Publications by authors named "Michel Seman"

34 Publications

Tuning IL-2 signaling by ADP-ribosylation of CD25.

Sci Rep 2015 Mar 10;5:8959. Epub 2015 Mar 10.

1] Institute of Immunology, University Medical Center, 20246 Hamburg, Germany [2] Normandy University, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, 76183 Rouen, France.

Control of immunologic tolerance and homeostasis rely on Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) that constitutively express the high affinity receptor for Interleukin-2, CD25. Tregs proliferate in response to injections of IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes or low doses of IL-2. However, little is known about endogenous mechanisms that regulate the sensitivity of CD25 to signaling by IL-2. Here we demonstrate that CD25 is ADP-ribosylated at Arg35 in the IL-2 binding site by ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTC2.2, a toxin-related GPI-anchored ecto-enzyme. ADP-ribosylation inhibits binding of IL-2 by CD25, IL-2- induced phosphorylation of STAT5, and IL-2-dependent cell proliferation. Our study elucidates an as-yet-unrecognized mechanism to tune IL-2 signaling. This newly found mechanism might thwart Tregs at sites of inflammation and thereby permit a more potent response of activated effector T cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep08959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4354014PMC
March 2015

Selection of nanobodies that block the enzymatic and cytotoxic activities of the binary Clostridium difficile toxin CDT.

Sci Rep 2015 Jan 19;5:7850. Epub 2015 Jan 19.

Institute of Immunology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany.

The spore-forming gut bacterium Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients. The major virulence factors are two large glucosylating cytotoxins. Hypervirulent strains (e.g. ribotype 027) with higher morbidity and mortality additionally produce the binary CDT toxin (Clostridium difficile transferase) that ADP-ribosylates actin and induces microtubule-based cell protrusions. Nanobodies are robust single domain antibodies derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Here we report the generation of functional nanobodies against the enzymatic CDTa and the heptameric receptor binding subunit CDTb. The nanobodies were obtained from a variable-domain repertoire library isolated from llamas immunized with recombinant CDTa or CDTb. Five CDTa-specific nanobodies blocked CDTa-mediated ADP-ribosylation of actin. Three CDTa-specific and two CDTb-specific nanobodies neutralized the cytotoxicity of CDTa+b. These nanobodies hold promise as new tools for research, diagnosis and therapy of C. difficile associated disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep07850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297958PMC
January 2015

Extracellular NAD(+): a danger signal hindering regulatory T cells.

Microbes Infect 2012 Nov 24;14(14):1284-92. Epub 2012 May 24.

Inserm, U905, 22 boulevard Gambetta, F-76000 Rouen, Normandy, France.

Endogenous danger signals released during cell damage contribute to alert the immune system. Typically, their release results in the activation and maturation of innate immune cells, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, extracellular NAD(+) stimulates immune responses by hindering regulatory T cells (Tregs), and could, therefore, represent the prototype of a new category of danger signals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2012.05.011DOI Listing
November 2012

Extracellular NAD+ shapes the Foxp3+ regulatory T cell compartment through the ART2-P2X7 pathway.

J Exp Med 2010 Nov 25;207(12):2561-8. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale, U905, 76183 Rouen, France.

CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) play a major role in the control of immune responses but the factors controlling their homeostasis and function remain poorly characterized. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) released during cell damage or inflammation results in ART2.2-mediated ADP-ribosylation of the cytolytic P2X7 receptor on T cells. We show that T reg cells express the ART2.2 enzyme and high levels of P2X7 and that T reg cells can be depleted by intravenous injection of NAD(+). Moreover, lower T reg cell numbers are found in mice deficient for the NAD-hydrolase CD38 than in wild-type, P2X7-deficient, or ART2-deficient mice, indicating a role for extracellular NAD(+) in T reg cell homeostasis. Even routine cell preparation leads to release of NAD(+) in sufficient quantities to profoundly affect T reg cell viability, phenotype, and function. We demonstrate that T reg cells can be protected from the deleterious effects of NAD(+) by an inhibitory ART2.2-specific single domain antibody. Furthermore, selective depletion of T reg cells by systemic administration of NAD(+) can be used to promote an antitumor response in several mouse tumor models. Collectively, our data demonstrate that NAD(+) influences survival, phenotype, and function of T reg cells and provide proof of principle that acting on the ART2-P2X7 pathway represents a new strategy to manipulate T reg cells in vivo.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20091154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2989765PMC
November 2010

Genetic control of IL-1 beta production and inflammatory response by the mouse Irm1 locus.

J Immunol 2010 Aug 7;185(3):1616-21. Epub 2010 Jul 7.

Laboratório de Imunogenética, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.

Genome-wide linkage analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays was carried out in pedigrees of mice differing in the extent of acute inflammatory response (AIRmax or AIRmin). The AIR phenotype was determined by quantifying the number of infiltrating cells in the 24-h exudate induced by Biogel P-100 s.c. injection and by ex vivo IL-1beta production by leukocytes stimulated with LPS and ATP. We mapped the major inflammatory response modulator 1 locus on chromosome 7, at the 1-logarithm of odds (LOD) confidence interval from 116.75 to 139.75 Mb, linked to the number of infiltrating cells (LOD = 3.61) through the production of IL-1beta (LOD = 9.35). Of several interesting candidate genes mapping to the inflammatory response modulator 1 locus, 28 of these were differentially expressed in the bone marrow of AIRmax and AIRmin mice. These findings represent a step toward the identification of the genes underlying this complex phenotype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1000358DOI Listing
August 2010

Cutting edge: CD4-independent development of functional FoxP3+ regulatory T cells.

