Publications by authors named "Michel Didier"

15 Publications

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Functional brain defects in a mouse model of a chromosomal t(1;11) translocation that disrupts DISC1 and confers increased risk of psychiatric illness.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Feb 19;11(1):135. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine at the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

A balanced t(1;11) translocation that directly disrupts DISC1 is linked to schizophrenia and affective disorders. We previously showed that a mutant mouse, named Der1, recapitulates the effect of the translocation upon DISC1 expression. Here, RNAseq analysis of Der1 mouse brain tissue found enrichment for dysregulation of the same genes and molecular pathways as in neuron cultures generated previously from human t(1;11) translocation carriers via the induced pluripotent stem cell route. DISC1 disruption therefore apparently accounts for a substantial proportion of the effects of the t(1;11) translocation. RNAseq and pathway analysis of the mutant mouse predicts multiple Der1-induced alterations converging upon synapse function and plasticity. Synaptosome proteomics confirmed that the Der1 mutation impacts synapse composition, and electrophysiology found reduced AMPA:NMDA ratio in hippocampal neurons, indicating changed excitatory signalling. Moreover, hippocampal parvalbumin-positive interneuron density is increased, suggesting that the Der1 mutation affects inhibitory control of neuronal circuits. These phenotypes predict that neurotransmission is impacted at many levels by DISC1 disruption in human t(1;11) translocation carriers. Notably, genes implicated in schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder by large-scale genetic studies are enriched among the Der1-dysregulated genes, just as we previously observed for the t(1;11) translocation carrier-derived neurons. Furthermore, RNAseq analysis predicts that the Der1 mutation primarily targets a subset of cell types, pyramidal neurons and interneurons, previously shown to be vulnerable to the effects of common schizophrenia-associated genetic variants. In conclusion, DISC1 disruption by the t(1;11) translocation may contribute to the psychiatric disorders of translocation carriers through commonly affected pathways and processes in neurotransmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01256-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895946PMC
February 2021

A 3D Human Liver Model of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

J Clin Transl Hepatol 2020 Dec 15;8(4):359-370. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Translational Sciences, Sanofi, 1 Avenue Pierre Brossolette, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

To better understand nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) disease progression and to evaluate drug targets and compound activity, we undertook the development of an 3D model to mimic liver architecture and the NASH environment. We have developed an preclinical 3D NASH model by coculturing primary human hepatocytes, human stellate cells, liver endothelial cells and Kupffer cells embedded in a hydrogel of rat collagen on a 96-well plate. A NASH-like environment was induced by addition of medium containing free fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-α. This model was then characterized by biochemical, imaging and transcriptomics analyses. We succeeded in defining suitable culture conditions to maintain the 3D coculture for up to 10 days , with the lowest level of steatosis and reproducible low level of inflammation and fibrosis. NASH disease was induced with a custom medium mimicking NASH features. The cell model exhibited the key NASH disease phenotypes of hepatocyte injury, steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Hepatocyte injury was highlighted by a decrease of CYP3A4 expression and activity, without loss of viability up to day 10. Moreover, the model was able to stimulate a stable inflammatory and early fibrotic environment, with expression and secretion of several cytokines. A global gene expression analysis confirmed the NASH induction. This is a new model of NASH disease consisting of four human primary cell-types that exhibits most features of the disease. The 10-day cell viability and cost effectiveness of the model make it suitable for medium throughput drug screening and provide attractive avenues to better understand disease physiology and to identify and characterize new drug targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14218/JCTH.2020.00015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782122PMC
December 2020

Non-Human Primate Blood-Brain Barrier and In Vitro Brain Endothelium: From Transcriptome to the Establishment of a New Model.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Oct 14;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Rare and Neurologic Diseases Research Therapeutic Area, Sanofi R&D, 91385 Chilly-Mazarin, France.

