Publications by authors named "Michael Zeiler"

35 Publications

Short-Term Outcome of Inpatient Treatment for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa Using DSM-5 Remission Criteria.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 20;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Eating Disorders Unit, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

This study evaluated the short-term outcome of a multimodal inpatient treatment concept for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). In this prospective observational study, a cohort of 126 female adolescents with AN (age range: 11-17, mean age: 14.83) was longitudinally followed from admission to discharge (average duration of stay: 77 days). We used gold-standard clinical interviews and self-report data, as well as DSM-5 remission criteria, to evaluate the treatment outcome. From admission to discharge, body-mass-index (BMI) significantly improved by 2.6 kg/m. Data from clinical interviews and self-reports yielded similar improvements in restraint eating and eating concerns (large effects). Lower effects were observed for variables assessing weight/shape concerns and drive for thinness. At discharge, 23.2% of patients showed full remission of AN, 31.3% partial remission, and 45.5% no remission according to DSM-5 criteria. Differences in remission groups were found regarding AN severity, age at admission, and use of antidepressant medication. Living with both parents, longer duration of inpatient treatment and the use of antipsychotic medication were significantly associated with higher BMI change. The findings provide evidence for the short-term effectiveness of our inpatient treatment concept. We recommend using DSM-5 based remission criteria to evaluate the treatment outcome to improve the comparability of studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10143190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307185PMC
July 2021

Stakeholder consultation to facilitate implementation of interventions for prevention and promotion in mental health in Europe: introducing the design of the ICare Stakeholder Survey.

Eur J Public Health 2021 07;31(31 Suppl 1):i48-i54

Institut für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background: Online interventions to prevent mental health problems have proven to be effective. However, knowledge about their implementation in real-world practice as well as for dissemination to the target groups in different settings is scarce. The goal of the 'ICare' network is to establish a comprehensive model of eMental-health service delivery in and across different European countries. Since implementation and dissemination are influenced by many contextual factors, in the first phase of ICare a stakeholder survey was conducted. The survey aim was to explore stakeholders' experiences, needs and attitudes regarding Internet-based prevention of mental health problems and hindering and fostering factors for implementation and dissemination. This article is part of a supplement and describes the design of the stakeholder survey. Survey results are published in separate articles in the same supplement.

Methods: Based on a literature review and the individual characteristics of the ICare interventions, stakeholder groups were identified in different settings across six European countries. The RE-AIM framework guided the development of the research questions and survey instruments. A concurrent mixed methods design was applied comprising focus groups with the intended target groups of ICare interventions, an online questionnaire with potential facilitators/delivery staff and semi-structured interviews with policy makers.

Conclusion: The challenge was to develop a design that allowed flexibility but at the same did not jeopardize the validity of the study. Implications drawn from this survey are not restricted to specific preventive interventions but will provide general information on how online mental illness prevention can be best implemented in various settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266536PMC
July 2021

Stakeholders' views on online interventions to prevent common mental health disorders in adults implemented into existing healthcare systems in Europe.

Eur J Public Health 2021 07;31(31 Suppl 1):i55-i63

Ferdinand Porsche FernFH-Distance Learning University of Applied Sciences, Wiener Neustadt 2700, Austria.

Background: Online preventive interventions can help to reduce the incidence of mental disorders. Whereas knowledge on stakeholders' attitudes and factors relevant for successfully integrating online treatment into existing healthcare systems is available, knowledge is scarce for online prevention.

Methods: Stakeholders from Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Spain were surveyed. Potential facilitators/delivery staff (e.g. psychologists, psychotherapists) completed an online questionnaire (n = 183), policy makers (i.e. from the governing sector or health insurance providers) participated in semi-structured interviews (n = 16) and target groups/potential users of mental illness prevention (n = 49) participated in ten focus groups. Thematic analysis was used to identify their experiences with and attitudes and needs regarding online programmes to prevent mental disorders. Additionally, it was examined which groups they consider underserved and which factors they consider as fostering and hindering for reach, adoption, implementation and maintenance (cf. RE-AIM model) when integrating online prevention into existing healthcare systems.