J Immunol 2009 Oct;183(7):4182-6

INSERM, Unité 905, Rouen, France; University of Rouen, Institut Fédératif de Recherches Multidisciplinaires sur les Peptides, Institute for Biomedical Research, F-76000 Rouen, France.

The CD4 coreceptor is mandatory for the differentiation and function of conventional MHC class II-restricted T cells, but little is known about its contribution in regulatory T cells (Tregs). We thus investigated the Treg compartment in mice lacking CD4. CD3+CD8-FoxP3+ cells were readily detected in the periphery of CD4(-/-) mice, where their percentages were even increased as compared with wild-type animals. These cells had a classical CD25+CD152+GITR+ Treg phenotype, were enriched in memory-type Tregs, and displayed a diversified TCR repertoire. Functionally, CD4(-/-) Tregs were equally as suppressive as CD4(+/+) Tregs in vitro as well as in vivo. Hence, the CD4 coreceptor is dispensable for the generation and function of FoxP3+ Tregs. Furthermore, CD3+CD8-FoxP3+ Tregs were also found to develop in the absence of both CD4 and MHC-II molecules, demonstrating that the generation of Tregs can occur independently of MHC-II recognition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0901678DOI Listing
October 2009

Differential regulation of P2X7 receptor activation by extracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferases in murine macrophages and T cells.

J Immunol 2009 Jul;183(1):578-92

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44120, USA.

Extracellular NAD induces the ATP-independent activation of the ionotropic P2X(7) purinergic receptor (P2X(7)R) in murine T lymphocytes via a novel covalent pathway involving ADP-ribosylation of arginine residues on the P2X(7)R ectodomain. This modification is catalyzed by ART2.2, a GPI-anchored ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART) that is constitutively expressed in murine T cells. We previously reported that ART2.1, a related ecto-ART, is up-regulated in inflammatory murine macrophages that constitutively express P2X(7)R. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular NAD acts via ART2.1 to regulate P2X(7)R function in murine macrophages. Coexpression of the cloned murine P2X(7)R with ART2.1 or ART2.2 in HEK293 cells verified that P2X(7)R is an equivalent substrate for ADP-ribosylation by either ART2.1 or ART2.2. However, in contrast with T cells, the stimulation of macrophages or HEK293 cells with NAD alone did not activate the P2X(7)R. Rather, NAD potentiated ATP-dependent P2X(7)R activation as indicated by a left shift in the ATP dose-response relationship. Thus, extracellular NAD regulates the P2X(7)R in both macrophages and T cells but via distinct mechanisms. Although ADP-ribosylation is sufficient to gate a P2X(7)R channel opening in T cells, this P2X(7)R modification in macrophages does not gate the channel but decreases the threshold for gating in response to ATP binding. These findings indicate that extracellular NAD and ATP can act synergistically to regulate P2X(7)R signaling in murine macrophages and also suggest that the cellular context in which P2X(7)R signaling occurs differs between myeloid and lymphoid leukocytes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0900120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2768492PMC
July 2009

Single domain antibodies: promising experimental and therapeutic tools in infection and immunity.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2009 Aug 16;198(3):157-74. Epub 2009 Jun 16.

Institute of Immunology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Antibodies are important tools for experimental research and medical applications. Most antibodies are composed of two heavy and two light chains. Both chains contribute to the antigen-binding site which is usually flat or concave. In addition to these conventional antibodies, llamas, other camelids, and sharks also produce antibodies composed only of heavy chains. The antigen-binding site of these unusual heavy chain antibodies (hcAbs) is formed only by a single domain, designated VHH in camelid hcAbs and VNAR in shark hcAbs. VHH and VNAR are easily produced as recombinant proteins, designated single domain antibodies (sdAbs) or nanobodies. The CDR3 region of these sdAbs possesses the extraordinary capacity to form long fingerlike extensions that can extend into cavities on antigens, e.g., the active site crevice of enzymes. Other advantageous features of nanobodies include their small size, high solubility, thermal stability, refolding capacity, and good tissue penetration in vivo. Here we review the results of several recent proof-of-principle studies that open the exciting perspective of using sdAbs for modulating immune functions and for targeting toxins and microbes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-009-0116-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2714450PMC
August 2009

Basal and inducible expression of the thiol-sensitive ART2.1 ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase in myeloid and lymphoid leukocytes.

Purinergic Signal 2009 Sep 30;5(3):369-83. Epub 2009 Apr 30.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH, 44120, USA.