The non-human primate (NHP)-brain endothelium constitutes an essential alternative to human in the prediction of molecule trafficking across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study presents a comparison between the NHP transcriptome of freshly isolated brain microcapillaries and in vitro-selected brain endothelial cells (BECs), focusing on important BBB features, namely tight junctions, receptors mediating transcytosis (RMT), ABC and SLC transporters, given its relevance as an alternative model for the molecule trafficking prediction across the BBB and identification of new brain-specific transport mechanisms. In vitro BECs conserved most of the BBB key elements for barrier integrity and control of molecular trafficking. The function of RMT via the transferrin receptor (TFRC) was characterized in this NHP-BBB model, where both human transferrin and anti-hTFRC antibody showed increased apical-to-basolateral passage in comparison to control molecules. In parallel, eventual BBB-related regional differences were investigated in seven-day in vitro-selected BECs from five brain structures: brainstem, cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Our analysis retrieved few differences in the brain endothelium across brain regions, suggesting a rather homogeneous BBB function across the brain parenchyma. The presently established NHP-derived BBB model closely mimics the physiological BBB, thus representing a ready-to-use tool for assessment of the penetration of biotherapeutics into the human CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12100967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602447PMC
October 2020

High-Throughput Cellular RNA Sequencing (HiCAR-Seq): Cost-Effective, High-Throughput 3' mRNA-Seq Method Enabling Individual Sample Quality Control.

Curr Protoc Mol Biol 2020 09;132(1):e123

Molecular Biology and Genomics, Translational Sciences, Sanofi R&D, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

High-throughput screening is one of the pillars of drug development. Unbiased transcriptome profiling is now widely used for a deeper understanding of a drug's mechanisms of action, off target effects, and cytotoxicity. Although currently available high-throughput RNA-Seq (HT RNA-Seq) methods such as PLATE-Seq, DRUG-Seq, and BRB-Seq serve these purposes, the inherent nature of these methods does not allow sample-wise sequencing library quality control. Here, we describe an HTR method called High-throughput CellulAr RNA Sequencing (HiCAR-Seq). HiCAR-Seq was optimized to work directly on cultured cells (as little as 1,000 cells) or 10 ng of total RNA. HiCAR-Seq involves reverse transcription from cultured cells or total RNA using oligo-dT primers followed by the PCR amplification of full-length cDNAs using sample-specific barcode primers in individual plate wells. Amplification of cDNA from every sample can be verified using Bioanalyzer. This step not only reveals cDNA amplification but also provides greater precision for pooling equal concentrations of cDNA from different samples. A single pooled cDNA library is made suitable for sequencing on Illumina sequencers using a tagmentation kit. Because HiCAR-Seq targets a small region at the 3' of the mRNAs, as little as 3 to 4 million reads/sample are enough to infer changes in gene expression in human or mouse cells. We believe that HiCAR-Seq represents a robust and competitive addition to the existing set of transcriptome-based high-throughput screening methods. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: cDNA synthesis and barcoding/enrichment PCR Basic Protocol 2: Nextera tagmentation/amplification, quantification, and sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpmb.123DOI Listing
September 2020

ABHD11, a new diacylglycerol lipase involved in weight gain regulation.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(6):e0234780. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Sanofi Research and Development, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

Obesity epidemic continues to spread and obesity rates are increasing in the world. In addition to public health effort to reduce obesity, there is a need to better understand the underlying biology to enable more effective treatment and the discovery of new pharmacological agents. Abhydrolase domain-containing protein 11 (ABHD11) is a serine hydrolase enzyme, localized in mitochondria, that can synthesize the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) in vitro. In vivo preclinical studies demonstrated that knock-out ABHD11 mice have a similar 2AG level as WT mice and exhibit a lean metabolic phenotype. Such mice resist to weight gain in Diet Induced Obesity studies (DIO) and display normal biochemical plasma parameters. Metabolic and transcriptomic analyses on serum and tissues of ABHD11 KO mice from DIO studies show a modulation in bile salts associated with reduced fat intestinal absorption. These data suggest that modulating ABHD11 signaling pathway could be of therapeutic value for the treatment of metabolic disorders.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234780PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313976PMC
September 2020

The RESOLUTE consortium: unlocking SLC transporters for drug discovery.

