recent annual changes in maximum temperature (T) and minimum temperature (T) associated with anthropogenic climate change. Seasonal regressions (slopes) of variation in pollen load and pollen season duration over time were compared to T, cumulative degree day T, T, cumulative degree day T, and frost-free days among all 17 locations to ascertain significant correlations.

Findings: 12 (71%) of the 17 locations showed significant increases in seasonal cumulative pollen or annual pollen load. Similarly, 11 (65%) of the 17 locations showed a significant increase in pollen season duration over time, increasing, on average, 0·9 days per year. Across the northern hemisphere locations analysed, annual cumulative increases in T over time were significantly associated with percentage increases in seasonal pollen load (r=0·52, p=0·034) as were annual cumulative increases in T (r=0·61, p=0·010). Similar results were observed for pollen season duration, but only for cumulative degree days (higher than the freezing point [0°C or 32°F]) for T (r=0·53, p=0·030) and T (r=0·48, p=0·05). Additionally, temporal increases in frost-free days per year were significantly correlated with increases in both pollen load (r=0·62, p=0·008) and pollen season duration (r=0·68, p=0·003) when averaged for all 17 locations.

Interpretation: Our findings reveal that the ongoing increase in temperature extremes (T and T) might already be contributing to extended seasonal duration and increased pollen load for multiple aeroallergenic pollen taxa in diverse locations across the northern hemisphere. This study, done across multiple continents, highlights an important link between ongoing global warming and public health-one that could be exacerbated as temperatures continue to increase.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(19)30015-4DOI Listing
March 2019

Oak pollen seasonality and severity across Europe and modelling the season start using a generalized phenological model.

Sci Total Environ 2019 May 18;663:527-536. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

National Pollen and Aerobiological Research Unit, School of Science and the Environment, University of Worcester, Henwick Grove, Worcester WR2 6AJ, United Kingdom.

Oak pollen seasons are relatively unexplored in large parts of Europe despite producing allergens and being a common tree in both continental and northern parts. Many studies are concentrated only on the Iberian Peninsula. In this study, the seasonal pattern of oak pollen in Europe was analysed using 10 observation sites, ranging from Spain to Sweden. The magnitude of peaks and annual pollen integral together with season-length were studied and substantially higher pollen levels and longer seasons were found in Spain. Two northern sites in Denmark and Sweden showed high oak pollen peaks together with two sites in Spain and United Kingdom. The study also tested four common definitions of season start and applied a generalized phenological model for computing the start of the pollen season. The most accurate definition for a European-wide description of the observed oak pollen start was when the cumulative daily average pollen count reached 50 grains per cubic meter. For the modelling of the start a thermal time method based on Growing Degree Day (GDD) was implemented, utilizing daily temperatures and a generalized approach to identify model parameters applicable to all included sites. GDD values varied between sites and generally followed a decreasing gradient from south to north, with some exceptions. Modelled onsets with base temperatures below 7 °C matched well with observed onsets and 76% of the predictions differed ≤4 days compared to observed onsets when using a base temperature of 2 °C. Base temperatures above 7 °C frequently predicted onsets differing >1 week from the observed. This general approach can be extended to a larger area where pollen observations are non-existent. The presented work will increase the understanding of oak pollen variation in Europe and provide knowledge of its phenology, which is a critical aspect both for modelling purposes on large-scale and assessing the human exposure to oak allergens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.212DOI Listing
May 2019

Pollen limitation as a main driver of fruiting dynamics in oak populations.

Ecol Lett 2019 Jan 15;22(1):98-107. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, UMR 5558, F-69622, Villeurbanne, France.