ADP-ribosylation of cell surface proteins in mammalian cells is a post-translational modification by which ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) transfer ADP-ribose from extracellular NAD to protein targets. The ART2 locus at murine chromosome 7 encompasses the tandem Art2a and Art2b genes that encode the distinct ART2.1 and ART2.2 proteins. Although both ecto-enzymes share 80% sequence identity, ART2.1 activity is uniquely regulated by an allosteric disulfide bond that is reducible in the presence of extracellular thiols, such as cysteine and glutathione, that accumulate in hypoxic and ischemic tissues. Previous studies have characterized the expression of ART2.1 and ART2.2 in murine T lymphocytes but not in other major classes of lymphoid and myeloid leukocytes. Here, we describe the expression of ART2.1 activity in a wide range of freshly isolated or tissue-cultured murine myeloid and lymphoid leukocytes. Spleen-derived macrophages, dendritic cells (DC), and B cells constitutively express ART2.1 as their predominant ART while spleen T cells express both ART2.1 and the thiol-independent ART2.2 isoform. Although bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and dendritic cells (BMDC) constitutively express ART2.1 at low levels, it is markedly up-regulated when these cells are stimulated in vitro with IFNbeta or IFNgamma. ART2.1 expression and activity in splenic B cells is modestly up-regulated during incubation in vitro for 24 h, a condition that promotes B cell apoptosis. This increase in ART2.1 is attenuated by IL-4 (a B cell survival factor), but is not affected by IFNbeta/gamma, suggesting a possible induction of ART2.1 as an ancillary response to B cell apoptosis. In contrast, ART2.1 and ART2.2, which are highly expressed in freshly isolated splenic T cells, are markedly down-regulated when purified T cells are incubated in vitro for 12-24 h. Studies with the BW5147 mouse thymocyte line verified basal expression of ART2.1 and ART2.2, as in primary spleen T cells, and demonstrated that both isoforms can be up-regulated when T cells are maintained in the presence of IFNs. Comparison of the surface proteins which are ADP-ribosylated by ART2.1 in the different leukocyte subtypes indicated both shared and cell-specific proteins as ART2.1 substrates. The LFA-1 integrin, a major target for ART2.2 in T cells, is also ADP-ribosylated by the ART2.1 expressed in macrophages. Thus, ART2.1, in contrast to ART2.2, is expressed in a broad range of myeloid and lymphoid leukocytes. The thiol redox-sensitive nature of this ecto-enzyme suggests an involvement in purinergic signaling that occurs in the combined context of inflammation and hypoxia/ischemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11302-009-9162-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2717319PMC
September 2009

Activation of the P2X7 ion channel by soluble and covalently bound ligands.

Purinergic Signal 2009 Jun 3;5(2):139-49. Epub 2009 Mar 3.

Institute of Immunology, Campus-Forschung 02.059, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

The homotrimeric P2X7 purinergic receptor has sparked interest because of its capacity to sense adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) released from cells and to induce calcium signaling and cell death. Here, we examine the response of arginine mutants of P2X7 to soluble and covalently bound ligands. High concentrations of ecto-ATP gate P2X7 by acting as a soluble ligand and low concentrations of ecto-NAD gate P2X7 following ADP-ribosylation at R125 catalyzed by toxin-related ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ART2.2. R125 lies on a prominent cysteine-rich finger at the interface of adjacent receptor subunits, and ADP-ribosylation at this site likely places the common adenine nucleotide moiety into the ligand-binding pocket of P2X7.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11302-009-9135-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2686825PMC
June 2009

Characterisation of the R276A gain-of-function mutation in the ectodomain of murine P2X7.

Purinergic Signal 2009 Jun 21;5(2):151-61. Epub 2009 Feb 21.

Inserm U905, 76183, Rouen, France,

The cytolytic P2X7 purinoceptor is widely expressed on leukocytes and has sparked interest because of its key role in the activation of the inflammasome, the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta and cell death. We report here the functional characterisation of a R276A gain-of-function mutant analysed for its capacities to induce membrane depolarisation, calcium influx and opening of a large membrane pore permeable to YO-PRO-1. Our results highlight the particular sensitivity of R276A mutant to low micromolar adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations, which possibly reflect an increased affinity for its ligands, and a slower closing kinetics of the receptor channel. Our findings support the notion that evolutionary pressures maintain the low sensitivity of P2X7 to ATP. We also believe that the R276A mutant described here may be useful for the generation of new animal models with exacerbated P2X7 functions that will serve to better characterise its role in inflammation and in immune responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11302-009-9134-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2686824PMC
June 2009

NAD+ and ATP released from injured cells induce P2X7-dependent shedding of CD62L and externalization of phosphatidylserine by murine T cells.

J Immunol 2009 Mar;182(5):2898-908

Institute of Immunology, University Hospital, Hamburg, Germany.

Extracellular NAD(+) and ATP trigger the shedding of CD62L and the externalization of phosphatidylserine on murine T cells. These events depend on the P2X(7) ion channel. Although ATP acts as a soluble ligand to activate P2X(7), gating of P2X(7) by NAD(+) requires ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ART2.2-catalyzed transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD(+) onto Arg125 of P2X(7). Steady-state concentrations of NAD(+) and ATP in extracellular compartments are highly regulated and usually are well below the threshold required for activating P2X(7). The goal of this study was to identify possible endogenous sources of these nucleotides. We show that lysis of erythrocytes releases sufficient levels of NAD(+) and ATP to induce activation of P2X(7). Dilution of erythrocyte lysates or incubation of lysates at 37 degrees C revealed that signaling by ATP fades more rapidly than that by NAD(+). We further show that the routine preparation of primary lymph node and spleen cells induces the release of NAD(+) in sufficient concentrations for ART2.2 to ADP-ribosylate P2X(7), even at 4 degrees C. Gating of P2X(7) occurs when T cells are returned to 37 degrees C, rapidly inducing CD62L-shedding and PS-externalization by a substantial fraction of the cells. The "spontaneous" activation of P2X(7) during preparation of primary T cells could be prevented by i.v. injection of either the surrogate ART substrate etheno-NAD or ART2.2-inhibitory single domain Abs 10 min before sacrificing mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0801711DOI Listing
March 2009

Increase of monoamine oxidase-B activity in the brain of scrapie-infected hamsters.