Results: Main advantages of online mental illness prevention are perceived in low structural and psychological barriers. Lack of personal contact, security, privacy and trust concerns were discussed as disadvantages. Relevant needs are high usability and target group appropriateness, evidence for effectiveness and the use of motivational tools.

Conclusions: Positive attitudes among stakeholders are the key for successful integration of online mental illness prevention into existing healthcare systems. Potential facilitators/delivery staff must receive training and support to implement these programmes; the programmes must be attractive and continuously evaluated, updated and promoted to ensure ongoing reach; and existing infrastructure and contextual factors must be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab043DOI Listing
July 2021

Online interventions to prevent mental health problems implemented in school settings: the perspectives from key stakeholders in Austria and Spain.

Eur J Public Health 2021 07;31(31 Suppl 1):i71-i79

Ferdinand Porsche FernFH-Distance Learning University of Applied Sciences, Wiener Neustadt, Austria.

Background: Schools are key settings for delivering mental illness prevention in adolescents. Data on stakeholders' attitudes and factors relevant for the implementation of Internet-based prevention programmes are scarce.

Methods: Stakeholders in the school setting from Austria and Spain were consulted. Potential facilitators (e.g. teachers and school psychologists) completed an online questionnaire (N=50), policy makers (e.g. representatives of the ministry of education and health professional associations) participated in semi-structured interviews (N=9) and pupils (N=29, 14-19 years) participated in focus groups. Thematic analysis was used to identify experiences with, attitudes and needs towards Internet-based prevention programmes, underserved groups, as well as barriers and facilitators for reach, adoption, implementation and maintenance.

Results: Experiences with Internet-based prevention programmes were low across all stakeholder groups. Better reach of the target groups was seen as main advantage whereas lack of personal contact, privacy concerns, risk for misuse and potential stigmatization when implemented during school hours were regarded as disadvantages. Relevant needs towards Internet-based programmes involved attributes of the development process, general requirements for safety and performance, presentation of content, media/tools and contact options of online programmes. Positive attitudes of school staff, low effort for schools and compatibility to schools' curriculum were seen as key factors for successful adoption and implementation. A sound implementation of the programme in the school routine and continued improvement could facilitate maintenance of online prevention initiatives in schools.

Conclusions: Attitudes towards Internet-based mental illness prevention programmes in school settings are positive across all stakeholder groups. However, especially safety concerns have to be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266540PMC
July 2021

A systematic review of reach, adoption, implementation and maintenance of Internet-based interventions to prevent eating disorders in adults.

Eur J Public Health 2021 07;31(31 Suppl 1):i29-i37

Ferdinand Porsche FernFH-Distance Learning University of Applied Sciences, Wiener Neustadt, Austria.

Background: There is a growing body of research and evidence for the efficacy of Internet-based eating disorder (ED) prevention interventions for adults. However, much less is known about the reach, adoption, implementation and maintenance of these interventions. The RE-AIM (reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance) model provides a framework to systematically assess this information.

Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO for articles published between 2000 and 2019. Additionally, reference lists of the studies included and existing reviews published until the end of 2020 were searched. Sixty original articles describing 54 individual studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Data were extracted for a total of 43 RE-AIM indicators for each study. Fostering and hindering factors for reach, adoption, implementation and maintenance were assessed qualitatively.

Results: Overall reporting rates were best for the RE-AIM dimensions reach (62.6%), implementation (57.0%) and effectiveness (54.2%), while adoption (24.2%) and maintenance (21.5%) had comparatively low overall reporting rates. Reporting on indicators of internal validity, such as sample size, effects or description of interventions was better than indicators relevant for dissemination and implementation in real-world settings, e.g. characteristics of non-participants, characteristics and representativeness of settings, and data to estimate cost.

Conclusions: Because most Internet-based ED prevention interventions are provided in a research-funded context, little is known about their public health impact. Better reporting of factors determining external validity is needed to inform dissemination and implementation of these interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266539PMC
July 2021

Online prevention programmes for university students: stakeholder perspectives from six European countries.

Eur J Public Health 2021 07;31(31 Suppl 1):i64-i70

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, UK.