Authors:
Giulio Superti-Furga Daniel Lackner Tabea Wiedmer Alvaro Ingles-Prieto Barbara Barbosa Enrico Girardi Ulrich Goldmann Bettina Gürtl Kristaps Klavins Christoph Klimek Sabrina Lindinger Eva Liñeiro-Retes André C Müller Svenja Onstein Gregor Redinger Daniela Reil Vitaly Sedlyarov Gernot Wolf Matthew Crawford Robert Everley David Hepworth Shenping Liu Stephen Noell Mary Piotrowski Robert Stanton Hui Zhang Salvatore Corallino Andrea Faedo Maria Insidioso Giovanna Maresca Loredana Redaelli Francesca Sassone Lia Scarabottolo Michela Stucchi Paola Tarroni Sara Tremolada Helena Batoulis Andreas Becker Eckhard Bender Yung-Ning Chang Alexander Ehrmann Anke Müller-Fahrnow Vera Pütter Diana Zindel Bradford Hamilton Martin Lenter Diana Santacruz Coralie Viollet Charles Whitehurst Kai Johnsson Philipp Leippe Birgit Baumgarten Lena Chang Yvonne Ibig Martin Pfeifer Jürgen Reinhardt Julian Schönbett Paul Selzer Klaus Seuwen Charles Bettembourg Bruno Biton Jörg Czech Hélène de Foucauld Michel Didier Thomas Licher Vincent Mikol Antje Pommereau Frédéric Puech Veeranagouda Yaligara Aled Edwards Brandon J Bongers Laura H Heitman Ad P IJzerman Huub J Sijben Gerard J P van Westen Justine Grixti Douglas B Kell Farah Mughal Neil Swainston Marina Wright-Muelas Tina Bohstedt Nicola Burgess-Brown Liz Carpenter Katharina Dürr Jesper Hansen Andreea Scacioc Giulia Banci Claire Colas Daniela Digles Gerhard Ecker Barbara Füzi Viktoria Gamsjäger Melanie Grandits Riccardo Martini Florentina Troger Patrick Altermatt Cédric Doucerain Franz Dürrenberger Vania Manolova Anna-Lena Steck Hanna Sundström Maria Wilhelm Claire M Steppan

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2020 07;19(7):429-430

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41573-020-00056-6DOI Listing
July 2020

RNA Fragmentation and Sequencing (RF-Seq): Cost-Effective, Time-Efficient, and High-Throughput 3' mRNA Sequencing Library Construction in a Single Tube.

Curr Protoc Mol Biol 2019 12;129(1):e109

Molecular Biology and Genomics, Translational Sciences, Sanofi R&D, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

Over the past decade, transcriptomic studies using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) have greatly contributed to characterizing biochemical and physiological changes in cells and tissues across organisms and experimental conditions. Critical steps in RNA-Seq include the preparation of the sequencing library from extracted RNA. Currently, a large panoply of RNA-Seq kits are commercially available. In these kits, conversion of RNA into a sequencing library involves multiple steps, which are labor-intensive, and cost per sample for library preparation may limit routine use of RNA-Seq. Here we describe a simple method for RNA-Seq library construction, referred to as RNA Fragmentation and Sequencing (RF-Seq). RF-Seq requires as little as 10 ng of total RNA and facilitates the sequencing of the 3' end of mRNAs. RF-Seq involves the fragmentation of total RNA followed by reverse transcription in presence of the oligo(dT) primer/template switch oligonucleotide and a sample barcoding/enrichment within a single PCR tube/well. The sample barcoding/enrichment step provides more flexibility for individual sample handling. The use of just twenty orthogonal Illumina TruSeq HT barcoding primers facilitates the preparation of 96 uniquely labeled RF-Seq libraries in a single 96-well PCR plate. Twelve RF-Seq libraries can be prepared within 4 hr, with an approximate cost of $10/sample. We provide an example of using RF-Seq to measure gene expression upon activation of an innate immune pathway using STING activator in human blood cells, highlighting the potential usefulness of the proposed method in routine transcriptomic applications such as high-throughput drug screening and/or preclinical toxicity assays. © 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Basic Protocol: RNA fragmentation and sequencing (RF-Seq): Cost-effective, time-efficient, and high-throughput 3' mRNA sequencing library construction in a single tube.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpmb.109DOI Listing
December 2019

