Publications by authors named "Michel Kendy Souza"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of pre-dialysis resistance training on sarcopenia, inflammatory profile, and anemia biomarkers in older community-dwelling patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled trial.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Background: Sarcopenia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been associated with negative outcomes in older people, including inflammatory profile and anemia biomarkers.

Aims: To investigate the effects of pre-dialysis resistance training (RT) on sarcopenia, inflammatory profile, and anemia biomarkers in older patients with CKD.

Methods: A total of 107 patients with CKD (65.4 ± 3.7 years) were randomly allocated into four groups: sarcopenic RT (n = 37), non-sarcopenic RT (n = 20), sarcopenic control (n = 28), and non-sarcopenic control (n = 22). DXA and handgrip strength were used to classify sarcopenia according to EWGSOP-2. Treatment groups underwent a 24-week intervention with RT before each dialysis session, three times per week. Blood sample analysis for ferritin, hepcidin, iron availability, and inflammatory profile (TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10) was conducted. All-cause mortality was recorded over 5 years.

Results: Sarcopenic RT group increased iron availability after the intervention, while their counterparts decreased. Ferritin and hepcidin significantly decreased in sarcopenic RT group. RT elicited a reduction in both TNFα and IL-6, while increasing IL-10 in both intervention groups. The rate of sarcopenic subjects substantially decreased after the intervention period (from 37 to 17 in the RT group; p = 0.01). The proportion of deaths was higher (P = 0.033) for sarcopenic subjects (Controls 35.7% vs RT 29.7%) when compared to non-sarcopenic subjects (Controls 18% vs RT 10%). The proportion of deaths decreased according to the randomization group (X2 = 8.704; P < 0.1).

Conclusions: The 24-week RT intervention elicited a better sarcopenia status, better inflammatory profile, and improved anemia biomarkers. Sarcopenia was associated with higher mortality rate in older patients with CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-021-02799-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Improving the prognosis of renal patients: The effects of blood flow-restricted resistance training on redox balance and cardiac autonomic function.

Exp Physiol 2021 Apr 3;106(4):1099-1109. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, DF, Brazil.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Can resistance training with and without blood flow restriction improve redox balance and positively impact the autonomic cardiac modulation in chronic kidney disease patients? What is the main finding and its importance? Resistance training with and without blood flow restriction improved antioxidant defence (paraoxonase 1), decreased the pro-oxidative myeloperoxidase, improved cardiac autonomic function and slowed the decrease in renal function. We draw attention to the important clinical implications for the management of redox balance and autonomic cardiac function in chronic kidney disease patients.

Abstract: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are prone to cardiovascular diseases secondary to abnormalities in both autonomic cardiac function and redox balance [myeloperoxidase (MPO) to paraoxonase 1 (PON1) ratio]. Although aerobic training improves both autonomic balance and redox balance in patients with CKD, the cardioprotective effects of resistance training (RT), with and without blood flow restriction (BFR), remain unknown. We aimed to compare the effects of RT and RT+BFR on antioxidant defence (PON1), pro-oxidative status (MPO), cardiac autonomic function (quantified by heart rate variability analysis) and renal function. Conservative CKD (stages 1 to 5 who do not need hemodialysis) patients (n = 105, 33 female) of both sexes were randomized into three groups: control (CTL; 57.6 ± 5.2 years; body mass index, 33.23 ± 1.62 kg/m ), RT (58.09 ± 6.26 years; body mass index 33.63 ± 2.05 kg/m ) and RT+BFR (58.06 ± 6.47 years; body mass index, 33.32 ± 1.87 kg/m ). Patients completed 6 months of RT or RT+BFR on three non-consecutive days per week under the supervision of strength and conditioning professionals. Training loads were adjusted every 2 months. Heart rate variability was recorded with a Polar-RS800 and data were analysed for time and frequency domains using Kubios software. The redox balance markers were PON1 and MPO, which were analysed in plasma samples. Renal function was estimated as estimated glomerular filtration rate. The RT and RT+BFR decreased pro-oxidative MPO (RT, ∼34 ng/ml and RT+BFR, ∼27 ng/ml), improved both antioxidant defence (PON1: RT, ∼23 U/L and RT+BFR, ∼31 U/L) and cardiac autonomic function (R-R interval: RT, ∼120.4 ms and RT+BFR, ∼117.7 ms), and slowed the deterioration of renal function (P < 0.0001). Redox balance markers were inversely correlated with heart rate variability time-domain indices. Our data indicated that both training models were effective as non-pharmacological tools to increase the antioxidant defences, decrease oxidative stress and improve the cardiac autonomic function of CKD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP089341DOI Listing
April 2021

Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction prevent renal function decline: The role of the redox balance, angiotensin 1-7 and vasopressin.

