Publications by authors named "Michal Magid-Slav"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an essential proviral host factor for human rhinovirus species A and C.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 11 15;117(44):27598-27607. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599;

Human rhinoviruses (RVs) are positive-strand RNA viruses that cause respiratory tract disease in children and adults. Here we show that the innate immune signaling protein STING is required for efficient replication of members of two distinct RV species, RV-A and RV-C. The host factor activity of STING was identified in a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen and confirmed in primary human small airway epithelial cells. Replication of RV-A serotypes was strictly dependent on STING, whereas RV-B serotypes were notably less dependent. Subgenomic RV-A and RV-C RNA replicons failed to amplify in the absence of STING, revealing it to be required for a step in RNA replication. STING was expressed on phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P)-enriched membranes and was enriched in RV-A16 compared with RV-B14 replication organelles isolated in isopycnic gradients. The host factor activity of STING was species-specific, as murine STING (mSTING) did not rescue RV-A16 replication in STING-deficient cells. This species specificity mapped primarily to the cytoplasmic, ligand-binding domain of STING. Mouse-adaptive mutations in the RV-A16 2C protein allowed for robust replication in cells expressing mSTING, suggesting a role for 2C in recruiting STING to RV-A replication organelles. Palmitoylation of STING was not required for RV-A16 replication, nor was the C-terminal tail of STING that mediates IRF3 signaling. Despite co-opting STING to promote its replication, interferon signaling in response to STING agonists remained intact in RV-A16 infected cells. These data demonstrate a surprising requirement for a key host mediator of innate immunity to DNA viruses in the life cycle of a small pathogenic RNA virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2014940117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959528PMC
November 2020

Pathway analysis of GWAS loci identifies novel drug targets and repurposing opportunities.

Drug Discov Today 2019 06 29;24(6):1232-1236. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Computational Biology, GSK R&D, Collegeville, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have made considerable progress and there is emerging evidence that genetics-based targets can lead to 28% more launched drugs. We analyzed 1589 GWAS across 1456 pathways to translate these often imprecise genetic loci into therapeutic hypotheses for 182 diseases. These pathway-based genetic targets were validated by testing whether current drug targets were enriched in the pathway space for the same indication. Remarkably, 30% of diseases had significantly more targets in these pathways than expected by chance; the comparable number for GWAS alone (without pathway analysis) was zero. This study shows that a systematic global pathway analysis can translate genetic findings into therapeutic hypotheses for both new drug discovery and repositioning opportunities for current drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2019.03.024DOI Listing
June 2019

Longitudinal profiling of the lung microbiome in the AERIS study demonstrates repeatability of bacterial and eosinophilic COPD exacerbations.

Thorax 2018 05 31;73(5):422-430. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK.

Background: Alterations in the composition of the lung microbiome associated with adverse clinical outcomes, known as dysbiosis, have been implicated with disease severity and exacerbations in COPD.

Objective: To characterise longitudinal changes in the lung microbiome in the AERIS study (Acute Exacerbation and Respiratory InfectionS in COPD) and their relationship with associated COPD outcomes.

Methods: We surveyed 584 sputum samples from 101 patients with COPD to analyse the lung microbiome at both stable and exacerbation time points over 1 year using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. We incorporated additional lung microbiology, blood markers and in-depth clinical assessments to classify COPD phenotypes.

Results: The stability of the lung microbiome over time was more likely to be decreased in exacerbations and within individuals with higher exacerbation frequencies. Analysis of exacerbation phenotypes using a Markov chain model revealed that bacterial and eosinophilic exacerbations were more likely to be repeated in subsequent exacerbations within a subject, whereas viral exacerbations were not more likely to be repeated. We also confirmed the association of bacterial genera, including and , with disease severity, exacerbation events and bronchiectasis.

Conclusions: Subtypes of COPD have distinct bacterial compositions and stabilities over time. Some exacerbation subtypes have non-random probabilities of repeating those subtypes in the future. This study provides insights pertaining to the identification of bacterial targets in the lung and biomarkers to classify COPD subtypes and to determine appropriate treatments for the patient.

Trial Registration Number: Results, NCT01360398.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-210408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5909767PMC
May 2018

Meta-analysis of human gene expression in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection reveals potential therapeutic targets.

BMC Syst Biol 2018 01 10;12(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Computational Biology, Target Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) R & D, Collegeville, PA, 19426, USA.

Background: With the global emergence of multi-drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, new strategies to treat tuberculosis are urgently needed such as therapeutics targeting potential human host factors.