DISC1 regulates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor dynamics: abnormalities induced by a Disc1 mutation modelling a translocation linked to major mental illness.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 09 6;8(1):184. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine at the University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

The neuromodulatory gene DISC1 is disrupted by a t(1;11) translocation that is highly penetrant for schizophrenia and affective disorders, but how this translocation affects DISC1 function is incompletely understood. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) play a central role in synaptic plasticity and cognition, and are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia through genetic and functional studies. We show that the NMDAR subunit GluN2B complexes with DISC1-associated trafficking factor TRAK1, while DISC1 interacts with the GluN1 subunit and regulates dendritic NMDAR motility in cultured mouse neurons. Moreover, in the first mutant mouse that models DISC1 disruption by the translocation, the pool of NMDAR transport vesicles and surface/synaptic NMDAR expression are increased. Since NMDAR cell surface/synaptic expression is tightly regulated to ensure correct function, these changes in the mutant mouse are likely to affect NMDAR signalling and synaptic plasticity. Consistent with these observations, RNASeq analysis of the translocation carrier-derived human neurons indicates abnormalities of excitatory synapses and vesicle dynamics. RNASeq analysis of the human neurons also identifies many differentially expressed genes previously highlighted as putative schizophrenia and/or depression risk factors through large-scale genome-wide association and copy number variant studies, indicating that the translocation triggers common disease pathways that are shared with unrelated psychiatric patients. Altogether, our findings suggest that translocation-induced disease mechanisms are likely to be relevant to mental illness in general, and that such disease mechanisms include altered NMDAR dynamics and excitatory synapse function. This could contribute to the cognitive disorders displayed by translocation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-018-0228-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6127284PMC
September 2018

Type 2/Th2-driven inflammation impairs olfactory sensory neurogenesis in mouse chronic rhinosinusitis model.

Allergy 2019 03 16;74(3):549-559. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Translational Sciences, Sanofi, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease often accompanied by impairment of sense of smell. This symptom has been somewhat overlooked, and its relationship to inflammatory cytokines, tissue compression, neuronal loss, and neurogenesis is still unclear.

Methods: In order to elucidate potential mechanisms leading to CRS in humans, we have established a type 2/T helper type 2 cell (Th2)-mediated allergic CRS mouse model, based on house dust mite (HDM) and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) sensitization. The inflammatory status of the olfactory epithelium (OE) was assessed using histology, biochemistry, and transcriptomics. The sense of smell was evaluated by studying olfactory behavior and recording electro-olfactograms (EOGs).

Results: After 22 weeks, a typical type 2/Th2-mediated inflammatory profile was obtained, as demonstrated by increased interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the OE. The number of mast cells and eosinophils was increased, and infiltration of these cells into the olfactory mucosa was also observed. In parallel, transcriptomic and histology analyses indicated a decreased number of immature olfactory neurons, possibly due to decreased renewal. However, the number of mature sensory neurons was not affected and neither the EOG nor olfactory behavior was impaired.

Conclusion: Our mouse model of CRS displayed an allergic response to HDM + SEB administration, including the type 2/Th2 inflammatory profile characteristic of human eosinophilic CRSwNP. Although the sense of smell did not appear to be altered in these conditions, the data reveal the influence of chronic inflammation on olfactory neurogenesis, suggesting that factors unique to humans may be involved in CRSwNP-associated anosmia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.13559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6590422PMC
March 2019

CRISPR-Cas9-Edited Site Sequencing (CRES-Seq): An Efficient and High-Throughput Method for the Selection of CRISPR-Cas9-Edited Clones.