Physiol Behav 2021 Mar 16;230:113295. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Post-Graduate Program of Physical Education of Catholic University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil-71966-700. Electronic address:

Aims: We sought to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) and low-load RT with moderate blood flow restriction (RT+BFR) on blood pressure, exercise pressor response, redox balance and vasoactive peptides, body composition and muscle strength in patients with stage two of chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: We conducted a 6-month randomized controlled exercise intervention in 90 male and female hypertensive CKD patients (58±9 years with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; of 66.1 ± 1.2 mL/kg/1.73m). Participants were randomized to one of three groups (n = 30/group); control group (CTL), RT, and RT+BFR. RT and RT+BFR performed three weekly training sessions using similar periodization for six months (two-month mesocycles), but of different intensities.

Results: There was similarly effects between RT and RT+BFR in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure during daytime and 24hour period (RT: 10.4%; RT+BFR: 10.3% of decrease), fat mass, F-isoprostanes, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and vasopressin (p<0.05 pre-vs post). Also promoted the increase of angiotensin 1-7, nitric oxide (NO), catalase, Trolox equivalent and muscle strength (p<0.05). Both training models attenuated the decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (p<0.0001 vs CTL). However, only RT+BFR was associated with lower discomfort during exercise (p<0.0001 pre-vs post). Statistical significance was considered with p < 0.05.

Conclusion: These findings suggest low-load RT+BFR as a promising non-pharmacological strategy to control blood pressure, oxidative stress, vasoactive peptides, and consequently, attenuate the decrease of the eGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113295DOI Listing
March 2021

Blood Flow Restriction Training Blunts Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Humans.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 02;53(2):249-257

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, BRAZIL.

Purpose: This study aimed to verify the effect of 6 months of periodized resistance training (RT) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) in patients with stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), uremic parameters, cytokines, and klotho-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) axis.

Methods: A total of 105 subjects were randomized in three groups of 35 each: control (CTL), RT, and RT + BFR. A first visit was required for an anamnesis to evaluate the number of medications and anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, and body mass index). Muscle strength (one-repetition maximum) was assessed. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and after 6 months of training in all patients for the analysis of markers of renal function and integrity, as well as for the determination of the inflammatory profile. Statistical significances were adopted with P < 0.05.

Results: Both training therapies attenuated the decline of GFR (P < 0.05). The majority of CTL patients declined to stage 3 CKD (88.5%), whereas fewer incidents were noted with RT (25.7%) and RT + BFR (17.1%). Improved uremic parameters as well as inflammation (IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17a, IL-18, and TNF-α) and klotho-FGF23 axis in RT and RT + BFR (P < 0.05) were observed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 was not changed (P > 0.05) but presented a large effect size (Cohen's d), demonstrating a propensity for improvement.

Conclusion: Six months of periodized RT with and without BFR in patients with stage 2 CKD attenuated the progression of the disease by maintaining GFR, improving uremic parameters, cytokine profile regulation, and klotho-FGF23 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002465DOI Listing
February 2021

Resistance training improves sleep quality, redox balance and inflammatory profile in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2020 07 16;10(1):11708. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Graduate Program of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (USB), EPTC, QS07, LT1 s/n. Bloco G Sala 117, Águas Claras, Taguatinga, Brasília, DF, 71966-700, Brazil.

