Publications by authors named "Michel Detheux"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A natural ligand for the orphan receptor GPR15 modulates lymphocyte recruitment to epithelia.

Sci Signal 2017 Sep 12;10(496). Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

GPR15 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is found in lymphocytes. It functions as a co-receptor of simian immunodeficiency virus and HIV-2 and plays a role in the trafficking of T cells to the lamina propria in the colon and to the skin. We describe the purification from porcine colonic tissue extracts of an agonistic ligand for GPR15 and its functional characterization. In humans, this ligand, which we named GPR15L, is encoded by the gene and has some features similar to the CC family of chemokines. was found in some human and mouse epithelia exposed to the environment, such as the colon and skin. In humans, was also abundant in the cervix. In skin, was readily detected after immunologic challenge and in human disease, for example, in psoriatic lesions. Allotransplantation of skin from -deficient mice onto wild-type mice resulted in substantial graft protection, suggesting nonredundant roles for GPR15 and GPR15L in the generation of effector T cell responses. Together, these data identify a receptor-ligand pair that is required for immune homeostasis at epithelia and whose modulation may represent an alternative approach to treating conditions affecting the skin such as psoriasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aal0180DOI Listing
September 2017

iTeos Therapeutics.

Authors:
Michel Detheux

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 08 6;13(8):1736-1737. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

a iTeos Therapeutics , Gosselies , Belgium.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2017.1315265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5557220PMC
August 2017

Oxysterols direct immune cell migration via EBI2.

Nature 2011 Jul 27;475(7357):524-7. Epub 2011 Jul 27.

Euroscreen S.A., 6041 Gosselies, Belgium.

Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2, also known as GPR183) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is required for humoral immune responses; polymorphisms in the receptor have been associated with inflammatory autoimmune diseases. The natural ligand for EBI2 has been unknown. Here we describe the identification of 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (also called 7α,25-OHC or 5-cholesten-3β,7α,25-triol) as a potent and selective agonist of EBI2. Functional activation of human EBI2 by 7α,25-OHC and closely related oxysterols was verified by monitoring second messenger readouts and saturable, high-affinity radioligand binding. Furthermore, we find that 7α,25-OHC and closely related oxysterols act as chemoattractants for immune cells expressing EBI2 by directing cell migration in vitro and in vivo. A critical enzyme required for the generation of 7α,25-OHC is cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H). Similar to EBI2 receptor knockout mice, mice deficient in CH25H fail to position activated B cells within the spleen to the outer follicle and mount a reduced plasma cell response after an immune challenge. This demonstrates that CH25H generates EBI2 biological activity in vivo and indicates that the EBI2-oxysterol signalling pathway has an important role in the adaptive immune response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4297623PMC
July 2011

Design and in vitro characterization of PAC1/VPAC1-selective agonists with potent neuroprotective effects.

Biochem Pharmacol 2011 Feb 27;81(4):552-61. Epub 2010 Nov 27.

Institut Armand-Frappier, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université du Québec, 531 boulevard des Prairies, Ville de Laval, Québec H7V 1B7, Canada.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide that exerts a large array of actions in the central nervous system and periphery. Through the activation of PAC1 and VPAC1, PACAP is able to exert neuroprotective, as well as anti-inflammatory effects, two phenomena involved in the pathogenesis and the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the current study was to provide insights into the molecular arrangement of the amino terminus of PACAP and to develop new potent and selective PAC1/VPAC1 agonists promoting neuronal survival. We have synthesized a series of PACAP derivatives and measured their binding affinity and their ability to induce intracellular calcium mobilization for each receptor, i.e. PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2. Ultimately, analogs with an improved pharmacological profile were evaluated in an in vitro model of neuronal loss. Results showed that introduction of a hydroxyproline or an alanine moiety, respectively, at position 2 or 7 generated derivatives without significant VPAC2 agonistic activity. Moreover, the structure-activity relationship study suggests the presence of common (Asx-turn like) and distinct (different N-capping type) secondary structures that might be responsible for receptor recognition, selectivity and activation. Finally, evaluation of the neuroprotective activity of [Ala(7)]PACAP27 and [Hyp(2)]PACAP27 demonstrated their ability to protect potently human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y neuroblasts against the toxicity of MPP(+), in pre- and co-treatment experiments. These new pharmacological and structural data should prove useful for the rational design of PACAP-derived compounds that could be putative therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2010.11.015DOI Listing
February 2011

Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of novel bicyclic azole-amines as negative allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5.