Neurochem Int 2008 Jun 18;52(8):1416-21. Epub 2008 Mar 18.

Laboratoire de Pathologie du Bétail et des Animaux de Basse-cour, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Maisons-Alfort Cedex, France.

In the present study, the purpose is to determine activities of monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the brain of 263K scrapie-infected hamsters during the development of this experimental prion disease. Indeed, MAO activity modifications which have already been related in aging and neurodegenerations is suspected to be involved in the neuron loss process by elevated hydrogen peroxide formation. Monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) and B (MAO-B) activities were followed in the brain at different stages of the disease. MAO-A activity did not change significantly during the evolution of the disease. However, concerning the MAO-B activity, a significant increase was observed from 50 days post-infection and through the course of the disease and reached 42.9+/-5.3% at its ultimate stage. Regarding these results, MAO-B could be a potential therapeutic target then we have performed a pre-clinical treatment with irreversible (Selegiline or L-deprenyl) or and reversible (MS-9510) MAO-B inhibitors used alone or in association with an anti-scrapie drug such as MS-8209, an amphotericin B derivative. Our results show that none of the MAO-B inhibitors used was able to delay the onset of the disease. Neither these MAO-B inhibitors nor R-NMDA inhibitors (MK-801) can enhance the effects of MS-8209. The present findings clearly indicate a significant increase of cerebral MAO-B activity in scrapie-infected hamsters. Furthermore, inhibitors of MAO-B do not have any curative or palliative effect on this experimental model indicating that the raise of this activity is probably more a consequence rather than a causal event of the neurodegenerative process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2008.03.002DOI Listing
June 2008

Monitoring the expression of purinoceptors and nucleotide-metabolizing ecto-enzymes with antibodies directed against proteins in native conformation.

Purinergic Signal 2007 Sep 6;3(4):359-66. Epub 2007 Oct 6.

Institute of Immunology, Hamburg University Medical Center, Campus Forschung 2.OG; Rm. 02.059, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Following their release from cells, ATP and NAD, the universal currencies of energy metabolism, function as extracellular signalling molecules. Mammalian cells express numerous purinoceptors, i.e., the nucleotide-gated P2X ion channels and the G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors. Signalling through purinoceptors is controlled by nucleotide-metabolizing ecto-enzymes, which regulate the availability of extracellular nucleotides. These enzymes include ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (ENTPD, CD39 family) and ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (ENPP, CD203 family). Investigation of these receptors and enzymes has been hampered by the lack of available antibodies, especially ones that recognize these proteins in their native conformation. This study reports the use of genetic immunization to generate such antibodies against P2X(1), P2X(4), P2X(7), ENTPD1, ENPTD2, ENPTD5, ENPTD6, ENPP2, ENPP3, ENPP4, ENPP5, and ENPP6. Genetic immunization ensures expression of the native protein by the cells of the immunized animal and yields antibodies directed against proteins in native conformation (ADAPINCs). Such antibodies are especially useful for immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analyses, whereas antibodies against synthetic peptides usually function well only in Western-blot analyses. Here we illustrate the utility of the new antibodies to monitor the cell surface expression of and to purify some key players of purinergic signalling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11302-007-9084-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2072918PMC
September 2007

Extracellular NAD and ATP: Partners in immune cell modulation.

Purinergic Signal 2007 Mar 9;3(1-2):71-81. Epub 2007 Jan 9.

Institute of Immunology, University Hospital, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany,

Extracellular NAD and ATP exert multiple, partially overlapping effects on immune cells. Catabolism of both nucleotides by extracellular enzymes keeps extracellular concentrations low under steady-state conditions and generates metabolites that are themselves signal transducers. ATP and its metabolites signal through purinergic P2 and P1 receptors, whereas extracellular NAD exerts its effects by serving as a substrate for ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) and NAD glycohydrolases/ADPR cyclases like CD38 and CD157. Both nucleotides activate the P2X7 purinoceptor, although by different mechanisms and with different characteristics. While ATP activates P2X7 directly as a soluble ligand, activation via NAD occurs by ART-dependent ADP-ribosylation of cell surface proteins, providing an immobilised ligand. P2X7 activation by either route leads to phosphatidylserine exposure, shedding of CD62L, and ultimately to cell death. Activation by ATP requires high micromolar concentrations of nucleotide and is readily reversible, whereas NAD-dependent stimulation begins at low micromolar concentrations and is more stable. Under conditions of cell stress or inflammation, ATP and NAD are released into the extracellular space from intracellular stores by lytic and non-lytic mechanisms, and may serve as "danger signals" to alert the immune response to tissue damage. Since ART expression is limited to naïve/resting T cells, P2X7-mediated NAD-induced cell death (NICD) specifically targets this cell population. In inflamed tissue, NICD may inhibit bystander activation of unprimed T cells, reducing the risk of autoimmunity. In draining lymph nodes, NICD may eliminate regulatory T cells or provide space for the preferential expansion of primed cells, and thus help to augment an immune response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11302-006-9038-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2096762PMC
March 2007

Lipopolysaccharide, IFN-gamma, and IFN-beta induce expression of the thiol-sensitive ART2.1 Ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase in murine macrophages.

J Immunol 2007 Nov;179(9):6215-27

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44120, USA.

Nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD) can act as a modulator of multiple immune and inflammatory responses when released into extracellular compartments. These actions of extracellular NAD are largely mediated by a family of mammalian ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) that covalently modify target extracellular or cell surface proteins by transferring ADP-ribose to arginine or cysteine residues. In this study, we report that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from BALB/c mice lack constitutive expression of any of the six murine ecto-ART subtypes, but selectively up-regulate ART2.1 in response to multiple proinflammatory mediators including agonists for TLR and type I and type II IFN. Stimulation of BMDM with LPS, IFN-beta, or IFN-gamma induced high expression of ART2.1, but not ART2.2, as a GPI-anchored cell surface ectoenzyme. ART2.1 expression in response to LPS was potentiated by inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling, but inhibited by blockade of the NF-kappaB, PI3K, and JAK-STAT pathways or the presence of neutralizing anti-IFN-beta. The catalytic function of the induced cell surface ART2.1 was strictly dependent on the presence of extracellular thiol-reducing cofactors, suggesting that in vivo activity of ART2.1-expressing macrophages may be potentiated in hypoxic or ischemic compartments. Consistent with the mutated art2a gene in C57BL/6 mice, LPS- or IFN-stimulated BMDM from this strain lacked expression of cell surface ART2 activity in the presence or absence of extracellular thiol reductants. Collectively, these studies identify ART2.1 as a new candidate for linking autocrine/paracrine activation of inflammatory macrophages to the release of NAD, a critical intracellular metabolite.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.179.9.6215DOI Listing
November 2007

ADP-ribosylation at R125 gates the P2X7 ion channel by presenting a covalent ligand to its nucleotide binding site.

FASEB J 2008 Mar 10;22(3):861-9. Epub 2007 Oct 10.

Institute of Immunology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany.

ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification regulating protein function in which amino acid-specific ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) transfer ADP-ribose from NAD onto specific target proteins. Attachment of the bulky ADP-ribose usually inactivates the target by sterically blocking its interaction with other proteins. P2X7, an ATP-gated ion channel with important roles in inflammation and cell death, in contrast, is activated by ADP-ribosylation. Here, we report the structural basis for this gating and present the first molecular model for the activation of a target protein by ADP-ribosylation. We demonstrate that the ecto-enzyme ART2.2 ADP-ribosylates P2X7 at arginine 125 in a prominent, cysteine-rich region at the interface of 2 receptor subunits. ADP-ribose shares an adenine-ribonucleotide moiety with ATP. Our results indicate that ADP-ribosylation of R125 positions this common chemical framework to fit into the nucleotide-binding site of P2X7 and thereby gates the channel.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.07-9294comDOI Listing
March 2008

NAD+ released during inflammation participates in T cell homeostasis by inducing ART2-mediated death of naive T cells in vivo.

J Immunol 2007 Jul;179(1):186-94

University Denis Diderot-Paris 7, EA 1556 Paris, France.

Mono ADP-ribosyltransferase 2 (ART2) is an ectoenzyme expressed on mouse T lymphocytes, which catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose groups from NAD(+) onto several target proteins. In vitro, ADP-ribosylation by ART2 activates the P2X7 ATP receptor and is responsible for NAD(+)-induced T cell death (NICD). Yet, the origin of extracellular NAD(+) and the role of NICD in vivo remain elusive. In a model of acute inflammation induced by polyacrylamide beads, we demonstrate release of NAD(+) into exudates during the early phase of the inflammatory response. This leads to T cell depletion in the draining lymph nodes from wild-type and, more severely, from mice lacking the CD38 NAD(+) glycohydrolase, whereas no effect is observed in ART2-deficient animals. Intravenous injection of NAD(+) used to exacerbate NICD in vivo results in fast and dramatic ART2- and P2X7-dependent depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, which can affect up to 80% of peripheral T cells in CD38(-/-) mice. This affects mainly naive T cells as most cells surviving in vivo NAD+ treatment exhibit the phenotype of recently activated/memory cells. Consistently, treatment with NAD(+) abolishes primary Ab response to a T-dependent Ag in NICD-susceptible CD38(-/-) mice but has no effect on the secondary response when given several days after priming. Unexpectedly NAD+ treatment improves the response in their wild-type BALB/c counterparts. We propose that NAD(+) released during early inflammation facilitates the expansion of primed T cells, through ART2-driven death of resting cells, thus contributing to the dynamic regulation of T cell homeostasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.179.1.186DOI Listing
July 2007

Genetic determinants of acute inflammation regulate Salmonella infection and modulate Slc11a1 gene (formerly Nramp1) effects in selected mouse lines.

Microbes Infect 2006 Oct 7;8(12-13):2766-71. Epub 2006 Sep 7.

Laboratório de Imunogenética - Instituto Butantan, Av. Vital Brasil, 1500, São Paulo, SP 05503900, Brazil.

Two lines of mice selected to produce maximal (AIRmax) or minimal (AIRmin) acute inflammatory reactions (AIR) differ in their susceptibility to infection by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). The LD(50) for AIRmax mice is 1000 times higher than that observed for AIRmin mice, and higher frequencies of Slc11a1 alleles (known to confer either resistance (R) or high susceptibility (S) to S. Typhimurium) were consistently found in AIRmax and AIRmin mouse lines, respectively. In order to evaluate the effect of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) segregated in AIRmax and AIRmin mice on Slc11a1 dependent susceptibility to S. Typhimurium, the R and S alleles were fixed in homozygosity in AIRmax and AIRmin backgrounds by genotype assisted breedings. These new lines were named AIRmax(RR), AIRmax(SS), AIRmin(RR), and AIRmin(SS). Acute inflammation of Slc11a1(RR) animals was more severe in comparison to their Slc11a1(SS) counterparts, implicating Slc11a1 (or other linked genes) in AIR regulation. The LD(50) of S. Typhimurium was 800-times higher for AIRmax(SS) than for AIRmin(SS), demonstrating that AIR QTL can act as modifiers of the Slc11a1(SS) susceptibility gene. Four microsatellite markers for S. Typhimurium susceptibility QTL described in other mouse lines showed specific allele fixation in AIRmax or AIRmin mice, suggesting that these chromosomal regions also segregate with inflammatory phenotypes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2006.08.005DOI Listing
October 2006

Inverse genetic predisposition to colon versus lung carcinogenesis in mouse lines selected based on acute inflammatory responsiveness.