Patients in maintenance hemodialisys (HD) present sleep disorders, increased inflammation, unbalanced redox profiles, and elevated biomarkers representing endothelial dysfunction. Resistance training (RT) has shown to mitigate the loss of muscle mass, strength, improve inflammatory profiles, and endothelial function while decreasing oxidative stress for those in HD. However, the relation between those factors and sleep quality are inadequately described. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of 3 months of RT on sleep quality, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, inflammation profile, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients undergoing HD. Our primary goal was to describe the role of RT on sleep quality. Our secondary goal was to evaluate the effect of RT on NO, metabolism markers, and inflammatory and redox profiles as potential mechanisms to explain RT-induced sleep quality changes. Fifty-five men undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were randomized into either a control (CTL, n = 25) and RT group (RTG; n = 30). Participants in the RT group demonstrated an improvement in sleep pattern, redox, inflammatory profiles, and biomarkers of endothelial function (NO and ADMA). This group also increased muscle strength (total workload in RT exercises of upper and lower limbs). These findings support that RT may improve the clinical status of HD patients by improving their sleep quality, oxidative and inflammatory parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68602-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367305PMC
July 2020

Effects of resistance training on hepcidin levels and iron bioavailability in older individuals with end-stage renal disease: A randomized controlled trial.

Exp Gerontol 2020 10 4;139:111017. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Catholic University of Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil.

Anemia is an inherent complication of older individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that is associated with inflammation which in turn is an important factor in the activation of hepcidin that contributes to the decrease in serum iron. Athough resistance training (RT) seems to reduce inflammation in ESRD, its influence on hepcidin and iron availability in hemodialysis patients is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to exemine the effects of RT in on inflammatory profile, hepcidin, and iron status in older individuals with ESRD. End-stage renal disease patients (N: 157, age: 66.8 ± 3.6; body mass: 73 ± 15 body mass index:27 ± 3), were assigned to control (CTL n: 76) and exercise groups (RT n: 81). RT consisted of 24 weeks/3 days per week of a moderate intensity. There was an increase in the bioavailability of iron (ΔRT: 22.2; ΔCTL: -1 μg/dL, p < 0.0001), a decrease in hepcidin levels (ΔRT: -7.9; ΔCTL: 0.2 ng/mL, p < 0.0001),and an improvement of the inflammatory profile. These novel findings show that RT is a potential coadjuvant to reduce iron deficiency by decreasing the levels of hepcidin and pro-inflammatory markers in older patients undergoing hemodialysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111017DOI Listing
October 2020

Sprint and endurance training in relation to redox balance, inflammatory status and biomarkers of aging in master athletes.

Nitric Oxide 2020 09 18;102:42-51. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil. Electronic address:

Purpose: Studies have shown a positive influence of intense athletic training on several biomarkers of aging, but it remains unclear whether this influence is dependent of exercise-training-mode. This study compared redox balance, cytokine levels and biomarkers of aging between master sprinters and endurance athletes, as well as in young and middle-aged individuals as controls.

Methods: Participants were male master sprinters (SA, 50 ± 8.9yrs; n = 13) and endurance runners (EA, 53 ± 8.2yrs; n = 18) with remarkable athletic experience (~25yrs of practice), besides untrained young (YC, 22.7 ± 3.9yrs; n = 17) and age-matched controls (MC, 45.5 ± 9.8yrs; n = 12). Anamnesis, anthropometrics, biomarkers of aging, inflammation status and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in all participants.

Results: An increased pro-oxidant activity (elevated protein carbonyl; isoprostanes and 8-OHdG) was observed for MC in comparison to remaining groups (p < 0.05). However, SA presented a better antioxidant capacity than both MC and EA, while nitrite/nitrate (NO) availability was higher for EA and lower for the MC (p < 0.05). Both groups of athletes presented a better anti-inflammatory status than MC (increased IL-10 and lowered IL-6, sIL-6R, sTNF-RI), but worse than YC (increased TNF-α, sTNF-RI, and sIL-6R) (p < 0.05). Telomere length was shorter in MC, which also had lower levels of irisin and klotho, and elevated FGF-23 (p < 0.05). ADMA levels were higher in MC and SA, while irisin was lower in EA when compared to SA and YC (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Master athletes presented better redox balance and inflammatory status, with decreased biomarkers of aging compared to control. Regarding exercise mode, a better NO- profile, as a marker of endothelial function, was observed for EA, whereas SA had a better redox balance, cytokines profile and attenuated biomarkers of aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2020.05.004DOI Listing
September 2020

l-Arginine supplementation blunts resistance exercise improvement in rats with chronic kidney disease.