In many perennial wind-pollinated plants, the dynamics of seed production is commonly known to be highly fluctuating from year to year and synchronised among individuals within populations. The proximate causes of such seeding dynamics, called masting, are still poorly understood in oak species that are widespread in the northern hemisphere, and whose fruiting dynamics dramatically impacts forest regeneration and biodiversity. Combining long-term surveys of oak airborne pollen amount and acorn production over large-scale field networks in temperate areas, and a mechanistic modelling approach, we found that the pollen dynamics is the key driver of oak masting. Mechanisms at play involved both internal resource allocation to pollen production synchronised among trees and spring weather conditions affecting the amount of airborne pollen available for reproduction. The sensitivity of airborne pollen to weather conditions might make oak masting and its ecological consequences highly sensitive to climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13171DOI Listing
January 2019

Differences in Reporting the Ragweed Pollen Season Using Google Trends across 15 Countries.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2018 9;176(3-4):181-188. Epub 2018 May 9.

University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Background: Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google, which potentially reflect the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared GT terms related to ragweed pollen allergy in American and European Union countries with a known ragweed pollen season. Our aim was to assess seasonality and the terms needed to perform the GT searches and to compare these during the spring and summer pollen seasons.

Methods: We examined GT queries from January 1, 2011, to January 4, 2017. We included 15 countries with a known ragweed pollen season and used the standard 5-year GT graphs. We used the GT translation for all countries and the untranslated native terms for each country.

Results: The results of "pollen," "ragweed," and "allergy" searches differed between countries, but "ragweed" was clearly identified in 12 of the 15 countries. There was considerable heterogeneity of findings when the GT translation was used. For Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia, the GT translation was inappropriate. The country patterns of "pollen," "hay fever," and "allergy" differed in 8 of the 11 countries with identified "ragweed" queries during the spring and the summer, indicating that the perception of tree and grass pollen allergy differs from that of ragweed pollen.

Conclusions: To investigate ragweed pollen allergy using GT, the term "ragweed" as a plant is required and the translation of "ragweed" in the native language needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488391DOI Listing
July 2018

Dynamic ecological observations from satellites inform aerobiology of allergenic grass pollen.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Aug 28;633:441-451. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Centre for Children's Health Research, Queensland University of Technology, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia. Electronic address:

Allergic diseases, including respiratory conditions of allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and asthma, affect up to 500 million people worldwide. Grass pollen are one major source of aeroallergens globally. Pollen forecast methods are generally site-based and rely on empirical meteorological relationships and/or the use of labour-intensive pollen collection traps that are restricted to sparse sampling locations. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the grass pollen sources themselves, however, have received less attention. Here we utilised a consistent set of MODIS satellite measures of grass cover and seasonal greenness (EVI) over five contrasting urban environments, located in Northern (France) and Southern Hemispheres (Australia), to evaluate their utility for predicting airborne grass pollen concentrations. Strongly seasonal and pronounced pollinating periods, synchronous with satellite measures of grass cover greenness, were found at the higher latitude temperate sites in France (46-50° N. Lat.), with peak pollen activity lagging peak greenness, on average by 2-3weeks. In contrast, the Australian sites (34-38° S. Lat.) displayed pollinating periods that were less synchronous with satellite greenness measures as peak pollen concentrations lagged peak greenness by as much as 4 to 7weeks. The Australian sites exhibited much higher spatial and inter-annual variations compared to the French sites and at the Sydney site, broader and multiple peaks in both pollen concentrations and greenness data coincided with flowering of more diverse grasses including subtropical species. Utilising generalised additive models (GAMs) we found the satellite greenness data of grass cover areas explained 80-90% of airborne grass pollen concentrations across the three French sites (p<0.001) and accounted for 34 to 76% of grass pollen variations over the two sites in Australia (p<0.05). Our results demonstrate the potential of satellite sensing to augment forecast models of grass pollen aerobiology as a tool to reduce the health and socioeconomic burden of pollen-sensitive allergic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.191DOI Listing
August 2018

Evaluation of Hirst-type spore traps in outdoor Aspergillaceae monitoring during large demolition work in hospital.