Results: Here we performed a statistical meta-analysis of human gene expression in response to both latent and active pulmonary tuberculosis infections from nine published datasets. We found 1655 genes that were significantly differentially expressed during active tuberculosis infection. In contrast, no gene was significant for latent tuberculosis. Pathway enrichment analysis identified 90 significant canonical human pathways, including several pathways more commonly related to non-infectious diseases such as the LRRK2 pathway in Parkinson's disease, and PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway important for new immuno-oncology therapies. The analysis of human genome-wide association studies datasets revealed tuberculosis-associated genetic variants proximal to several genes in major histocompatibility complex for antigen presentation. We propose several new targets and drug-repurposing opportunities including intravenous immunoglobulin, ion-channel blockers and cancer immuno-therapeutics for development as combination therapeutics with anti-mycobacterial agents.

Conclusions: Our meta-analysis provides novel insights into host genes and pathways important for tuberculosis and brings forth potential drug repurposing opportunities for host-directed therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12918-017-0524-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5763539PMC
January 2018

Host response to respiratory bacterial pathogens as identified by integrated analysis of human gene expression data.

PLoS One 2013 27;8(9):e75607. Epub 2013 Sep 27.

Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, United States of America ; Institute for Genome Science, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Respiratory bacterial pathogens are one of the leading causes of infectious death in the world and a major health concern complicated by the rise of multi-antibiotic resistant strains. Therapeutics that modulate host genes essential for pathogen infectivity could potentially avoid multi-drug resistance and provide a wider scope of treatment options. Here, we perform an integrative analysis of published human gene expression data generated under challenges from the gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively. We applied a previously described differential gene and pathway enrichment analysis pipeline to publicly available host mRNA GEO datasets resulting from exposure to bacterial infection. We found 72 canonical human pathways common between four GEO datasets, representing P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae. Although the majority of these pathways are known to be involved with immune response, we found several interesting new interactions such as the SUMO1 pathway that might have a role in bacterial infections. Furthermore, 36 host-bacterial pathways were also shared with our previous results for respiratory virus host gene expression. Based on our pathway analysis we propose several drug-repurposing opportunities supported by the literature.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0075607PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3785471PMC
July 2014

Gastrointestinal weight-loss surgery: glimpses at the molecular level.

Drug Discov Today 2013 Jul 21;18(13-14):625-36. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Pharmacotherapy for obesity remains a key challenge, and gastrointestinal weight-loss surgery remains a preferred option to help reduce excess body weight along with resolution of several comorbidities associated with obesity. This offers a unique opportunity to study the underlying mechanisms of gastro-intestinal weight-loss surgery to develop effective and less invasive long-term therapeutic interventions potentially mimicking the benefits of gastrointestinal weight-loss surgery. Here, we present an integrative analysis of currently available human transcriptomics data sets pre- and post-surgery and propose a computational biology strategy for selecting putative drug targets. We anticipate that approaches similar to the one that we outline here, would help elucidate underlying mechanisms that result in metabolic improvements and provide guidance on pharmaceutical targets to develop effective and less invasive therapies for obesity and related comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2012.12.006DOI Listing
July 2013

Identification of common biological pathways and drug targets across multiple respiratory viruses based on human host gene expression analysis.

PLoS One 2012 14;7(3):e33174. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Background: Pandemic and seasonal respiratory viruses are a major global health concern. Given the genetic diversity of respiratory viruses and the emergence of drug resistant strains, the targeted disruption of human host-virus interactions is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating multi-viral infections. The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning.

Methods/results: In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of microarray datasets involving host response to infections by influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, SARS-coronavirus, metapneumonia virus, coxsackievirus and cytomegalovirus. Common genes and pathways were found through a rigorous, iterative analysis pipeline where relevant host mRNA expression datasets were identified, analyzed for quality and gene differential expression, then mapped to pathways for enrichment analysis. Possible repurposed drugs targets were found through database and literature searches. A total of 67 common biological pathways were identified among the seven different respiratory viruses analyzed, representing fifteen laboratories, nine different cell types, and seven different array platforms. A large overlap in the general immune response was observed among the top twenty of these 67 pathways, adding validation to our analysis strategy. Of the top five pathways, we found 53 differentially expressed genes affected by at least five of the seven viruses. We suggest five new therapeutic indications for existing small molecules or biological agents targeting proteins encoded by the genes F3, IL1B, TNF, CASP1 and MMP9. Pathway enrichment analysis also identified a potential novel host response, the Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System (Parkin-UPS) pathway, which is known to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative Parkinson's disease.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that multiple and diverse respiratory viruses invoke several common host response pathways. Further analysis of these pathways suggests potential opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033174PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303816PMC
July 2012

Potential candidate genomic biomarkers of drug induced vascular injury in the rat.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2011 Dec 24;257(2):284-300. Epub 2011 Sep 24.