J Med Chem 2010 Oct;53(19):7107-18

Discovery & Early Clinical Research, Sepracor Inc., 84 Waterford Drive, Marlborough, Massachusetts 01752, USA.

A novel series of diaryl bicyclic azole-amines that are potent selective negative modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) were identified through rational design. An initial hit compound 5a of modest potency (IC(50) = 1.2 μM) was synthesized. Evaluation of structure-activity relationships (SAR) on the left-hand side of the molecule revealed a preference for a 2-substituted pyridine group linked directly to the central heterocycle. Variation of the central azolo-amine portion of the molecule revealed a preference for the [4,5-c]-oxazoloazepine scaffold, while right-hand side variants showed a preference for ortho- and meta-substituted benzene rings linked directly to the tertiary amine of the saturated heterocycle. These iterations led to the synthesis of 29b, a potent (IC(50) = 16 nM) and selective negative modulator that showed good brain penetrance, high receptor occupancy, and a duration of action greater than 1 h in rat when administered intraperitoneally. Formal PK studies in rat and Rhesus monkey revealed a short half-life that was attributable to high first-pass clearance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm100736hDOI Listing
October 2010

Significance of N-terminal proteolysis of CCL14a to activity on the chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 and the human cytomegalovirus-encoded chemokine receptor US28.

J Immunol 2009 Jul 24;183(2):1229-37. Epub 2009 Jun 24.

Institute of Transfusion Medicine and Immune Hematology, Blood Donation Service of the German Red Cross, Frankfurt, Germany.

The CC chemokine CCL14a is constitutively expressed in a large variety of tissues and its inactive proform CCL14a(1-74) circulates in high concentrations in plasma. CCL14a(1-74) is converted into CCL14a(9-74) by the proteases urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasmin and is a highly active agonist for the chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5. In this study, a new CCL14a analog, CCL14a(12-74), was isolated from blood filtrate. To elucidate the functional role of the N terminus, a panel of N-terminally truncated CCL14a analogs were tested on the receptors CCR1 to CCR5 and on the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded chemokine receptor US28. The rank order of binding affinity to these receptors and of the activation of CCR1 and CCR5-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration mobilization is CCL14a(6-74)<(7-74)<(8-74)<(9-74) = (10-74)>(11-74)>(12-74). The almost identical affinities of CCL14a(7-74), CCL14a(9-74), and CCL14a(10-74) for the US28 receptor and the inhibition of US28-mediated HIV infection of 293T cells by all of the N-terminally truncated CCL14a analogs support the promiscuous nature of the viral chemokine receptor US28. In high concentrations, CCL14a(12-74) did reveal antagonistic activity on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration mobilization in CCR1- and CCR5-transfected cells, which suggests that truncation of Tyr(11) might be of significance for an efficient inactivation of CCL14a. A putative inactivation pathway of CCL14a(9-74) to CCL14a(12-74) may involve the dipeptidase CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), which generates CCL14a(11-74), and the metalloprotease aminopeptidase N (CD13), which displays the capacity to generate CCL14a(12-74) from CCL14a(11-74). Our results suggest that the activity of CCL14a might be regulated by stringent proteolytic activation and inactivation steps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0802145DOI Listing
July 2009

Vasopressin-like peptide and its receptor function in an indirect diuretic signaling pathway in the red flour beetle.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2008 Jul 10;38(7):740-8. Epub 2008 May 10.

Department of Entomology, 123 Waters Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