PLoS One 2018 18;13(1):e0191135. Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Laboratoire des Pathogènes Emergents-Fondation Mérieux, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI), Inserm U1111, CNRS UMR5308, ENS de Lyon, France, Université de Lyon 1, France.

Demolition can generate fungal spore suspensions in association with various adverse health effects, such as high risk of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. One block of Edouard Herriot Hospital was entirely demolished. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hirst-type spore traps utility in monitoring outdoor Aspergillaceae (Aspergillus spp. + Penicillium spp.) spores in part of Edouard Herriot Hospital (Lyon, France) undergoing major demolition. Three periods were scheduled in 2015: (A) Gutting of building and asbestos removal, (B) Demolition of floors, (C) Excavation and earthwork. Outdoor Aspergillaceae fungal load was monitored by cultivable (Air Ideal®, bioMérieux) and non-cultivable methods (Lanzoni VPPS-2000, Analyzair®, Bologna, Italy). Differences of Aspergillaceae recorded with Hirst-type spore traps were observed between Gerland and Edouard Herriot Hospital. Differences between Aspergillaceae were recorded between day time and night time at Gerland and Edouard Herriot Hospital. Daily paired differences between Aspergillaceae recorded with non-cultivable methodology at Edouard Herriot Hospital and in an area without demolition work were significant in Period A vs Period B (p = 10-4) and Period A vs Period C (p = 10-4). Weak correlation of daily Aspergillaceae recorded by both methods at Edouard Herriot Hospital was significant only for Period C (r = 0.26, p = 0.048, n = 58). Meteorological parameters and type of demolition works were found to heavily influenced Aspergillaceae dispersion. Non-cultivable methodology is a promising tool for outdoor Aspergillaceae scrutiny during major demolition work in hospital, helping infection control staff to rapidly implement control measures.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191135PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5773167PMC
February 2018

First allergenic pollen monitoring in Bucharest and results of three years collaboration with European aerobiology specialists.

Rom J Intern Med 2018 Mar;56(1):27-33

Reseau National de Surveillance Aerobiologique (RNSA), Le Plat du Pin, 69690 Brussieu, France.

Introduction: Respiratory allergies induced by allergenic plants pollen represent an important public health problem with increasing prevalence and severity. Aerobiologic study of allergenic pollens is performed in many countries on regular basis and correlated with health data from allergists in the frame of national aerobiology networks. Romania has no aerobiology network and pollen measurements have been done between 1999-2012 in West region only. In the frame of COST Action called Sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe (SMARTER FA 1203), three years collaboration with Reseau National de Surveillance Aerobiologique (RNSA) from France and the first pollen monitoring center in Bucharest were established.The aim of this paper is to present results of first pollen monitoring in Bucharest, activities of Romanian SMARTER group and collaboration with European aerobiology specialists.

Material And Method: We used a Hirst-type pollen trap placed on the roof of the Research Center from "Colentina" Clinical Hospital and the pollen monitoring method based on European Aeroallergen Network (EAN) standardized requirements. Monthly results during the pollen seasons 2014-2016 were sent to RNSA and EAN and posted on the European pollen information site.

Results: We found high amounts of allergenic pollen, mainly grasses from May to September and Ambrosia artemisiifolia during September. Conlcusions. We concluded that SMARTER offered access to aerobiology training, improved multidisciplinary collaboration and perspectives to further develop national and international projects. More coordinated efforts to develop national aerobiology network and to recuperate the gap comparing to other European countries in the field of aerobiology and respiratory allergology are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/rjim-2017-0033DOI Listing
March 2018

Evaluation of hirst-type spore trap to monitor environmental fungal load in hospital.

PLoS One 2017 9;12(5):e0177263. Epub 2017 May 9.

Unité d'hygiène, épidémiologie et prévention, Groupement Hospitalier Centre, Hospices Civils de Lyon, France.