Curr Protoc Mol Biol 2018 01 16;121:31.14.1-31.14.11. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Molecular Biology and Genomics, Translational Sciences, Sanofi R&D, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

The emergence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) gene editing systems has enabled the creation of specific mutants at low cost, in a short time and with high efficiency, in eukaryotic cells. Since a CRISPR-Cas9 system typically creates an array of mutations in targeted sites, a successful gene editing project requires careful selection of edited clones. This process can be very challenging, especially when working with multiallelic genes and/or polyploid cells (such as cancer and plants cells). Here we described a next-generation sequencing method called CRISPR-Cas9 Edited Site Sequencing (CRES-Seq) for the efficient and high-throughput screening of CRISPR-Cas9-edited clones. CRES-Seq facilitates the precise genotyping up to 96 CRISPR-Cas9-edited sites (CRES) in a single MiniSeq (Illumina) run with an approximate sequencing cost of $6/clone. CRES-Seq is particularly useful when multiple genes are simultaneously targeted by CRISPR-Cas9, and also for screening of clones generated from multiallelic genes/polyploid cells. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpmb.53DOI Listing
January 2018

Transposon Insertion Site Sequencing (TIS-Seq): An Efficient and High-Throughput Method for Determining Transposon Insertion Site(s) and Their Relative Abundances in a PiggyBac Transposon Mutant Pool by Next-Generation Sequencing.

Curr Protoc Mol Biol 2017 10 2;120:21.35.1-21.35.11. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

Molecular Biology and Genomics, Translational Sciences, Sanofi R&D, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

The PiggyBac (PB) transposon has emerged as a novel mutagenesis tool for understanding gene function and for phenotypic screening in eukaryotes. Successful screening of PB transposon mutants relies on efficient identification of transposon insertion site(s) (TIS) in mutant cells. However, currently available methods suffer from time-consuming steps. Here, we present the method for transposon insertion site sequencing (TIS-Seq) for high-throughput identification of TIS in transposon mutants. TIS-Seq provides qualitative and quantitative information on mutants present in a given PB transposon mutant library. TIS-Seq also facilitates identification of TIS in up to 96 individual/hand-picked mutants in a single MiniSeq/MiSeq run. TIS-Seq is a versatile method that can be easily modified to identify TIS from any kind of transposon mutant, as long as one end of the DNA sequence is known. Therefore, TIS-Seq is a promising method for transposon mutant screening. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpmb.47DOI Listing
October 2017

Selective blockade of the hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol impairs learning and memory performance while producing antinociceptive activity in rodents.

Sci Rep 2015 Jan 6;5:7642. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

Exploratory Unit, Montpellier, France.

Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) represents a primary degradation enzyme of the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB), 2-arachidonoyglycerol (2-AG). This study reports a potent covalent MAGL inhibitor, SAR127303. The compound behaves as a selective and competitive inhibitor of mouse and human MAGL, which potently elevates hippocampal levels of 2-AG in mice. In vivo, SAR127303 produces antinociceptive effects in assays of inflammatory and visceral pain. In addition, the drug alters learning performance in several assays related to episodic, working and spatial memory. Moreover, long term potentiation (LTP) of CA1 synaptic transmission and acetylcholine release in the hippocampus, two hallmarks of memory function, are both decreased by SAR127303. Although inactive in acute seizure tests, repeated administration of SAR127303 delays the acquisition and decreases kindled seizures in mice, indicating that the drug slows down epileptogenesis, a finding deserving further investigation to evaluate the potential of MAGL inhibitors as antiepileptics. However, the observation that 2-AG hydrolysis blockade alters learning and memory performance, suggests that such drugs may have limited value as therapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep07642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4284516PMC
January 2015

PATJ connects and stabilizes apical and lateral components of tight junctions in human intestinal cells.

J Cell Sci 2005 Sep;118(Pt 17):4049-57

UMR 6156, NMDA, Institute of Developmental Biology of Marseille, Faculté des Sciences de Luminy, case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France.