The insect arginine vasopressin-like (AVPL) peptide is of special interest because of its potential function in the regulation of diuresis. Genome sequences of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum yielded the genes encoding AVPL and AVPL receptor, whereas the homologous sequences are absent in the genomes of the fruitfly, malaria mosquito, silkworm, and honeybee, although a recent genome sequence of the jewel wasp revealed an AVPL sequence. The Tribolium receptor for the AVPL, the first such receptor identified in any insect, was expressed in a reporter system, and showed a strong response (EC(50)=1.5 nM) to AVPL F1, the monomeric form having an intramolecular disulfide bond. In addition to identifying the AVPL receptor, we have demonstrated that it has in vivo diuretic activity, but that it has no direct effect on Malpighian tubules. However, when the central nervous system plus corpora cardiaca and corpora allata are incubated along with the peptide and Malpighian tubules, the latter are stimulated by the AVPL peptide, suggesting it acts indirectly. Summing up all the results from this study, we conclude that AVPL functions as a monomer in Tribolium, indirectly stimulating the Malpighian tubules through the central nervous system including the endocrine organs corpora cardiaca and corpora allata. RNA interference in the late larval stages successfully suppressed mRNA levels of avpl and avpl receptor, but with no mortality or abnormal phenotype, implying that the AVPL signaling pathway may have been near-dispensable in the early lineage of holometabolous insects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.04.006DOI Listing
July 2008

PTHrP fragments 1-16 and 1-23 do not bind to either the ETA or the ETB endothelin receptors.

Peptides 2005 Aug 20;26(8):1436-40. Epub 2005 Apr 20.

Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Université du Québec, 245 boul. Hymus, Pointe-Claire (Montréal), QC, Canada H9R 1G6.

Because of some isofunctional similarities with endothelin-1 (ET-1), it has been suggested that PTHrP(1-16) and PTHrP(1-23) could interact with osteoblast cells via ETA receptors. To document this interaction, we used the thoracic rat aorta and the guinea-pig lung parenchyma paradigms as ETA and ETB models, respectively. In addition, we also performed a series of competition experiments against [125I]ET-1, using transfected cells expressing the ETA or ETB receptor. So far, no agonistic nor antagonistic activities were observed in the ETA and ETB bioassays with the PTHrP fragments. Furthermore, both fragments were unable to displace [125I]ET-1 bound to cells expressing the ETA or ETB receptor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2005.03.017DOI Listing
August 2005

Transmembrane domain V of the endothelin-A receptor is a binding domain of ETA-selective TTA-386-derived photoprobes.

Biochemistry 2005 May;44(21):7844-54

Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Institut Armand-Frappier, Université du Québec, 245 boulevard Hymus, Pointe-Claire (Montréal), Québec, Canada, H9R 1G6.

On the basis of the structure of TTA-386, a specific antagonist of the endothelin-A receptor subtype (ET(A)), photosensitive analogues were developed to investigate the binding domain of the receptor. Among those, a derivative containing, in position 6, the photoreactive amino acid D- or L-p-benzoyl-phenylalanine showed pharmacological properties very similar to those of TTA-386. Affinity of the probes were also evaluated on transfected CHO cells overexpressing the human ET(A) receptor. Data showed that binding of the radiolabeled peptides were inhibited by ET-1 and BQ-610. Therefore, these photolabile probes were used to label the ET(A) receptor found in CHO cells. Photolabeling produced a ligand-protein complex appearing on SDS-PAGE at around 66 kDa. An excess of ET-1 or BQ-610 completely abolished the formation of the complex showing the selectivity of the photoprobes. Digestions of the [125I-Tyr5, D- or L-Bpa6]TTA-386-ET(A) complex were carried out, and receptor fragments were analyzed to define the region of the receptor where the ligand interacted. Results showed that Endo Lys-C digestion gave a 4.8 kDa fragment corresponding to the Asp256-Lys299 segment, whereas migration after V8 digestion revealed a fragment of 2.9 kDa. Because the fragments of these two digestions must overlap, the latter would be the Trp257-Glu281 stretch. A cleavage with CNBr confirmed the identity of the binding domain by giving a fragment of 3.9 kDa corresponding to Glu249-Met278. Thus, the combined cleavage data strongly suggested that the binding domain of ET(A) includes a portion of the fifth transmembrane domain, between residues Trp257 and Met278.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi0500933DOI Listing
May 2005

Identification and characterization of an endogenous chemotactic ligand specific for FPRL2.

J Exp Med 2005 Jan 28;201(1):83-93. Epub 2004 Dec 28.

Institut de Recherche en Biologie Humaine et Moléculaire, Université Libre de Bruxelles Campus Erasme, B-1070 Brussels, Belgium.