The main purpose was to validate the use of outdoor-indoor volumetric impaction sampler with Hirst-type spore traps (HTSTs) to continuously monitor fungal load in order to prevent invasive fungal infections during major structural work in hospital settings. For 4 weeks, outdoor fungal loads were quantified continuously by 3 HTSTs. Indoor air was sampled by both HTST and viable impaction sampler. Results were expressed as particles/m3 (HTST) or colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 (biocollector). Paired comparisons by day were made with Wilcoxon's paired signed-rank test or paired Student's t-test as appropriate. Paired airborne spore levels were correlated 2 by 2, after log-transformation with Pearson's cross-correlation. Concordance was calculated with kappa coefficient (κ). Median total fungal loads (TFLs) sampled by the 3 outdoor HTSTs were 3,025.0, 3,287.5 and 3,625.0 particles/m3 (P = 0.6, 0.6 and 0.3).-Concordance between Aspergillaceae fungal loads (AFLs, including Aspergillus spp. + Penicillium spp.) was low (κ = 0.2). A low positive correlation was found between TFLs sampled with outdoor HTST and indoor HTST with applying a 4-hour time lag, r = 0.30, 95% CI (0.23-0.43), P<0.001. In indoor air, Aspergillus spp. were detected by the viable impaction sampler on 63.1% of the samples, whereas AFLs were found by HTST-I on only 3.6% of the samples. Concordance between Aspergillus spp. loads and AFLs sampled with the 2 methods was very low (κ = 0.1). This study showed a 4-hour time lag between increase of outdoor and indoor TFLs, possibly due to insulation and aeraulic flow of the building. Outdoor HTSTs may permit to quickly identify (after 48 hours) time periods with high outdoor fungal loads. An identified drawback is that a too low sample area read did not seem to enable detection of Aspergillaceae spores efficiently. Indoor HTSTs may not be recommended at this time, and outdoor HTSTs need further study. Air sampling by viable impaction sampler remains the reference tool for quantifying fungal contamination of indoor air in hospitals.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0177263PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5423681PMC
September 2017

Calcium phosphate: a substitute for aluminum adjuvants?

Expert Rev Vaccines 2017 03 24;16(3):289-299. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

d École nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort , Maisons-Alfort , France.

Introduction: Calcium phosphate was used as an adjuvant in France in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines. It was later completely substituted by alum salts in the late 80's, but it still remains as an approved adjuvant for the World Health Organization for human vaccination. Area covered: Thus, calcium phosphate is now considered as one of the substances that could replace alum salts in vaccines. The aim of this paper is to draw a review of existing data on calcium phosphate as an adjuvant in order to bring out the strengths and weaknesses for its use on a large scale. Expert commentary: Calcium phosphate is a compound naturally present in the organism, safe and already used in human vaccination. Beyond comparisons with the other adjuvants, calcium phosphate represents a good candidate to replace or to complete alum salts as a vaccine adjuvant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2017.1244484DOI Listing
March 2017

Multicenter Study on Incubation Conditions for Environmental Monitoring and Aseptic Process Simulation.

PDA J Pharm Sci Technol 2017 1/2;71(1):43-49. Epub 2016 Sep 4.

Biomerieux, Craponne, France.

Environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulations represent an integral part of the microbiological quality control system of sterile pharmaceutical products manufacturing operations. However, guidance documents and manufacturers practices differ regarding recommendations for incubation time and incubation temperature, and, consequently, the environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulation incubation strategy should be supported by validation data. To avoid any bias coming from in vitro studies or from single-site manufacturing in situ studies, we performed a collaborative study at four manufacturing sites with four samples at each location. The environmental monitoring study was performed with tryptic soy agar settle plates and contact plates, and the aseptic process simulation study was performed with tryptic soy broth and thioglycolate broth. The highest recovery rate was obtained with settle plates (97.7%) followed by contact plates (65.4%) and was less than 20% for liquid media (tryptic soy broth 19% and thioglycolate broth 17%). Gram-positive cocci and non-spore-forming Gram-positive rods were largely predominant with more than 95% of growth and recovered best at 32.5 °C. The highest recovery of molds was obtained at 22.5 °C alone or as the first incubation temperature. Strict anaerobes were not recovered. At the end of the five days of incubation no significant statistical difference was obtained between the four conditions. Based on these data a single incubation temperature at 32.5 °C could be recommended for these four manufacturing sites for both environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulation, and a second plate could be used, periodically incubated at 22.5 °C. Similar studies should be considered for all manufacturing facilities in order to determine the optimal incubation temperature regime for both viable environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulation.