Background: Students beginning university are at a heightened risk for developing mental health disorders. Online prevention and early intervention programmes targeting mental health have the potential to reduce this risk, however, previous research has shown uptake to be rather poor. Understanding university stakeholders' (e.g. governing level and delivery staff [DS] and students) views and attitudes towards such online prevention programmes could help with their development, implementation and dissemination within university settings.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews, focus groups and online surveys were completed with staff at a governing level, university students and DS (i.e. student health or teaching staff) from six European countries. They were asked about their experiences with, and needs and attitudes towards, online prevention programmes, as well as the factors that influence the translation of these programmes into real-world settings. Results were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Results: Participating stakeholders knew little about online prevention programmes for university settings; however, they viewed them as acceptable. The main themes to emerge were the basic conditions and content of the programmes, the awareness and engagement, the resources needed, the usability and the responsibility and ongoing efforts to increase reach.

Conclusions: Overall, although these stakeholders had little knowledge about online prevention programmes, they were open to the idea of introducing them. They could see the potential benefits that these programmes might bring to a university setting as a whole and the individual students and staff members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab040DOI Listing
July 2021

Does a Skills Intervention for Parents Have a Positive Impact on Adolescents' Anorexia Nervosa Outcome? Answers from a Quasi-Randomised Feasibility Trial of SUCCEAT.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 27;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Eating Disorders Unit, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Skills trainings for caregivers of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been proven to be effective in improving caregiver skills and reducing caregivers' psychopathology. The effects on patients, especially adolescents, are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a caregivers' skills training program (Supporting Carers of Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders in Austria, SUCCEAT, workshop or online version) on adolescents with AN delivered as workshops (WS) or online (ONL). Outcomes are Body-Mass-Index (BMI) percentile, eating psychopathology (Eating Disorder Examination, EDE), attitudinal and behavioural dimensions of eating disorders (Eating Disorder Inventory-2), motivation to change (AN Stages of Change Questionnaire), emotional and behavioural problems (Youth Self-Report) and quality of life (KINDL). All outcome variables significantly improved across both SUCCEAT groups (WS and ONL) and were sustained at 12-month follow-up. The online and workshop delivery of SUCCEAT were equally effective. Most effect sizes were in the medium-to-high range. Full or partial remission was observed in 72% (WS) and 87% (ONL) of patients. Caregiver skills trainings, either delivered as workshops or online modules, are highly recommended to complement treatment as usual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124826PMC
April 2021

Impact of COVID-19 Confinement on Adolescent Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Interview Study Involving Adolescents and Parents.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 16;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Eating Disorder Unit, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

COVID-19-related restrictions may have a serious impact on patients with eating disorders. We conducted semistructured interviews with female adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) ( = 13, 13-18 years) currently receiving inpatient or outpatient treatment and their parents ( = 10). We asked for their experiences during COVID-19 confinement regarding everyday life, AN symptoms, and treatment. We used thematic analysis to interpret the data. The main themes identified from the patients' interviews involved restrictions of personal freedom (i.e., leading to tension between patients and family members, reduced motivation to work on recovery), interruption of the treatment routine (emerging risks through self-monitored weight, challenges/opportunities of teletherapy), changes in AN symptoms (more exposure to triggering situations), COVID-19-related fears, and compulsions but also potential opportunities (less stress, better family relationships). The parents discussed changes in daily routines as negative (challenges in maintaining day structures) and positive (more family time, "slowing down"). They expressed reservations about reduced outpatient monitoring and increased teletherapy and discussed challenges in keeping contact with the child and clinicians during inpatient treatment. Moreover, the parents discussed deteriorations and improvements in the patients' psychopathology. Clinical implications from these in-depth insights include the importance of strengthening communication between changing staff cohorts, patients, and parents; motivational work; and joint weight monitoring with the therapist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074137PMC
April 2021

The Maudsley model of anorexia nervosa treatment for adolescents and young adults (MANTRa): a study protocol for a multi-center cohort study.

J Eat Disord 2021 Mar 8;9(1):33. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: The treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) is often challenging due to medical complications as well as high relapse and mortality rates. Studies about effective treatment options for people with AN are particularly scarce in the adolescent population. This paper is a study protocol for a multi-center cohort study assessing the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of a new, manualized treatment program, the "Maudsley Model of Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adolescents and Young Adults" (MANTRa) compared to psychotherapeutic treatment as usual (TAU).