Chemotaxis of dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes is a key step in the initiation of an adequate immune response. Formyl peptide receptor (FPR) and FPR-like receptor (FPRL)1, two G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the FPR family, play an essential role in host defense mechanisms against bacterial infection and in the regulation of inflammatory reactions. FPRL2, the third member of this structural family of chemoattractant receptors, is characterized by its specific expression on monocytes and DCs. Here, we present the isolation from a spleen extract and the functional characterization of F2L, a novel chemoattractant peptide acting specifically through FPRL2. F2L is an acetylated amino-terminal peptide derived from the cleavage of the human heme-binding protein, an intracellular tetrapyrolle-binding protein. The peptide binds and activates FPRL2 in the low nanomolar range, which triggers intracellular calcium release, inhibition of cAMP accumulation, and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases through the G(i) class of heterotrimeric G proteins. When tested on monocytes and monocyte-derived DCs, F2L promotes calcium mobilization and chemotaxis. Therefore, F2L appears as a new natural chemoattractant peptide for DCs and monocytes, and the first potent and specific agonist of FPRL2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20041277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2212760PMC
January 2005

Identification of a binding domain of the endothelin-B receptor using a selective IRL-1620-derived photoprobe.

Biochemistry 2004 Sep;43(36):11516-25

Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Institut Armand-Frappier, Université du Québec, 245 boul. Hymus, Pointe-Claire, Québec, Canada, H9R 1G6.

On the basis of the structure of IRL-1620, a specific agonist of the endothelin-B receptor subtype (ET(B)), a few photosensitive analogues were developed to investigate the binding domain of the receptor. Among those, a derivative containing the photoreactive amino acid, p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine in position 5 showed, as assessed with endothelin-A (ET(A)) and ET(B) receptor paradigms, pharmacological properties very similar to those of IRL-1620. The binding capacity of the probe was also evaluated on transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing the human ET(B) receptor. Data showed that binding of the radiolabeled peptide was inhibited by ET-1 and IRL-1620. Therefore, this photolabile probe was used to label the ET(B) receptor found in CHO cells. Photolabeling produced a ligand-protein complex appearing on SDS-PAGE at around 49 kDa. An excess of ET-1 or IRL-1620 completely abolished the formation of the complex, showing the selectivity of the photoprobe. Digestions of the [Bpa(5),Tyr((125)I)(6)]IRL-1620-ET(B) complex were carried out, and receptor fragments were analyzed to define the region of the receptor where the ligand interacts. Results showed that Endo Lys-C digestion gave a 3.8-kDa fragment corresponding to the Asp(274)-Lys(303) segment, whereas migration after V8 digestion revealed a fragment of 4.6 kDa. Because the fragments of these two digestions must overlap, the latter would be the Trp(275)-Asp(313) stretch. A cleavage with CNBr confirmed the identity of the binding domain by giving a fragment of 3.6 kDa, corresponding to Gln(267)-Met(296). Thus, the combined cleavage data strongly suggested that the agonist binding domain of ET(B) includes a portion of the fifth transmembrane domain, between residues Trp(275) and Met(296).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi049246xDOI Listing
September 2004

Substitution of conserved glycine residue by alanine in natural and synthetic neuropeptide ligands causes partial agonism at the stomoxytachykinin receptor.

J Neurochem 2004 Jul;90(2):472-8

Laboratory for Developmental Physiology, Genomics and Proteomics, Zoological Institute KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

A few naturally occurring insect tachykinin-related peptides, such as stomoxytachykinin (Stc-TK), contain an Ala-residue instead of the highly conserved Gly-residue that is present in most other members of this peptide family. Stc-TK is a potent, partial agonist of the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) tachykinin receptor, STKR. By means of synthetic analogues, the Gly/Ala exchange, representing the addition of a single methyl group in the active core region of these peptides, was shown to be fully responsible for the generation of this partial agonism, which was also accompanied by an increase in agonistic potency. Surprisingly, this Ala-dependent reduction in maximal response levels was only observed for the agonist-induced cellular calcium rise. Stomoxytachykinin, Stc-TK, did not display partial agonism for the STKR-mediated cyclic AMP response. A possible explanation for this differential partial agonism is that the Gly-containing and Ala-replaced peptides recognize and stabilize active receptor conformations that differ in their functional coupling efficacies towards these response pathways. Drosotachykinins, Drm-TK, tachykinin-like peptides encoded in the fruit fly genome, were shown to be STKR-agonists. Interestingly, one of these peptides, which contains an Ala-residue instead of the conserved Gly-residue, also proved to be a potent, partial agonist for STKR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02506.xDOI Listing
July 2004

Serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptor loss of function mutation in a patient with fenfluramine-associated primary pulmonary hypertension.