Carcinogenesis 2006 Aug 13;27(8):1517-25. Epub 2006 Jun 13.

Laboratório de Imunogenética, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Mouse lines produced by bidirectional selection on the basis of maximum (AIRmax) or minimum (AIRmin) acute inflammatory reactions were examined for the development of chemically induced acute colitis and colon tumors and the development of lung tumors. AIRmax mice were more susceptible than AIRmin to acute colitis induced by ingestion of dextran sodium sulfate showing a 3-fold higher disease activity index and presenting an intense inflammatory infiltrate in the base of colon crypts as well as elevated expression of IL-1beta, TNFalpha, IFNgamma and IL-6 mRNA in colon tissue. AIRmax were also more susceptible than AIRmin to colon cancer induced by 2 or 7 weekly doses of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), showing significantly higher numbers of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) at 150 days after DMH treatment (P = 0.01) and significantly higher numbers of tumors affecting larger intestinal areas at 300-475 days. At the latter time point, however, multiple lung adenomas and large adenocarcinomas were found in AIRmin but not in AIRmax mice. Treatment of mice with nimesulide for 60 days beginning 24 h before the first of two DMH doses almost completely inhibited the appearance of ACF in both lines. Furthermore, ACF numbers and the degree of acute inflammation directly co-segregated in an F2 (AIRmax x AIRmin) intercross population. The results demonstrate that genetic determinants of the inflammatory response differentially influence susceptibility to colon and lung carcinogenesis in the AIRmax and AIRmin mouse model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgl080DOI Listing
August 2006

ADP-ribosylation of membrane proteins: unveiling the secrets of a crucial regulatory mechanism in mammalian cells.

Ann Med 2006 ;38(3):188-99

Institute of Immunology, Department of Clinical Pathology, University Hospital, Hamburg, Germany.

Many bacterial toxins kill animal cells by adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylating intracellular target proteins. Mammalian cells express toxin-related cell surface ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) that transfer ADP-ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto arginine residues of other membrane proteins. The association of these glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored ectoenzymes with glycolipid rafts focuses them onto components of the signal transduction machinery. Exposing murine T cells to NAD, the ART substrate, induces a cascade of reactions that culminates in cell death by apoptosis. This mechanism, dubbed 'NAD-induced cell death' or NICD, is initiated when ART2 ADP-ribosylates the cytolytic P2X7 purinergic receptor, inducing formation of a cation channel, opening of a nonselective pore, shedding of CD62L from the cell surface, exposure of phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA-fragmentation. The ART substrate NAD is produced in large amounts inside the cell and can be released from damaged cells during inflammation and tissue injury. In the extracellular environment, the signaling function of NAD is terminated by NAD-degrading ectoenzymes such as CD38. We propose that ART2-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of P2X7 represents the paradigm of a regulatory mechanism by which ART-expressing cells can sense and respond to the release of NAD from damaged cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890600655499DOI Listing
June 2006

Probing the expression and function of the P2X7 purinoceptor with antibodies raised by genetic immunization.

Cell Immunol 2005 Jul-Aug;236(1-2):72-7. Epub 2005 Sep 12.

Institute of Immunology, University Hospital, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

The cytolytic P2X7 purinoceptor is widely expressed on leucocytes and has sparked interest because of its peculiar ability to induce a large nonselective membrane pore following treatment of cells with ecto-ATP. Antibodies raised against synthetic P2X7 peptides generally work well in Western-Blot analyses but fail to recognize the native protein on the cell surface. Genetic immunization is a useful technique to raise antibodies directed against proteins in native conformation. Using this technique we have generated highly specific polyclonal (rabbit) and monoclonal (rat) anti-P2X7 antibodies that readily detect mouse P2X7 on the surface of living cells by immunofluorescence analyses and flow cytometry. Binding of these antibodies to P2X7 is reduced within seconds after treatment of cells with ATP, suggesting that ligand binding induces a conformational shift and/or the shedding of P2X7. By site directed mutagenesis we have mutated three conserved arginine residues (R294A, R307A, R316A) in the extracellular loop of P2X7 near the second transmembrane region. Each of these mutations results in loss of ATP response. FACS and immunoblot analyses reveal that the R294A mutant is expressed at higher levels than wild-type P2X7 in transfected cells, whereas the R307A and R316A mutants are barely detectable because there is no or very little protein synthesis of these constructs. In accord with its resistance to ATP-induced activation the R294A mutant is not down-modulated from the cell surface by ATP-treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2005.08.011DOI Listing
February 2006

CD38 controls ADP-ribosyltransferase-2-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of T cell surface proteins.

J Immunol 2005 Mar;174(6):3298-305

Institute of Immunology, University Hospital, Hamburg, Germany.