Department of Safety Assessment, 709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA.

Drug-induced vascular injury is frequently observed in rats but the relevance and translation to humans present a hurdle for drug development. Numerous structurally diverse pharmacologic agents have been shown to induce mesenteric arterial medial necrosis in rats, but no consistent biomarkers have been identified. To address this need, a novel strategy was developed in rats to identify genes associated with the development of drug-induced mesenteric arterial medial necrosis. Separate groups (n=6/group) of male rats were given 28 different toxicants (30 different treatments) for 1 or 4 days with each toxicant given at 3 different doses (low, mid and high) plus corresponding vehicle (912 total rats). Mesentery was collected, frozen and endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells were microdissected from each artery. RNA was isolated, amplified and Affymetrix GeneChip® analysis was performed on selectively enriched samples and a novel panel of genes representing those which showed a dose responsive pattern for all treatments in which mesenteric arterial medial necrosis was histologically observed, was developed and verified in individual endothelial cell- and vascular smooth muscle cell-enriched samples. Data were confirmed in samples containing mesentery using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan™) gene expression profiling. In addition, the performance of the panel was also confirmed using similarly collected samples obtained from a timecourse study in rats given a well established vascular toxicant (Fenoldopam). Although further validation is still required, a novel gene panel has been developed that represents a strategic opportunity that can potentially be used to help predict the occurrence of drug-induced mesenteric arterial medial necrosis in rats at an early stage in drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2011.09.015DOI Listing
December 2011

Computational biology approaches for selecting host-pathogen drug targets.

Drug Discov Today 2011 Mar 28;16(5-6):229-36. Epub 2011 Jan 28.

Computational Biology, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 South Collegeville Road, UP1345, PO Box 5089, Collegeville, PA 19426-0989, USA.

The proliferation of genomic platform data, ranging from silencing RNAs through mRNA and microRNA expression to proteomics, is providing new insights into the interplay between human and pathogen genes during infection: the so-called 'host-pathogen interactome'. Exploiting the interactome for novel human drug targets could provide new therapeutic avenues towards the treatment of infectious disease, which could ameliorate the growing clinical challenge of drug-resistant infections. Using the hepatitis C virus interactome as an example, here we suggest a computational biology framework for identifying and prioritizing potential human host targets against infectious diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2011.01.008DOI Listing
March 2011

Effects of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme induction on clinical pathology parameters in animals and man.

Toxicol Pathol 2010 Aug 28;38(5):810-28. Epub 2010 Jun 28.

GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406-0939, USA.

Hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme (DME) induction is an adaptive response associated with changes in preclinical species; this response can include increases in liver weight, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and upregulated tissue expression of DMEs. Effects of DME induction on clinical pathology markers of hepatobiliary injury and function in animals as well as humans are not well established. This component of a multipart review of the comparative pathology of xenobiotically mediated induction of hepatic metabolizing enzymes reviews pertinent data from retrospective and prospective preclinical and clinical studies. Particular attention is given to studies with confirmation of DME induction and concurrent evaluation of liver and/or serum hepatobiliary marker enzyme activities and histopathology. These results collectively indicate that in the rat, when histologic findings are limited to hepatocellular hypertrophy, DME induction is not expected to be associated with consistent or substantive changes in serum or plasma activity of hepatobiliary marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyltransferase. In the dog and the monkey, published studies also do not demonstrate a consistent relationship across DME-inducing agents and changes in these clinical pathology parameters. However, increased liver alkaline phosphatase or gamma glutamyltransferase activity in dogs treated with phenobarbital or corticosteroids suggests that direct or indirect induction of select hepatobiliary injury markers can occur both in the absence of liver injury and independently of induction of DME activity. Although correlations between tissue and serum levels of these hepatobiliary markers are limited and inconsistent, increases in serum/plasma activities that are substantial or involve changes in other markers generally reflect hepatobiliary insult rather than DME induction. Extrahepatic effects, including disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, can also occur as a direct outcome of hepatic DME induction in humans and animals. Importantly, hepatic DME induction and associated changes in preclinical species are not necessarily predictive of the occurrence, magnitude, or enzyme induction profile in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623310374332DOI Listing
August 2010

Diagnostic performance of traditional hepatobiliary biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury in the rat.