Cardiovasc Res 2003 Dec;60(3):518-28

Service de Génétique Médicale, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 808 Lennik, B-1070 Brussels, Belgium.

Objective: Appetite-suppressant drug fenfluramine is implicated in primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) but the molecular pathways that mediate this effect are unknown. A mouse model incriminates the serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptor but contrasts with other models where this receptor has been shown to mediate pulmonary arterial relaxation via nitric oxide production.

Methods: We analyzed the human 5-HT(2B) gene in 10 patients with appetite-suppressant drug-associated PPH.

Results: A mutation causing premature truncation of the protein product was found in one patient. The mutation was not found in 80 control subjects and no 5-HT(2B) mutation was found in 18 PPH patients not associated with appetite-suppressants. Functional analysis of the transfected receptor expressed either transiently in COS cells or stably in CHO cells demonstrated that the mutated receptor fails to activate the second messenger inositol-phosphates cascade and subsequent intracellular calcium release, in spite of normal expression at the cell membrane. The mutated receptor had no constitutive activity, and produced no dominant negative effect on the wild-type receptor.

Conclusion: Loss of serotonin 5-HT(2B) receptor function may predispose to fenfluramine-associated PPH in man.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardiores.2003.09.015DOI Listing
December 2003

Specific recruitment of antigen-presenting cells by chemerin, a novel processed ligand from human inflammatory fluids.

J Exp Med 2003 Oct;198(7):977-85

Institut de Recherche en Biologie Humaine et Moléculaire, ULB Campus Erasme, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Brussels, Belgium.

Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play key roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. ChemR23 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor related to chemokine receptors, which is expressed specifically in these cell types. Here we present the characterization of chemerin, a novel chemoattractant protein, which acts through ChemR23 and is abundant in a diverse set of human inflammatory fluids. Chemerin is secreted as a precursor of low biological activity, which upon proteolytic cleavage of its COOH-terminal domain, is converted into a potent and highly specific agonist of ChemR23, the chemerin receptor. Activation of chemerin receptor results in intracellular calcium release, inhibition of cAMP accumulation, and phosphorylation of p42-p44 MAP kinases, through the Gi class of heterotrimeric G proteins. Chemerin is structurally and evolutionary related to the cathelicidin precursors (antibacterial peptides), cystatins (cysteine protease inhibitors), and kininogens. Chemerin was shown to promote calcium mobilization and chemotaxis of immature DCs and macrophages in a ChemR23-dependent manner. Therefore, chemerin appears as a potent chemoattractant protein of a novel class, which requires proteolytic activation and is specific for APCs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20030382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2194212PMC
October 2003

Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation.

J Biol Chem 2003 Jul 23;278(28):25481-9. Epub 2003 Apr 23.

Euroscreen, rue Adrienne Bolland 47, 6041 Gosselies, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, Catholic University of Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced at high concentration by bacteria in the gut and subsequently released in the bloodstream. Basal acetate concentrations in the blood (about 100 microm) can further increase to millimolar concentrations following alcohol intake. It was known previously that SCFAs can activate leukocytes, particularly neutrophils. In the present work, we have identified two previously orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, as receptors for SCFAs. Propionate was the most potent agonist for both GPR41 and GPR43. Acetate was more selective for GPR43, whereas butyrate and isobutyrate were more active on GPR41. The two receptors were coupled to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, intracellular Ca2+ release, ERK1/2 activation, and inhibition of cAMP accumulation. They exhibited, however, a differential coupling to G proteins; GPR41 coupled exclusively though the Pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/o family, whereas GPR43 displayed a dual coupling through Gi/o and Pertussis toxin-insensitive Gq protein families. The broad expression profile of GPR41 in a number of tissues does not allow us to infer clear hypotheses regarding its biological functions. In contrast, the highly selective expression of GPR43 in leukocytes, particularly polymorphonuclear cells, suggests a role in the recruitment of these cell populations toward sites of bacterial infection. The pharmacology of GPR43 matches indeed the effects of SCFAs on neutrophils, in terms of intracellular Ca2+ release and chemotaxis. Such a neutrophil-specific SCFA receptor is potentially involved in the development of a variety of diseases characterized by either excessive or inefficient neutrophil recruitment and activation, such as inflammatory bowel diseases or alcoholism-associated immune depression. GPR43 might therefore constitute a target allowing us to modulate immune responses in these pathological situations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M301403200DOI Listing
July 2003

Aequorin-based functional assays for G-protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, and tyrosine kinase receptors.