Methods/design: One hundred patients between 13 and 21 years who meet the inclusion criteria will receive 24 to 34 individual weekly MANTRa therapy sessions or weekly TAU sessions. Primary outcome variables will be BMI and eating disorder psychopathology 12 months after baseline. Further changes in central coherence, cognitive flexibility, emotion recognition, comorbid psychopathology (e.g. depression, obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders, non-suicidal self-injury), personality factors and therapeutic alliance will be assessed.

Discussion: This multi-center study will examine the utility of the treatment program MANTRa for adolescents with AN and, therefore enhances the current knowledge about potential treatments for this patient group.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03535714 . Registered: 24/05/2018 (retrospectively registered, still recruiting).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40337-021-00387-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941930PMC
March 2021

Students' perceptions of an online mental health intervention: a qualitative interview study.

Neuropsychiatr 2020 Dec 28. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, Box P059, SE5 8AF, London, UK.

Background: University students are at a heightened risk of developing mental health disorders. Online interventions are becoming increasingly popular in this target group, both to prevent the development of mental health disorders and to treat existing ones. The PLUS (Personality and Living of University Students) programme is a web-based targeted prevention intervention which has been tested across two European countries. Completion of this programme has been relatively poor. Understanding university students' opinions, experiences and perceptions of the PLUS programme can lead to future improvements in intervention design, engagement and dissemination.

Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted with university students from the UK (n = 10) and Austria (n = 14) who had previously had access to PLUS. Students were asked about their perception and experiences of the programme, and how it could be improved. Results were analysed using thematic analysis.

Results: Experience of online prevention programmes in general were limited and as a result of this, few had specific expectations of the PLUS programme before signing up. The lack of guidance and accountability due to the online nature of the programme made engagement challenging for many, however, frequent reminder emails helped mitigate this. In terms of positives of the programme, participants found the flexibility suitable for students and many noticed that the programme created change in how they thought or behaved.

Conclusion: Overall, the PLUS programme was well received by students, despite study retention being poor. Although PLUS was viewed as a useful tool to integrate into the university setting, several improvements were suggested to increase engagement. By considering this feedback, uptake and intervention completion can be improved for future preventative interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40211-020-00383-5DOI Listing
December 2020

A German version of the Caregiver Skills scale for caregivers of patients with anorexia nervosa.

Eur Eat Disord Rev 2021 Mar 17;29(2):257-268. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Eating Disorders Unit, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objective: To investigate acceptance, reliability, convergent validity, factor structure and sensitivity to change of a German translation of the Caregiver Skills (CASK) scale measuring skills related to caring for patients with eating disorders.

Methods: Two hundred and thirty-three parents (76% female) of adolescent patients (mean age 15.1) with anorexia nervosa (AN) completed the 27 items of the CASK. We calculated item/scale characteristics, internal consistencies and bivariate correlations with other measures of caregiving burden. We evaluated goodness-of-fit of the 6-factor model using confirmatory factors analysis and explored the sensitivity to change following two skills-based trainings.

Results: The fit of the 6-factor model was acceptable (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation: 0.077, Standard Root Mean Square Residual: 0.080). Cronbach's alpha was excellent for the total (.94) and acceptable for all subscales (0.73-0.85). The total CASK score was 68.04 (max. 100) showing relatively high self-rated caregiver skills. Non-completion rates of most items were low (<3%) indicating high acceptance. Convergent validity was found with measures of psychological distress, depression, anxiety and expressed emotion. The total score significantly increased following an 8-week workshop/online skills training (d = 0.70) and a 2-day multi-family intervention (d = 0.47).

Discussion: The German CASK version is a useful instrument to assess caregiver skills in parents of patients with AN and to evaluate outcomes of skills-based trainings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/erv.2817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986839PMC
March 2021

COVID Isolation Eating Scale (CIES): Analysis of the impact of confinement in eating disorders and obesity-A collaborative international study.

Eur Eat Disord Rev 2020 11 20;28(6):871-883. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

FITA Foundation, Barcelona, Spain.

Confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have a serious and complex impact on the mental health of patients with an eating disorder (ED) and of patients with obesity. The present manuscript has the following aims: (1) to analyse the psychometric properties of the COVID Isolation Eating Scale (CIES), (2) to explore changes that occurred due to confinement in eating symptomatology; and (3) to explore the general acceptation of the use of telemedicine during confinement. The sample comprised 121 participants (87 ED patients and 34 patients with obesity) recruited from six different centres. Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) tested the rational-theoretical structure of the CIES. Adequate goodness-of-fit was obtained for the confirmatory factor analysis, and Cronbach alpha values ranged from good to excellent. Regarding the effects of confinement, positive and negative impacts of the confinement depends of the eating disorder subtype. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and with obesity endorsed a positive response to treatment during confinement, no significant changes were found in bulimia nervosa (BN) patients, whereas Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED) patients endorsed an increase in eating symptomatology and in psychopathology. Furthermore, AN patients expressed the greatest dissatisfaction and accommodation difficulty with remote therapy when compared with the previously provided face-to-face therapy. The present study provides empirical evidence on the psychometric robustness of the CIES tool and shows that a negative confinement impact was associated with ED subtype, whereas OSFED patients showed the highest impairment in eating symptomatology and in psychopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/erv.2784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7537123PMC
November 2020

Second-Generation Meridianin Analogues Inhibit the Formation of Mycobacterium smegmatis Biofilms and Sensitize Polymyxin-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria to Colistin.

ChemMedChem 2020 09 3;15(17):1672-1679. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA.

Drug-resistant bacteria are rapidly becoming a significant problem across the globe. One element that factors into this crisis is the role played by bacterial biofilms in the recalcitrance of some infections to the effects of conventional antibiotics. Bacteria within a biofilm are highly tolerant of both antibiotic treatment and host immune responses. Biofilms are implicated in many chronic infections, including tuberculosis, in which they can act as bacterial reservoirs, requiring an arduous antibiotic regimen to eradicate the infection. A separate, compounding problem is that antibiotics once seen as last-resort drugs, such as the polymyxin colistin, are now seeing more frequent usage as resistance to front-line drugs in Gram-negative bacteria becomes more prevalent. The increased use of such antibiotics inevitably leads to an increased frequency of resistance. Drugs that inhibit biofilms and/or act as adjuvants to overcome resistance to existing antibiotics will potentially be an important component of future approaches to antibacterial treatment. We have previously demonstrated that analogues of the meridianin natural product family possess adjuvant and antibiofilm activities. In this study, we explore structural variation of the lead molecule from previous studies, and identify compounds showing both improved biofilm inhibition potency and synergy with colistin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.202000438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330954PMC
September 2020

Reduction of High Expressed Emotion and Treatment Outcomes in Anorexia Nervosa-Caregivers' and Adolescents' Perspective.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 27;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Eating Disorders Unit, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

High expressed emotion (EE) is common in caregivers of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and associated with poorer outcome for patients. In this study, we examined the prevalence of high EE in caregivers of adolescents with AN and analyzed predictors for EE using multivariate linear regression models. We further analyzed whether EE is reduced by the "Supporting Carers of Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders in Austria" (SUCCEAT) intervention using general linear mixed models and whether a reduction of EE predicts patients' outcomes. Caregivers were randomly allocated to the SUCCEAT workshop ( = 50) or online intervention ( = 50) and compared to a comparison group ( = 49). EE and patients' outcomes were assessed at the baseline, post-intervention, and at the 12-month follow-up. Up to 47% of caregivers showed high EE. Lower caregiver skills, higher AN symptom impact, higher levels of depression and motivation to change in caregivers were significant predictors for high EE. EE significantly decreased in the SUCCEAT groups and the comparison group according to the caregivers', but not the patients' perspective. The level of reduction could partially predict subjective improvement and improvement in clinically assessed AN symptoms and body mass index of patients. Implementing interventions for caregivers addressing EE in the treatment of adolescents with AN is strongly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409203PMC
June 2020