Life Sci 2019 Sep 28;232:116604. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients present L-arginine (L-arg) deficiency and L-arg supplementation has been used as a treatment. In addition, sarcopenia is another common problem in CKD population, resistance training (RT) is one of the conservative strategies developed to prevent CKD progression, and however there are no evidences of a combination of these two strategies to treat CKD outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral L-arg supplementation combined with RT in an experimental model of CKD. Twenty-five Munich-Wistar male rats, 8-week-old were divided in 5 groups: Sham (sedentary control), Nx (CKD sedentary), Nx L-arg (CKD sedentary supplemented with 2% of L-arg), Nx RT (CKD exercised) Nx RT + L-arg (CKD exercised and supplemented with 2% of L-arg). CKD model was obtained by a subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy. RT was performed on a ladder climbing, three weekly sessions on non-consecutive days, with an intensity of 70% maximum carrying capacity. They were submitted to RT and/or L-arg supplementation for 10 weeks. There was a significant improvement in muscle strength, renal function, anti-inflammatory cytokines, arginase metabolism and renal fibrosis after RT. However, the combination of RT and L-arg impaired all the improvements promoted by RT alone. The L-arg supplementation alone did not impair renal fibrosis and renal function. In conclusion, RT improved inflammatory balance, muscle strength, renal function and consequently decreased renal fibrosis. Nevertheless, the association with L-arg supplementation prevented all these effects promoted by RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116604DOI Listing
September 2019

Dynamic, Not Isometric Resistance Training Improves Muscle Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Hypertrophy in Rats.

Front Physiol 2019 22;10. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

This study aimed to compare the effects of dynamic (DRT) and isometric (IRT) resistance training on blood glucose, muscle redox capacity, inflammatory state, and muscle strength and hypertrophy. Fifteen 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups: control group (CTL), DRT, and IRT, = 5 animals per group. The animals were submitted to a maximal weight carried (MWC; every 15 days) and maximum isometric resistance (MIR; pre- and post-training) tests. Both training protocols were performed five times a week during 12 weeks, consisting of one set of eight uninterrupted climbs for 1 min with a 30% overload of MWC. The animals in the IRT group remained under isometry for 1 min. The DRT group experienced greater MWC from pre- to post-training compared to the CTL and IRT groups ( < 0.0001). The DRT and IRT groups displayed similar gains in MIR ( = 0.3658). The DRT group exhibited improved glycemic homeostasis ( = 0.0111), redox ( < 0.0001), and inflammatory ( < 0.0001) balance as compared with CTL and IRT groups. In addition, the improved glycemic profile was associated with an increase in muscle strength and hypertrophy, improvement in redox balance and inflammation status. We conclude that DRT was more effective than IRT on increasing cross-sectional area, but not muscle strength, in parallel to improved blood glucose, inflammatory status, and redox balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349781PMC
January 2019

Resistance training downregulates macrophages infiltration in the kidney of 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

Life Sci 2018 Nov 21;213:190-197. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Division of Nephrology, Medicine Department, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is considered a significant world health problem with elevated mortality rates. Patients with CKD are restricted to mild physical activity, present chronic inflammatory state and loss of muscle strength. Currently, the influence of resistance exercise (RE) on the progression of renal disease has not being fully elucidated.

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of RE on the progression of CKD in a remnant kidney model (5/6Nx) in rats.

Methods: Eight-week-old Wistar rats were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy and were divided into four groups: Sham sedentary (Sham SD); Sham RE (Sham RE); 5/6Nx SD and 5/6Nx RE. The animals were trained for 8 weeks in a vertical climbing ladder for 3 days per week, on non-consecutive days.

Results: As expected, 5/6Nx SD group presented a markedly loss of renal function, increased plasma inflammatory cytokines and increased oxidative stress with a reduced activity of nitric oxide. The higher macrophage infiltration and fibrosis confirmed these conditions. RE attenuated systolic blood pressure and renal function decrease and also improved serum lipid parameters in 5/6 Nx animals. It was evident the increase of muscle strength and mass in the trained groups while the sedentary group showed reduced muscle weight and strength compared to Sham SD.

Conclusions: RE implemented following 5/6Nx retard the progression of chronic kidney injury while simultaneously allowed the maintenance of skeletal muscle strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.10.037DOI Listing
November 2018

Resistance training attenuates inflammation and the progression of renal fibrosis in chronic renal disease.

Life Sci 2018 Aug 19;206:93-97. Epub 2018 May 19.

Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil.