The Crumbs complex that also contains the cortical proteins Stardust and DPATJ (a homologue of PATJ), is crucial for the building of epithelial monolayers in Drosophila. Although loss of function of the Crumbs or Stardust genes prevents the stabilization of a belt of adherens junctions at the apico-lateral border of the cells, no phenotype has been described for the Dpatj gene and its role in epithelial morphogenesis and polarity remains unknown. We have produced downregulated PATJ stable lines of Caco2 to clarify its role in epithelial morphogenesis. In PATJ knockdown cells, Pals1 (a Stardust homologue) is no longer associated with tight junctions whereas Crumbs3 (Crb3) is accumulated into a compartment spatially close to the apical membrane and related to early endosomes. Furthermore, occludin and ZO-3, two proteins of tight junctions are mislocalized on the lateral membrane indicating that PATJ plays a novel role in the building of tight junctions by providing a link between their lateral and apical components. Thus, PATJ stabilizes the Crb3 complex and regulates the spatial concentration of several components at the border between the apical and lateral domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.02528DOI Listing
September 2005

CRB3 binds directly to Par6 and regulates the morphogenesis of the tight junctions in mammalian epithelial cells.

Mol Biol Cell 2004 Mar 12;15(3):1324-33. Epub 2004 Jan 12.

Laboratoire de Neurogenèse et Morphogenèse au cours du Développement et chez l'Adulte, Unité Mixte Recherche 6156 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France.

Crumbs is an apical transmembrane protein crucial for epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. A protein with all the characteristics for a Crumbs homologue has been identified from patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa group 12, but this protein (CRB1) is only expressed in retina and some parts of the brain, both in human and mouse. Here, we describe CRB3, another Crumbs homologue that is preferentially expressed in epithelial tissues and skeletal muscles in human. CRB3 shares the conserved cytoplasmic domain with other Crumbs but exhibits a very short extracellular domain without the EGF- and laminin A-like G repeats present in the other Crumbs. CRB3 is localized to the apical and subapical area of epithelial cells from the mouse and human intestine, suggesting that it could play a role in epithelial morphogenesis. Indeed, expression of CRB3 or of a chimera containing the extracellular domain of the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of CRB3 led to a slower development of functional tight junctions in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. This phenotype relied on the presence of CRB3 four last amino acids (ERLI) that are involved in a direct interaction with Par6, a regulator of epithelial polarity and tight junction formation. Thus, CRB3, through its cytoplasmic domain and its interactors, plays a role in apical membrane morphogenesis and tight junction regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e03-04-0235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC363137PMC
March 2004

hINADl/PATJ, a homolog of discs lost, interacts with crumbs and localizes to tight junctions in human epithelial cells.

J Biol Chem 2002 Jul 18;277(28):25408-15. Epub 2002 Apr 18.

Laboratoire de Neurogenèse et Morphogenèse du Développement à l'Adulte (NMDA, Unité Mixte de Recherche 6165), Institut de Biologie du Développement de Marseille, Faculté des Sciences de Luminy, Université de la Méditerranée, France.

dCrumbs is an apical organizer crucial for the maintenance of epithelial polarity in Drosophila (1). It is known that dCrumbs interacts with Discs lost (Dlt), a protein with four PDZ (PSD95/Discs Large/ZO-1) domains (2), and Stardust (Sdt), a protein of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) family (3, 4). We have searched for potential homologs of Dlt in human epithelial cells and characterized one of them in intestinal epithelial cells. Human INAD-like (hINADl) contains 8 PDZ domains, is concentrated in tight junctions, and is also found at the apical plasma membrane. Overexpression of hINADl disrupted the tight junctions localization of ZO-1 and 3. We also identified a partial cDNA coding the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of a new human crumbs (CRB3) expressed in Caco-2 cells. This CRB3 was able to interact through its C-terminal end with the N-terminal domain of hINADl. Taken together, the data indicate that hINADl is likely to represent a Dlt homolog in mammalian epithelial cells and might be involved in regulating the integrity of tight junctions. We thus propose to rename hINADl PATJ for protein associated to tight junctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M202196200DOI Listing
July 2002