Long-Term Efficacy of the Workshop Vs. Online SUCCEAT (Supporting Carers of Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders) Intervention for Parents: A Quasi-Randomised Feasibility Trial.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 18;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Eating Disorders Unit, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Interventions for main carers of adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) can reduce the caregiving burden and increase caregiver skills. However, the effectiveness and feasibility for carers of adolescent patients, the optimal form of the intervention and long-term outcomes are largely unknown. We evaluated the efficacy and feasibility of the "Supporting Carers of Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders in Austria" (SUCCEAT) workshop vs. online intervention. Main caregivers (parents) of adolescent patients with AN were randomly allocated to a workshop ( = 50) or online version ( = 50). Participants were compared to a non-randomised comparison group ( = 49) receiving multi-family or systemic family therapy. Primary (General Health Questionnaire) and secondary outcomes were obtained at baseline, three-month and 12-month follow-up. Adherence was high for workshop and online participants (6.2 and 6.7 sessions completed out of 8). Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant pre-post reductions in the primary outcome for the workshop (d = 0.87 (95%conficence interval (CI): 0.48; 1.26)) and online (d = 0.65 (95%CI: 0.31; 0.98)) intervention that were sustained at the 12-month follow-up. There was no significant group difference ( = 0.473). Parental psychopathology and burden decreased and caregiver skills increased in all groups; the improvement of caregiver skills was significantly higher in SUCCEAT participants than in the comparison group. Online interventions for parents of adolescents with AN were equally effective as workshops. The improvements remained stable over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355675PMC
June 2020

Prevalence and burden of headache in children and adolescents in Austria - a nationwide study in a representative sample of pupils aged 10-18 years.

J Headache Pain 2019 Nov 6;20(1):101. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Dr Gönül Bingöl-Dr Muammer Bingöl Çocuk ve Ergen Başağrısı Derneği, Society for Headache in Children and Adolescents, Tan Sokak 2/7, Suadiye, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Headache disorders are highly prevalent worldwide, but not so well investigated in children and adolescents as in adults: few studies have included representative nationwide samples. No data exist for Austria until now. In a representative sample of children and adolescents in Austria, we estimated the prevalence and attributable burden of headache disorders, including the new diagnostic category of "undifferentiated headache" (UdH) defined as mild headache lasting less than 1 hour.

Methods: Within the context of a broader national mental health survey, children and adolescents aged 10-18 years were recruited from purposively selected schools. Mediated self-completed questionnaires included sociodemographic enquiry (gender, age, socioeconomic status, family constellation, residence [urban or rural] and migration background). Prevalence and attributable burden of all headache, UdH, migraine (definite plus probable), tension-type headache (TTH: definite plus probable) and headache on ≥15 days/month (H15+) were assessed using the Headache-Attributed Restriction, Disability, Social Handicap and Impaired Participation (HARDSHIP) questionnaire for children and adolescents. Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) was assessed using the KIDSCREEN questionnaire.

Results: Of 7643 selected pupils, 3386 (44.3%) completed the questionnaires. The 1-year prevalence of headache was 75.7%, increasing with age and higher in girls (82.1%) than in boys (67.7%; p < 0.001). UdH, migraine, TTH and H15+ were reported by 26.1%, 24.2%, 21.6% and 3.0% of participants. Attributable burden was high, with 42% of those with headache experiencing restrictions in daily activities. Medication use (50% overall) was highest in H15+ (67%) and still considerable in UdH (29%). HrQoL was reduced for all headache types except UdH. Participants in single parent or patchwork families had a higher probability of migraine (respectively, OR 1.5, p < 0.001; OR 1.5, p < 0.01). Participants with a migration background had a lower probability of TTH (OR 0.7, p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Headache disorders are both very common and highly burdensome in children and adolescents in Austria. This study contributes to the global atlas of headache disorders in these age groups, and corroborates and adds knowledge of the new yet common and important diagnostic category of UdH. The findings call for action in national and international health policies, and for further epidemiological research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-019-1050-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6836380PMC
November 2019

Evaluating reach, adoption, implementation and maintenance of Internet-based interventions to prevent eating disorders in adolescents: a systematic review.

Eur J Public Health 2020 02;30(1):179-188

FernFH Distance Learning University of Applied Sciences, Wr. Neustadt, Austria.