Recept Channels 2002 ;8(5-6):319-30

Euroscreen s.a., 47 Rue Adrienne Bolland, B-6041 Gosselies, Belgium.

Aequorin is a photoprotein originating from jellyfish, whose luminescent activity is dependent on the concentration of calcium ions. Due to the high sensitivity and low background linked to luminescent assays, as well as to its absence of toxicity and its large linear dynamic range, aequorin has been used as an intracellular calcium indicator since its discovery in the early 1960s. The first applications of aequorin involved its microinjection in cells. The cloning of its gene in 1985 opened the way to the stable expression of aequorin in cell lines or even entire organisms. Here we present the validation of aequorin as a functional assay for the screening of G-protein-coupled receptors, ion channels, and tyrosine kinase receptors, as well as for their pharmacological characterization in agonist and antagonist detection assays. We optimized our cell suspension-based assay and determined that the most sensitive assay was performed at room temperature, with mitochondrially expressed aequorin and using coelenterazine derivative h for reconstitution of aequorin. The robustness of the assay and the current availability of luminometers with integrated injectors allow aequorin to fit perfectly with high throughput functional assays requirements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2003

Distinct recognition of OX1 and OX2 receptors by orexin peptides.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003 May 24;305(2):507-14. Epub 2003 Jan 24.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology, Uppsala University, BMC, P.O. Box 572, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden.

In this study, we have compared the abilities of orexin-A and orexin-B and variants of orexin-A to activate different Ca(2+) responses (influx and release) in human OX(1) and OX(2) receptor- expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells. Responses mediated by activation of both receptor subtypes with either orexin-A or -B were primarily dependent on extracellular Ca(2+), suggesting similar activation of Ca(2+) influx as we have previously shown for orexin-A and OX(1) receptors. Amino acid-wise truncation of orexin-A reduced its ability to activate OX(1) and OX(2) receptors, but the response mediated by the OX(2) receptor was more resistant to truncation than the response mediated by the OX(1) receptor. We also performed a sequential replacement of amino acids 14 to 26 with alanine in the truncated orexin-A variant orexin-A(14-33). Replacement of the same amino acids produced a fall in the potency for each receptor subtype, but the reduction was less prominent for the OX(2) receptor. The most marked reduction was produced by the replacement of Leu20, Asp25, and His26 with alanine. Interestingly, extracellular Ca(2+) dependence of responses to some of the mutated peptides was different from those of orexin-A and -B. The mutagenesis also suggests that although the determinants required from orexin-A for binding to and activation of the receptor are highly conserved between the orexin receptor subtypes, the OX(2) receptor requires fewer determinants. This might in part explain why orexin-B has the affinity and potency equal to orexin-A for this subtype, although it has 10- to 100-fold lower affinity and potency for the OX(1) receptor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.102.048025DOI Listing
May 2003

Recombinant aequorin as a reporter for receptor-mediated changes of intracellular Ca2+ -levels in Drosophila S2 cells.

Invert Neurosci 2002 Apr 1;4(3):119-24. Epub 2001 Nov 1.

Laboratory for Developmental Physiology and Molecular Biology, Zoological Institute K.U. Leuven, Naamsestraat 59, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

The bioluminescent Ca(2+)-sensitive reporter protein, aequorin, was employed to develop an insect cell-based functional assay system for monitoring receptor-mediated changes of intracellular Ca(2)(+)-concentrations. Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells were genetically engineered to stably express both apoaequorin and the insect tachykinin-related peptide receptor, STKR. Lom-TK III, an STKR agonist, was shown to elicit concentration-dependent bioluminescent responses in these S2-STKR-Aeq cells. The EC(50) value for the calcium effect detected by means of aequorin appeared to be nearly identical to the one that was measured by means of Fura-2, a fluorescent Ca(2)(+)-indicator. In addition, this aequorin-based method was also utilised to study receptor antagonists. Experimental analysis of the effects exerted by spantide I, II and III, three potent substance P antagonists, on Lom-TK III-stimulated S2-STKR-Aeq cells showed that these compounds antagonise STKR-mediated responses in a concentration-dependent manner. The rank order of inhibitory potencies was spantide III > spantide II > spantide I.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10158-001-0013-2DOI Listing
April 2002

Functional analysis of synthetic insectatachykinin analogs on recombinant neurokinin receptor expressing cell lines.