ADP-ribosyltransferase-2 (ART2), a GPI-anchored, toxin-related ADP-ribosylating ectoenzyme, is prominently expressed by murine T cells but not by B cells. Upon exposure of T cells to NAD, the substrate for ADP-ribosylation, ART2 catalyzes ADP-ribosylation of the P2X7 purinoceptor and other functionally important cell surface proteins. This in turn activates P2X7 and induces exposure of phosphatidylserine and shedding of CD62L. CD38, a potent ecto-NAD-glycohydrolase, is strongly expressed by most B cells but only weakly by T cells. Following incubation with NAD, CD38-deficient splenocytes exhibited lower NAD-glycohydrolase activity and stronger ADP-ribosylation of cell surface proteins than their wild-type counterparts. Depletion of CD38(high) cells from wild-type splenocytes resulted in stronger ADP-ribosylation on the remaining cells. Similarly, treatment of total splenocytes with the CD38 inhibitor nicotinamide 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoroarabinoside adenine dinucleotide increased the level of cell surface ADP-ribosylation. Furthermore, the majority of T cells isolated from CD38-deficient mice "spontaneously" exposed phosphatidylserine and lacked CD62L, most likely reflecting previous encounter with ecto-NAD. Our findings support the notion that ecto-NAD functions as a signaling molecule following its release from cells by lytic or nonlytic mechanisms. ART2 can sense and translate the local concentration of ecto-NAD into corresponding levels of ADP-ribosylated cell surface proteins, whereas CD38 controls the level of cell surface protein ADP-ribosylation by limiting the substrate availability for ART2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.174.6.3298DOI Listing
March 2005

Synthesis of prenyl pyrophosphonates as new potent phosphoantigens inducing selective activation of human Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes.

J Med Chem 2004 Aug;47(18):4600-12

LCBM, UMR 5032, Université Montpellier II, CNRS, MAYOLY-SPINDLER, 8 Rue de l'Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier, France.

Gamma9delta2T cells represent the most abundant population of human blood gammadeltaT lymphocytes. They produce and promote strong cytotoxic activity against many pathogens that are implicated in several human infectious diseases. Their activation requires their exposure to small phosphorus-containing antigens in the family of prenyl pyrophosphates and their related biosynthetic precursors such as isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), which are naturally occurring metabolites in mycobacteria and several other microbial pathogens. The broad specificity in the recognition of these molecules by the T-lymphocyte population expressing a Vgamma9Vdelta2 cell receptor might facilitate their manipulation by designing small potent synthetic agonist ligands. In this paper, we describe the synthesis and the biological evaluation of new pyrophosphonate compounds as new isosteric analogues of natural prenyl pyrophosphates. Several prenyl and alkenyl pyrophosphonate with different chain lengths and degrees of insaturation (24-28, 48-50, and 64-66) were tested as well as the alkoxymethylpyrophosphonic analogue of IPP (compound 76) as its closest isostere. Several of them appeared to be better activators of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cell proliferation than IPP. These results open the perspective of a potential use of isoprenoides pyrophosphonates as specific immunoregulatory molecules.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm049861zDOI Listing
August 2004

T cells of different developmental stages differ in sensitivity to apoptosis induced by extracellular NAD.

Dev Immunol 2002 Dec;9(4):197-202

Institute of Immunology, University Hospital, Martinistr. 52, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Extracellular nucleotides such as ATP and NAD can profoundly affect the functions of lymphocytes, macrophages, and other cells. We have recently shown that extracellular NAD induces rapid apoptosis in naive T cells by a mechanism involving the ADP-ribosylation of cell surface molecules. In the present paper, we describe that T cells of different developmental stages differ in their sensitivity to NAD-induced apoptosis. Thymocytes were less susceptible than peripheral lymph node T cells, and freshly activated cells were more resistant than resting cells. Sensitivity to NAD-induced apoptosis generally correlated with expression of the ADP-ribosyltransferase ART2.2, which is not expressed on thymocytes and shed from peripheral T cells upon activation. Our findings suggest that NAD-induced apoptosis does not play a role during thymic selection of T cells, but rather may play a role by preventing the activation of unwanted bystander T cells during an immune response, and thus may participate in the control of autoimmunity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2276114PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10446670310001593514DOI Listing
December 2002

Ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs): emerging actors in cell communication and signaling.

Curr Med Chem 2004 Apr;11(7):857-72

Université Denis Diderot, Paris 7, F-75251 Paris, France.

Mammalian ecto ADP-ribosyltransferases (ARTs) constitute a family of structurally related proteins expressed on the cell surface or secreted in the extracellular compartment. Using NAD+ as substrate, they transfer ADP-ribose groups onto target proteins. In contrast to intracellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (PARPs), these enzymes transfer a single ADPR and are thus mono-ARTs. Five paralogs (ART1-5) have been cloned but only four of them are expressed in human due to a defective ART2 gene, and six in the mouse as the result of ART2 gene duplication. The recent determination of the crystal structure of rat ART2 reveals homologies with bacterial ART toxins and provides a molecular basis for understanding the specificity of ARTs for their targets. A combination of different technological approaches reveals that ecto-ARTs are expressed in different tissues with privileged sites such as heart and skeletal muscles for ART1, T lymphocytes for ART2 or testis for ART5. It also indicates that ART expression is highly regulated. ADP-ribosylation of target proteins on cell surfaces or circulating in body fluids leads to reversible post-translational modifications which can inhibit the targets, as known for bacterial ARTs, or activate them, as in the crosstalk between mouse ART2 and the cytolytic P2X7 receptor on T lymphocytes. ART activity in the extracellular compartment provides sophisticated regulatory mechanisms for cell communication. This designates ecto-ARTs as new candidates for drug targeting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867043455611DOI Listing
April 2004