Background: Past research has yielded promising results on the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions to prevent eating disorders (EDs) in adolescents, but further information is needed to evaluate the public health impact of their large-scale dissemination. This article used an established framework to systematically review the extent to which indicators of the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance [cf. Reach-Effectiveness-Adoption-Implementation-Maintenance (RE-AIM)-framework] of universal and targeted online ED prevention programmes are reported in the literature, in order to estimate their future dissemination potential.

Methods: The literature search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science and PsycINFO, and complemented by searching existing reviews and the reference lists of the studies included. Twenty-two studies published between 2000 and April 2019 met the inclusion criteria. We extracted data on a total of 43 indicators, within RE-AIM dimensions for each article, including qualitative coding of fostering and hindering factors.

Results: Reach (55.0%) and implementation (54.0%) were the dimensions reported on most frequently, followed by effectiveness (46.8%), adoption (34.7%) and maintenance (18.2%). While internal validity indicators were frequently reported (e.g. sample size, effects and intervention intensity), most studies failed to report on elements of external validity, such as representativeness of participants and settings, adoption rates, implementation costs and programme sustainability.

Conclusions: Evidence indicates that Internet-based ED prevention programmes can reach a large number of adolescents and can be feasibly implemented in school settings. However, given the paucity of large-scale dissemination studies available for review, the degree to which schools are willing to adopt preventive interventions, as well as the transferability of programmes to different settings and geographical regions remains unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckz130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266527PMC
February 2020

Usability and Engagement Evaluation of an Unguided Online Program for Promoting a Healthy Lifestyle and Reducing the Risk for Eating Disorders and Obesity in the School Setting.

Nutrients 2019 Mar 27;11(4). Epub 2019 Mar 27.

FernFH Distance Learning University of Applied Sciences, Ferdinand Porsche Ring 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria.

Implementing integrated online prevention to reduce the risk of both obesity and eating disorders, in the school setting, is a promising approach. The challenge is to develop highly user-friendly and motivating programs, to foster adherence and effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of such a universal prevention program for students aged 14⁻19 years, and to address engagement issues. A mixed-methods approach was chosen, consisting of a think-aloud task, a semi-structured interview, and a questionnaire including items on sociodemographic characteristics and the System Usability Scale (SUS). Usability tests were conducted in two rounds, with five adolescents participating per round. Mean score in the SUS was 92.5 of 100 points (range 85⁻100), in the second round, after some adaptations from the participants' feedback. In the course of the think-aloud tasks and interviews, five major themes emerged-visual design, navigation, mode of transfer, content, and engagement conditions. Interesting headlines, gamification, and monitoring tools are crucial for engagement. Apart from the importance of using the program during school hours, the study showed that problems currently perceived as important by the target group, need to be considered and addressed, prior to offering them prevention programs, which highlights the importance of a user-centered design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520819PMC
March 2019

Interrelations between participant and intervention characteristics, process variables and outcomes in online interventions: A protocol for overarching analyses within and across seven clinical trials in ICare.

Internet Interv 2019 Apr 1;16:86-97. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Technische Universität Dresden, School of Science, Department of Psychology, Chair of Clinical Psychology and E-Mental-Health, Dresden, Germany.

Background: It is well known that web-based interventions can be effective treatments for various conditions. Less is known about predictors, moderators, and mediators of outcome and especially interrelations between participant and interventions characteristics, process variables and outcomes in online interventions. Clinical trials often lack statistical power to detect variables that affect intervention effects and their interrelations. Within ICare, we can investigate the interrelation of potential predictor and process variables in a large sample.

Method: The ICare consortium postulated a model of interrelations between participant and intervention characteristics, process variables and outcomes in online interventions. We will assess general and disorder-specific interrelations between characteristics of the intervention, characteristics of the participants, adherence, working alliance, early response, and intervention outcomes in a sample of over 7500 participants from seven clinical trials evaluating 15 online interventions addressing a range of mental health conditions and disorders, using an individual participant data meta-analyses approach.

Discussion/conclusion: Existing research tends to support the efficacy of online mental health interventions, but the knowledge base regarding factors that affect intervention effects needs to be expanded. The overarching analyses using data from the ICare intervention trials will add considerably to the evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2018.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364443PMC
April 2019

Healthy Teens @ School: Evaluating and disseminating transdiagnostic preventive interventions for eating disorders and obesity for adolescents in school settings.