Lay Abstract: Microbiological environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulation confirm that pharmaceutical cleanrooms are in an appropriate hygienic condition for manufacturing of sterile drug products. Guidance documents from different health authorities or expert groups differ regarding recommendation of the applied incubation time and incubation temperature, leading to variable manufacturers practices. Some recent publications have demonstrated that laboratory studies are not relevant to determine the best incubation regime and that in situ manufacturing site studies should be used. To solve any possible bias coming from laboratory studies or single-site in situ studies, we conducted a multicenter study at four manufacturing sites with a significant amount of real environmental monitoring samples collected directly from the environment in pharmaceutical production during manufacturing operations with four solid and liquid nutrient media. These samples were then incubated under four different conditions suggested in the guidance documents. We believe that the results of our multicenter study confirming recent other single-site in situ studies could be the basis of the strategy to determine the best incubation regime for both viable environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulation in any manufacturing facility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5731/pdajpst.2016.006791DOI Listing
June 2018

The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe.

Int J Biometeorol 2016 Dec 27;60(12):1829-1839. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Aeropalynology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland.

The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-016-1170-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5127884PMC
December 2016

First comparison of symptom data with allergen content (Bet v 1 and Phl p 5 measurements) and pollen data from four European regions during 2009-2011.

Sci Total Environ 2016 Apr 21;548-549:229-235. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

University Department of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases, Medizinische Universität Wien, Austria.

Background: The level of symptoms in pollen allergy sufferers and users of the Patient's Hayfever Diary (PHD), does not directly reflect the total amount of pollen in the air. It is necessary to explain the symptom load and thus the development of allergic symptoms and to determine which environmental factors, besides the pollen load, influence variables. It seems reasonable to suspect allergen content because the amount of allergen varies throughout seasons and regions and is not always correlated with the total pollen amount.

Methods: Data on the allergen content of ambient air (Bet v 1 and Phl p 5) from 2009 until 2011 was used to compare the respective pollen and symptom loads for study regions in Austria, Germany, France and Finland.

Results: Our findings suggest that allergen amount (Bet v 1/Phl p 5) has a strong but regionally dependent impact on the symptom load of pollen allergy sufferers. Peak symptom loads can be traced with peak allergen loads. The influence of other important aeroallergens should also be assessed during the pollen season.

Conclusion: Allergen concentrations have an impact on pollen allergy sufferers although not as clear as assumed previously. The pattern of pollen load and major allergen content distribution does not directly explain the symptom load pattern, although significant positive correlations were found. Thus, monitoring of symptoms via voluntary crowdsourcing should be considered for future pollen and symptom forecasts in order to support pollen allergy sufferers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.014DOI Listing
April 2016

Variation of the group 5 grass pollen allergen content of airborne pollen in relation to geographic location and time in season.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2015 Jul 6;136(1):87-95.e6. Epub 2015 May 6.

Interdepartmental Centre of Bioclimatology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Background: Allergies to grass pollen are the number one cause of outdoor hay fever. The human immune system reacts with symptoms to allergen from pollen.

Objective: We investigated the natural variability in release of the major group 5 allergen from grass pollen across Europe.