Toxicol Sci 2010 Aug 13;116(2):397-412. Epub 2010 May 13.

Department of Safety Assessment, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406-0939, USA.

Nonclinical studies provide the opportunity to anchor biochemical with morphologic findings; however, liver injury is often complex and heterogeneous, confounding the ability to relate biochemical changes with specific patterns of injury. The aim of the current study was to compare diagnostic performance of hepatobiliary markers for specific manifestations of drug-induced liver injury in rat using data collected in a recent hepatic toxicogenomics initiative in which rats (n = 3205) were given 182 different treatments for 4 or 14 days. Diagnostic accuracy of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbili), serum bile acids (SBA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total cholesterol (Chol), and triglycerides (Trig) was evaluated for specific types of liver histopathology by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. To assess the relationship between biochemical and morphologic changes in the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, a second ROC analysis was performed on a subset of rats (n = 2504) given treatments (n = 152) that did not cause hepatocellular necrosis. In the initial analysis, ALT, AST, Tbili, and SBA had the greatest diagnostic utility for manifestations of hepatocellular necrosis and biliary injury, with comparable magnitude of area under the ROC curve and serum hepatobiliary marker changes for both. In the absence of hepatocellular necrosis, ALT increases were observed with biochemical or morphologic evidence of cholestasis. In both analyses, diagnostic utility of ALP and GGT for biliary injury was limited; however, ALP had modest diagnostic value for peroxisome proliferation, and ALT, AST, and total Chol had moderate diagnostic utility for phospholipidosis. None of the eight markers evaluated had diagnostic value for manifestations of hypertrophy, cytoplasmic rarefaction, inflammation, or lipidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfq144DOI Listing
August 2010

Molecular evolutionary analysis of cancer cell lines.

Mol Cancer Ther 2010 Feb 2;9(2):279-91. Epub 2010 Feb 2.

Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.

With genome-wide cancer studies producing large DNA sequence data sets, novel computational approaches toward better understanding the role of mutations in tumor survival and proliferation are greatly needed. Tumors are widely viewed to be influenced by Darwinian processes, yet molecular evolutionary analysis, invaluable in other DNA sequence studies, has seen little application in cancer biology. Here, we describe the phylogenetic analysis of 353 cancer cell lines based on multiple sequence alignments of 3,252 nucleotides and 1,170 amino acids built from the concatenation of variant codons and residues across 494 and 523 genes, respectively. Reconstructed phylogenetic trees cluster cell lines by shared DNA variant patterns rather than cancer tissue type, suggesting that tumors originating from diverse histologies have similar oncogenic pathways. A well-supported clade of 91 cancer cell lines representing multiple tumor types also had significantly different gene expression profiles from the remaining cell lines according to statistical analyses of mRNA microarray data. This suggests that phylogenetic clustering of tumor cell lines based on DNA variants might reflect functional similarities in cellular pathways. Positive selection analysis revealed specific DNA variants that might be potential driver mutations. Our study shows the potential role of molecular evolutionary analyses in tumor classification and the development of novel anticancer strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0508DOI Listing
February 2010

More than just innate immunity: comparative analysis of Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis effects on host-cell gene regulation.

Cell Microbiol 2003 Nov;5(11):785-95

Department of Medical Microbiology, Medical School Hannover, D-30623 Hannover, Germany.

Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis cause infections of the respiratory or urogenital tract. In addition, both species have been associated with atherosclerosis or reactive arthritis respectively. For these intracellular pathogens the interaction with their host-cells is of particular importance. To get insight into this relationship, we conducted a comparative analysis of the host-cell gene regulation of human epithelial cells during infection with Chlamydia. In a screening of HeLa cells by Affymetrix-microchips, numerous regulated host-genes were identified. A detailed expression profile was obtained for 14 genes by real-time RT-PCR - comparing C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis and intracellular S. typhimurium. The transcriptional responses induced by C. pneumoniae were similar (but usually smaller) compared to C. trachomatis, some were absent. UV-inactivated bacteria induced no differential gene expression suggesting that pathomechanisms other than those associated with innate immunity play here an important role. The expression pattern induced by Salmonella differed substantially. These genus- or group-specific transcriptional response patterns elicited by viable intracellular pathogens may considerably contribute to the different pathologies encountered in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1462-5822.2003.00319.xDOI Listing
November 2003