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have progressive renal fibrosis, inflammation, and reduced muscle mass and strength. Resistance training (RT) has been suggested to mitigate the loss of muscle mass, of strength and the inflammation in CKD, but the mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of RT on renal fibrosis, renal cytokine expression, creatine kinase levels, and muscle mass and strength in CKD rats. A CKD model was obtained by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). Fifteen 8-week-old male rats were divided into 3 groups: Sham (control), Nx SED (CKD sedentary) and Nx RT (CKD trained). The RT consisted of ladder climbing at 70% of the animal's maximal carrying capacity for 10 weeks. Muscle strength, creatine kinase levels, renal fibrosis and mRNA interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were analyzed after the RT protocol. There was significant improvement in the muscle strength and creatine kinase levels in the Nx RT group. Moreover, renal fibrosis and inflammation were attenuated, with increased IL-4 and IL-10 expression and reduced IL-6 expression in the Nx RT group compared with that in the Nx SED group. No difference in muscle mass was observed among the groups. In conclusion, RT was effective in reducing fibrosis and inflammation, in addition to increasing muscle strength and creatine kinase levels, in rats with CKD, independent of muscle mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.05.034DOI Listing
August 2018

Acute metabolic responses following different resistance exercise protocols.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2018 Aug 20;43(8):838-843. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

a Graduate Program in Physical Education, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Taguatinga-DF, Brazil.

Resistance exercise (RE) can be an excellent modality for glycemic control. Studies have demonstrated that a single RE session can reduce glycemia in subjects with or without diabetes. Little is known about the dose-response effect of RE on glycemic control. This study aimed to investigate the acute metabolic responses after different RE protocols. Eighty-nine males were separated into six groups that completed RE protocols: 2 sets of 18 repetitions (2 × 18 at 50% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM); n = 19); 3 sets of 12 repetitions (3 × 12 at 70% of 1RM; n = 14); 4 sets of 9 repetitions (4 × 9 at 80% of 1RM; n = 13); 6 sets of 6 repetitions (6 × 6 at 90% of 1RM; n = 19); circuit (2 × 18 at 50% of 1RM; n = 12); and a control session (n = 12). The exercise sequence consisted of 8 exercises. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted with metabolic measurements immediately after each RE protocol and every 15 min until 120 min of recovery. All groups exhibited significantly lower values (p < 0.05) in the glucose area under the curve (AUC) when compared with control over a 120 min monitoring period. The 6 × 6 group showed a significantly lower glucose AUC versus the 3 × 12 and 4 × 9 groups (p = 0.004; p = 0.001, respectively). As for blood lactate, the control and 6 × 6 groups exhibited lower AUC values versus all other groups (p < 0.05), and AUC for glucose and lactate concentration showed a negative and significant correlation (r = -0.46; p < 0.0001). It appears that a combination of 9-12 repetitions per set and 3-4 sets per muscle group might be optimal for acute postprandial glucose control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2017-0771DOI Listing
August 2018

Resistance Training in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Severe Hypertension.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2016 Mar 2;106(3):201-9. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física, Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

Background: Resistance training (RT) has been recommended as a non-pharmacological treatment for moderate hypertension. In spite of the important role of exercise intensity on training prescription, there is still no data regarding the effects of RT intensity on severe hypertension (SH).

Objective: This study examined the effects of two RT protocols (vertical ladder climbing), performed at different overloads of maximal weight carried (MWC), on blood pressure (BP) and muscle strength of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with SH.

Methods: Fifteen male SHR ENT#091;206 ± 10 mmHg of systolic BP (SBP)ENT#093; and five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; 119 ± 10 mmHg of SBP) were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SED-WKY) and SHR (SED-SHR); RT1-SHR training relative to body weight (~40% of MWC); and RT2-SHR training relative to MWC test (~70% of MWC). Systolic BP and heart rate (HR) were measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. The progression of muscle strength was determined once every fifteen days. The RT consisted of 3 weekly sessions on non-consecutive days for 12-weeks.

Results: Both RT protocols prevented the increase in SBP (delta - 5 and -7 mmHg, respectively; p > 0.05), whereas SBP of the SED-SHR group increased by 19 mmHg (p < 0.05). There was a decrease in HR only for the RT1 group (p < 0.05). There was a higher increase in strength in the RT2 (140%; p < 0.05) group as compared with RT1 (11%; p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Our data indicated that both RT protocols were effective in preventing chronic elevation of SBP in SH. Additionally, a higher RT overload induced a greater increase in muscle strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/abc.20160019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4811275PMC
March 2016