Methods: Airborne pollen and allergens were simultaneously collected daily with a volumetric spore trap and a high-volume cascade impactor at 10 sites across Europe for 3 consecutive years. Group 5 allergen levels were determined with a Phl p 5-specific ELISA in 2 fractions of ambient air: particulate matter of greater than 10 μm in diameter and particulate matter greater than 2.5 μm and less than 10 μm in diameter. Mediator release by ambient air was determined in FcεRI-humanized basophils. The origin of pollen was modeled and condensed to pollen potency maps.

Results: On average, grass pollen released 2.3 pg of Phl p 5 per pollen. Allergen release per pollen (potency) varied substantially, ranging from less than 1 to 9 pg of Phl p 5 per pollen (5% to 95% percentile). The main variation was locally day to day. Average potency maps across Europe varied between years. Mediator release from basophilic granulocytes correlated better with allergen levels per cubic meter (r(2) = 0.80, P < .001) than with pollen grains per cubic meter (r(2) = 0.61, P < .001). In addition, pollen released different amounts of allergen in the non-pollen-bearing fraction of ambient air, depending on humidity.

Conclusion: Across Europe, the same amount of pollen released substantially different amounts of group 5 grass pollen allergen. This variation in allergen release is in addition to variations in pollen counts. Molecular aerobiology (ie, determining allergen in ambient air) might be a valuable addition to pollen counting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2015.01.049DOI Listing
July 2015

Trans-disciplinary research in synthesis of grass pollen aerobiology and its importance for respiratory health in Australasia.

Sci Total Environ 2015 Nov 16;534:85-96. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

Plant Functional Biology and Climate Change, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia. Electronic address:

Grass pollen is a major trigger for allergic rhinitis and asthma, yet little is known about the timing and levels of human exposure to airborne grass pollen across Australasian urban environments. The relationships between environmental aeroallergen exposure and allergic respiratory disease bridge the fields of ecology, aerobiology, geospatial science and public health. The Australian Aerobiology Working Group comprised of experts in botany, palynology, biogeography, climate change science, plant genetics, biostatistics, ecology, pollen allergy, public and environmental health, and medicine, was established to systematically source, collate and analyse atmospheric pollen concentration data from 11 Australian and six New Zealand sites. Following two week-long workshops, post-workshop evaluations were conducted to reflect upon the utility of this analysis and synthesis approach to address complex multidisciplinary questions. This Working Group described i) a biogeographically dependent variation in airborne pollen diversity, ii) a latitudinal gradient in the timing, duration and number of peaks of the grass pollen season, and iii) the emergence of new methodologies based on trans-disciplinary synthesis of aerobiology and remote sensing data. Challenges included resolving methodological variations between pollen monitoring sites and temporal variations in pollen datasets. Other challenges included "marrying" ecosystem and health sciences and reconciling divergent expert opinion. The Australian Aerobiology Working Group facilitated knowledge transfer between diverse scientific disciplines, mentored students and early career scientists, and provided an uninterrupted collaborative opportunity to focus on a unifying problem globally. The Working Group provided a platform to optimise the value of large existing ecological datasets that have importance for human respiratory health and ecosystems research. Compilation of current knowledge of Australasian pollen aerobiology is a critical first step towards the management of exposure to pollen in patients with allergic disease and provides a basis from which the future impacts of climate change on pollen distribution can be assessed and monitored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.001DOI Listing
November 2015

The macroecology of airborne pollen in Australian and New Zealand urban areas.

PLoS One 2014 29;9(5):e97925. Epub 2014 May 29.

Lung and Allergy Research Centre, School of Medicine, and Translational Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia.

The composition and relative abundance of airborne pollen in urban areas of Australia and New Zealand are strongly influenced by geographical location, climate and land use. There is mounting evidence that the diversity and quality of airborne pollen is substantially modified by climate change and land-use yet there are insufficient data to project the future nature of these changes. Our study highlights the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in Australian and New Zealand urban areas in a systematic, standardised, and sustained way, and provides a framework for targeting the most clinically significant taxa in terms of abundance, allergenic effects and public health burden.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0097925PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4038531PMC
January 2015