Peptides 2002 Nov;23(11):1999-2005

Laboratory for Developmental Physiology and Molecular Biology, Zoological Institute K.U. Leuven, Naamsestraat 59, Belgium.

The activity of a series of synthetic tachykinin-like peptide analogs was studied by means of microscopic calcium imaging on recombinant neurokinin receptor expressing cell lines. A C-terminal pentapeptide (FTGMRa) is sufficient for activation of the stomoxytachykinin receptor (STKR) expressed in Schneider 2 cells. Replacement of amino acid residues at the position of the conserved phenylalanine (F) or arginine (R) residues by alanine (A) results in inactive peptides (when tested at 1microM), whereas A-replacements at other positions do not abolish the biological activity of the resulting insectatachykinin-like analogs. Calcium imaging was also employed to compare the activity of C-terminally substituted tachykinin analogs on three different neurokinin receptors. The results indicate that the major pharmacological and evolutionary difference between tachykinin-related agonists for insect (STKR) and human (NK1 and NK2) receptors resides in the C-terminal amino acid residues (R versus M). A single C-terminal amino acid change can turn an STKR-agonist into an NK-agonist and vice versa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0196-9781(02)00187-0DOI Listing
November 2002

Identification of natural ligands for the orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR7 and GPR8.

J Biol Chem 2003 Jan 24;278(2):776-83. Epub 2002 Oct 24.

Euroscreen, 802 Route de Lennik, 1070 Brussels, Belgium.

GPR7 and GPR8 are two structurally related orphan G protein-coupled receptors, presenting high similarities with opioid and somatostatin receptors. Two peptides, L8 and L8C, derived from a larger precursor, were recently described as natural ligands for GPR8 (Mori, M., Shimomura, Y., Harada, M., Kurihara, M., Kitada, C., Asami, T., Matsumoto, Y., Adachi, Y., Watanabe, T., Sugo, T., and Abe, M. (December, 27, 2001) World Patent Cooperation Treaty, Patent Application WO 01/98494A1). L8 is a 23-amino acid peptide, whereas L8C is the same peptide with a C terminus extension of 7 amino acids, running through a dibasic motif of proteolytic processing. Using as a query the amino acid sequence of the L8 peptide, we have identified in DNA databases a human gene predicted to encode related peptides and its mouse ortholog. By analogy with L8 and L8C, two peptides, named L7 and L7C could result from the processing of a 125-amino acid human precursor through the alternative usage of a dibasic amino acid motif. The activity of these four peptides was investigated on GPR7 and GPR8. In binding assays, L7, L7C, L8, and L8C were found to bind with low nanomolar affinities to the GPR7 and GPR8 receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. They inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation through a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism. The tissue distribution of prepro-L7 (ppL7) and prepro-L8 (ppL8) was investigated by reverse transcription-PCR. Abundant ppL7 transcripts were found throughout the brain as well as in spinal cord, spleen, testis, and placenta; ppL8 transcripts displayed a more restricted distribution in brain, with high levels in substantia nigra, but were more abundant in peripheral tissues. The ppL7 and ppL8 genes therefore encode the precursors of a class of peptide ligands, active on two receptor subtypes, GPR7 and GPR8. The distinct tissue distribution of the receptor and peptide precursors suggest that each ligand and receptor has partially overlapping but also specific roles in this signaling system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M206396200DOI Listing
January 2003

Pharmacological characterization of human NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors expressed in CHO cells by using NPY Y(1) receptor antagonists.

Eur J Pharmacol 2002 Sep;451(3):245-56

Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale (CNRS, UMR5089), 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse cedex 04, France.

Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) belongs to an opioid-modulatory system including two precursors (pro-NPFF(A) and pro-NPFF(B)) and two G-protein coupled receptors (NPFF(1) and NPFF(2)). The pharmacological and functional profiles of human NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were compared by determining the affinity of several peptides derived from both NPFF precursors and by measuring their abilities to inhibit forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation. Each NPFF receptor recognizes peptides from both precursors with nanomolar affinities, however, with a slight preference of pro-NPFF(A) peptides for NPFF(2) receptors and of pro-NPFF(B) peptides for NPFF(1) receptors. BIBP3226 ((R)-N(2)-(diphenylacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)-methyl]-argininamide) and BIBO3304 ((R)-N(2)-(diphenylacetyl)-N-[4-(aminocarbonylaminomethyl)-benzyl]-argininamide trifluoroacetate), two selective neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y(1) receptor antagonists, display relative high affinities for NPFF receptors and exhibit antagonist properties towards hNPFF(1) receptors. The structural determinants responsible for binding of these molecules to NPFF receptors were investigated and led to the synthesis of hNPFF(1) receptor antagonists with affinities from 40 to 80 nM. Our results demonstrate differences in pharmacological characteristics between NPFF(1) and NPFF(2) receptors and the feasibility of subtype-selective antagonists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0014-2999(02)02224-0DOI Listing
September 2002

Analysis of C-terminally substituted tachykinin-like peptide agonists by means of aequorin-based luminescent assays for human and insect neurokinin receptors.

Biochem Pharmacol 2002 May;63(9):1675-82

Laboratory for Developmental Physiology and Molecular Biology, Zoological Institute K.U.Leuven, Naamsestraat 59, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Aequorin-based assays for stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, (STKR) and human (neurokinin receptor 1 (NK1), neurokinin receptor 2 (NK2)) neurokinin-like receptors were employed to investigate the impact of a C-terminal amino acid exchange in synthetic vertebrate ('FXGLMa') and invertebrate ('FX1GX2Ra') tachykinin-like peptides. C-terminally (Arg to Met) substituted analogs of the insect tachykinin-related peptide, Lom-TK I, displayed increased agonistic potencies in luminescent assays for human NK1 and NK2 receptors, whereas they showed reduced potencies in the STKR-assay. The opposite effects were observed when C-terminally (Met to Arg) substituted analogs of substance P were analysed. These substance P analogs proved to be very potent STKR-agonists, being more potent than Lom-TK I. On the other hand, Lom-TK-LMa, was shown to be a very potent NK1-agonist and was suggested to have more substance-P-mimetic than neurokinin-A-mimetic properties. NK1 and NK2 receptor agonists appeared to be more sensitive to changes at the penultimate amino acid position than STKR-agonists. This is also reflected in the sequence conservation that is observed in the naturally occurring tachykinin subgroups ('FXGLMa' vs. 'FX1GX2Ra'). The differential Arg-Met preference appears to be a major coevolutionary change between insect and human peptide-receptor couples. With regard to the peptide agonists, this change can theoretically be based on a single point mutation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-2952(02)00914-0DOI Listing
May 2002

Adaptation of aequorin functional assay to high throughput screening.

J Biomol Screen 2002 Feb;7(1):57-65

Euroscreen s.a., Brussels, Belgium.

AequoScreen, a cellular aequorin-based functional assay, has been optimized for luminescent high-throughput screening (HTS) of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCRs). AequoScreen is a homogeneous assay in which the cells are loaded with the apoaequorin cofactor coelenterazine, diluted in assay buffer, and injected into plates containing the samples to be tested. A flash of light is emitted following the calcium increase resulting from the activation of the GPCR by the sample. Here we have validated a new plate reader, the Hamamatsu Photonics FDSS6000, for HTS in 96- and 384-well plates with CHO-K1 cells stably coexpressing mitochondrial apoaequorin and different GPCRs (AequoScreen cell lines). The acquisition time, plate type, and cell number per well have been optimized to obtain concentration-response curves with 4000 cells/well in 384-well plates and a high signal:background ratio. The FDSS6000 and AequoScreen cell lines allow reading of twenty 96- or 384-well plates in 1 h with Z' values of 0.71 and 0.78, respectively. These results bring new insights to functional assays, and therefore reinforce the interest in aequorin-based assays in a HTS environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/108705710200700108DOI Listing
February 2002