Triggering of T-cell apoptosis by toxin-related ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ART2.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003 Dec;1010:296-9

Institute of Immunology, University Hospital, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Cytotoxicity induced by protein ADP-ribosylation is a common theme of certain bacterial toxins and of the mammalian ectoenzyme ART2. Exposure of T cells to NAD, the substrate for ART2-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation, induces exposure of phosphatidylserine, uptake of propidium iodide, and fragmentation of DNA. ART2-specific antibodies raised by gene gun immunization block NAD-induced apoptosis. ART2 catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of cell membrane proteins induces formation of cytolytic membrane pores by activating the P2X7 purinoceptor. This alternative pathway to T cell apoptosis could be triggered upon the release of NAD from intracellular stores, for example, during inflammatory tissue damage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1299.051DOI Listing
December 2003

NAD-induced T cell death: ADP-ribosylation of cell surface proteins by ART2 activates the cytolytic P2X7 purinoceptor.

Immunity 2003 Oct;19(4):571-82

Université Denis Diderot, F-75251 Paris, France.

T cells express a toxin-related ADP-ribosylating ectoenzyme, ART2. Exposure of mature T cells to NAD, the substrate for ADP-ribosylation, induces cell death. ART2-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation activates the cytolytic P2X7 purinoceptor, causing calcium flux, pore formation, phosphatidylserine exposure, shedding of CD62L, cell shrinkage, and propidium iodide uptake. Interestingly, much lower NAD than ATP concentrations are required to activate P2X7. NAD-induced cell death (NICD) operates with endogenous sources of NAD released upon cell lysis. These findings identify P2X7 as a key effector of NICD and demonstrate that P2X7 can be activated by an endogenous ligand other than ATP. Our results delineate an alternative mechanism for inducing T cell death and set an interesting precedent for immunoregulation via crosstalk between NAD-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferases and purinoceptors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1074-7613(03)00266-8DOI Listing
October 2003

Nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: from the biology of reverse transcription to molecular design.

Curr Top Med Chem 2003 ;3(13):1496-511

University of Geneva, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences 30, quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4, Switzerland.

Replication of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) uses a viral reverse transcriptase (RT) to convert its positive-strand RNA into double stranded DNA, which is then integrated into host genome. Reverse transcription is a complex event involving p66 and p51 RT subunits but also several viral proteins including Nef, Tat, Vif, IN, NCp7 and p55gag. Viral RNA itself forms a primer/template complex by association with a cellular tRNA(Lys3) which is already present in mature virions. A RT initiation complex (RTIC) is thus formed which may also involve cellular protein upon viral entry. X rays diffraction and NMR studies of free or inhibitor-bound RT have led to the recognition of RT 3D structure, and allowed a thorough understanding of the mode of action of classical competitive nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and of the binding of allosteric, non NRTIs (NNRTIs) inhibitors. This also opened an access to computer-aided drug design and modeling. Current NNRTIs represent, in terms of chemical structures, a heterogeneous class of inhibitors currently undergoing extensive development. By contrast with NRTIs, they seem to block initiation steps of reverse transcription. Molecular dynamics, detailed analysis of their interaction with RT as well as the incidence, in the series, of cases of non classical biological behavior, as illustrated here for a new family of compounds, suggest mechanisms of action which are not understandable without considering the involvement of the RTIC as a whole. This opens the exciting perspective of developing new compounds based on this integrated knowledge. Key Words: Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); Reverse transcriptase initiation complex (RTIC); Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); Non classical nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; Molecular modeling; Docking; QSAR; Natural endogenous reverse transcription (NERT).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026033451754DOI Listing
April 2004

Convergent alteration of granulopoiesis, chemotactic activity, and neutrophil apoptosis during mouse selection for high acute inflammatory response.

J Leukoc Biol 2003 Oct 15;74(4):497-506. Epub 2003 Jul 15.

Laboratoire d'Immunodifférenciation, EA 1556, Université Denis Diderot, Paris, France.

Neutrophil homeostasis was investigated in two mouse lines, AIRmax and AIRmin, genetically selected for high or low acute inflammatory response (AIR) and compared with unselected BALB/c mice. Mature neutrophil phenotype and functions appeared similar in the three mouse lines. However, an unprecedented phenotype was revealed in AIRmax animals characterized by a high neutrophil production in bone marrow (BM), a high number of neutrophils in blood, a high concentration of chemotactic agents in acrylamide-induced inflammatory exudates, and an increased resistance of locally infiltrated neutrophils to spontaneous apoptosis. In vitro, BM production of neutrophils and eosinophils was accompanied by an unusual high up-regulation of cytokine receptors as assessed by antibodies to CD131, which bind the common beta chain of receptors to interleukin (IL)-3, IL-5, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor. An accelerated neutrophil maturation was also observed in response to all-trans retinoic acid. Several candidate genes can be proposed to explain this phenotype. Yet, more importantly, the results underline that genetic selection, based on the degree of AIR and starting from a founding population resulting from the intercross of eight inbred mouse lines, which display a continuous range of inflammatory responses, can lead to the convergent selection of alleles affecting neutrophil homeostasis. Similar gene combinations may occur in the human with important consequences in the susceptibility to inflammatory or infectious diseases and cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.0103039DOI Listing
October 2003