Publications by authors named "Michaela Pokorna"

5 Publications

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The processes associated with lipid peroxidation in human embryonic lung fibroblasts, treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic extract from particulate matter.

Mutagenesis 2019 05;34(2):153-164

Department of Genetic Toxicology and Nanotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may cause lipid peroxidation via reactive oxygen species generation. 15-F2t-isoprostane (IsoP), an oxidative stress marker, is formed from arachidonic acid (AA) by a free-radical induced oxidation. AA may also be converted to prostaglandins (PG) by prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) induced by NF-κB. We treated human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HEL12469) with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) and extractable organic matter (EOM) from ambient air particulate matter <2.5 µm for 4 and 24 h. B[a]P and 3-NBA induced expression of PAH metabolising, but not antioxidant enzymes. The concentrations of IsoP decreased, whereas the levels of AA tended to increase. Although the activity of NF-κB was not detected, the tested compounds affected the expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2). The levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) decreased following exposure to B[a]P, whereas 3-NBA exposure tended to increase PGE2 concentration. A distinct response was observed after EOM exposure: expression of PAH-metabolising enzymes was induced, IsoP levels increased after 24-h treatment but AA concentration was not affected. The activity of NF-κB increased after both exposure periods, and a significant induction of PTGS2 expression was found following 4-h treatment. Similarly to PAHs, the EOM exposure was associated with a decrease of PGE2 levels. In summary, exposure to PAHs with low pro-oxidant potential results in a decrease of IsoP levels implying 'antioxidant' properties. For such compounds, IsoP may not be a suitable marker of lipid peroxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mutage/gez004DOI Listing
May 2019

Adaptation of the human population to the environment: Current knowledge, clues from Czech cytogenetic and "omics" biomonitoring studies and possible mechanisms.

Mutat Res 2017 07 12;773:188-203. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Department of Genetic Toxicology and Nanotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Sciences, 14220 Prague 4, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

The human population is continually exposed to numerous harmful environmental stressors, causing negative health effects and/or deregulation of biomarker levels. However, studies reporting no or even positive impacts of some stressors on humans are also sometimes published. The main aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the last decade of Czech biomonitoring research, concerning the effect of various levels of air pollution (benzo[a]pyrene) and radiation (uranium, X-ray examination and natural radon background), on the differently exposed population groups. Because some results obtained from cytogenetic studies were opposite than hypothesized, we have searched for a meaningful interpretation in genomic/epigenetic studies. A detailed analysis of our data supported by the studies of others and current epigenetic knowledge, leads to a hypothesis of the versatile mechanism of adaptation to environmental stressors via DNA methylation settings which may even originate in prenatal development, and help to reduce the resulting DNA damage levels. This hypothesis is fully in agreement with unexpected data from our studies (e.g. lower levels of DNA damage in subjects from highly polluted regions than in controls or in subjects exposed repeatedly to a pollutant than in those without previous exposure), and is also supported by differences in DNA methylation patterns in groups from regions with various levels of pollution. In light of the adaptation hypothesis, the following points may be suggested for future research: (i) the chronic and acute exposure of study subjects should be distinguished; (ii) the exposure history should be mapped including place of residence during the life and prenatal development; (iii) changes of epigenetic markers should be monitored over time. In summary, investigation of human adaptation to the environment, one of the most important processes of survival, is a new challenge for future research in the field of human biomonitoring that may change our view on the results of biomarker analyses and potential negative health impacts of the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2017.07.002DOI Listing
July 2017

Butyrate alters expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 and metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene via its histone deacetylase activity in colon epithelial cell models.

Arch Toxicol 2017 May 9;91(5):2135-2150. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

Department of Cytokinetics, Institute of Biophysics, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Královopolská 135, 61265, Brno, Czech Republic.

Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by fermentation of dietary fiber, is an important regulator of colonic epithelium homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the impact of this histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor on expression/activity of cytochrome P450 family 1 (CYP1) and on metabolism of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), in colon epithelial cells. Sodium butyrate (NaBt) strongly potentiated the BaP-induced expression of CYP1A1 in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. It also co-stimulated the 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity induced by the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, a prototypical ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression/activity corresponded with an enhanced metabolism of BaP and formation of covalent DNA adducts. NaBt significantly potentiated CYP1A1 induction and/or metabolic activation of BaP also in other human colon cell models, colon adenoma AA/C1 cells, colon carcinoma HT-29 cells, or in NCM460D cell line derived from normal colon mucosa. Our results suggest that the effects of NaBt were due to its impact on histone acetylation, because additional HDAC inhibitors (trichostatin A and suberanilohydroxamic acid) likewise increased both the induction of EROD activity and formation of covalent DNA adducts. NaBt-induced acetylation of histone H3 (at Lys14) and histone H4 (at Lys16), two histone modifications modulated during activation of CYP1A1 transcription, and it reduced binding of HDAC1 to the enhancer region of CYP1A1 gene. This in vitro study suggests that butyrate, through modulation of histone acetylation, may potentiate induction of CYP1A1 expression, which might in turn alter the metabolism of BaP within colon epithelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-016-1887-4DOI Listing
May 2017

New derivatives of salicylamides: Preparation and antimicrobial activity against various bacterial species.

Bioorg Med Chem 2013 Nov 24;21(21):6574-81. Epub 2013 Aug 24.

Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 532 10 Pardubice, Czech Republic.

Three series of salicylanilides, esters of N-phenylsalicylamides and 2-hydroxy-N-[1-(2-hydroxyphenylamino)-1-oxoalkan-2-yl]benzamides, in total thirty target compounds were synthesized and characterized. The compounds were evaluated against seven bacterial and three mycobacterial strains. The antimicrobial activities of some compounds were comparable or higher than the standards ampicillin, ciprofloxacin or isoniazid. Derivatives 3f demonstrated high biological activity against Staphylococcus aureus (⩽0.03μmol/L), Mycobacterium marinum (⩽0.40μmol/L) and Mycobacterium kansasii (1.58μmol/L), 3g shows activity against Clostridium perfringens (⩽0.03μmol/L) and Bacillus cereus (0.09μmol/L), 3h against Pasteurella multocida (⩽0.03μmol/L) and M. kansasii (⩽0.43μmol/L), 3i against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and B. cereus (⩽0.03μmol/L). The structure-activity relationships are discussed for all the compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2013.08.029DOI Listing
November 2013

Rapidly developing yeast microcolonies differentiate in a similar way to aging giant colonies.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2013 21;2013:102485. Epub 2013 Jul 21.

Institute of Microbiology of the ASCR, v.v.i., 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic.

During their development and aging on solid substrates, yeast giant colonies produce ammonia, which acts as a quorum sensing molecule. Ammonia production is connected with alkalization of the surrounding medium and with extensive reprogramming of cell metabolism. In addition, ammonia signaling is important for both horizontal (colony centre versus colony margin) and vertical (upper versus lower cell layers) colony differentiations. The centre of an aging differentiated giant colony is thus composed of two major cell subpopulations, the subpopulation of long-living, metabolically active and stress-resistant cells that form the upper layers of the colony and the subpopulation of stress-sensitive starving cells in the colony interior. Here, we show that microcolonies originating from one cell pass through similar developmental phases as giant colonies. Microcolony differentiation is linked to ammonia signaling, and cells similar to the upper and lower cells of aged giant colonies are formed even in relatively young microcolonies. A comparison of the properties of these cells revealed a number of features that are similar in microcolonies and giant colonies as well as a few that are only typical of chronologically aged giant colonies. These findings show that colony age per se is not crucial for colony differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/102485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3736409PMC
February 2014