Internet Interv 2019 Apr 27;16:65-75. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

FernFH Distance Learning University of Applied Sciences, Wiener Neustadt, Austria.

Background: The worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is at alarming levels. Nearly one in three children in Europe is overweight or obese. Disordered eating and body image concerns are equally widespread and increase risk for more chronic and severe weight-related problems. Research has shown that online interventions that address both healthy weight regulation and body image can reduce risk for eating disorders and obesity simultaneously and are feasible to implement in school settings. To date, evaluation and dissemination of such programs in Europe is scant.

Methods: The study is a multi-country cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the effectiveness of an unguided, online, multi-level intervention for promoting a healthy lifestyle and reducing problematic eating behavior, eating disorder and obesity risk among students aged 14 to 19 years with control condition. As part of the Horizon 2020 funded project ICare (GA No. 634757) the trial is conducted in Austria and Spain. Cluster randomization by school is used. The intervention is an adapted version of an evidence-based program developed in the USA (StayingFit). Participants of the intervention group are assigned to one of two possible program tracks based on the results of the initial online-assessment: Overweight adolescents are assigned to the "Weight Management" track emphasizing balanced eating and exercise for weight maintenance, and all other individuals are assigned to the "Healthy Habits" track which aims at promoting healthy habits related to e.g., nutrition, physical activity, sleep. The participants of both tracks work on ten modules (one 20-30 min module per week) during school hours and/or at home. Assessments are conducted at pre- and post-intervention, and at 6- and 12-months after baseline assessment. The primary outcome is intuitive eating, secondary outcomes are eating disorder symptomatology, body image concerns, body mass index, food intake, physical activity, self-esteem, stress coping, depression, and anxiety. Following the initial assessment, individuals in the control group do not have access to the prevention program but continue as normal and are only prompted to the assessments at all time points. At the end of the 12-month study they will get access to the program.

Discussion: The results from this study will add to the understanding of how to address eating and weight related problems in adolescents and will shed light on the feasibility of implementing online prevention programs in school routine in Austria and Spain. As part of the larger ICare project this RCT will determine how an adapted version of StayingFit is disseminated within Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2018.02.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364512PMC
April 2019

Web-based indicated prevention of common mental disorders in university students in four European countries - Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Internet Interv 2019 Apr 15;16:35-42. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Section of Eating Disorders, PO59, 16 De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, United Kingdom.

Background: Mental disorders and their symptoms are highly prevalent in the university student population, and the transition from secondary to tertiary education is associated with a rise in mental health problems. Existing web-based interventions for the prevention of common mental disorders in student populations often focus on just one disorder and have not been designed specifically for students. There is thus a need for transdiagnostic, student-specific preventative interventions that can be widely disseminated. This two-arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a web-based transdiagnostic mental health problem prevention programme (PLUS) across several universities in four countries.

Method: Students ( = 5550) will be recruited through a variety of channels and asked to complete a personality assessment to determine whether they are at high risk for developing common mental disorders. Students at high risk will be randomly allocated to either PLUS or a control intervention, which provides practical support around issues commonly experienced at university. Students at low risk will be allocated to the control intervention. Both intervention groups will be assessed at baseline, 4 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months after randomisation. Depression and generalised anxiety, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Generalised Anxiety Disorder scales, will form the primary outcomes in this study. Secondary outcome measures include alcohol and drug use, eating behaviour, self-esteem, and quality of life. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will also be evaluated.

Conclusions: This study will contribute to understanding the role of transdiagnostic indicated web-based interventions for the prevention of common mental disorders in university students. It will also be one of the first studies to investigate the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.

Trial Registration: This trial was registered in the ISRCTN register (ISRCTN15570935) on 12th February 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2018.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364328PMC
April 2019

Assessing the costs and cost-effectiveness of ICare internet-based interventions (protocol).

Internet Interv 2019 Apr 27;16:12-19. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

TechnischeUniversität Dresden, School of Science, Faculty of Psychology, Chair ofClinical Psychology and E-Mental-Health, 01062 Dresden, Germany.

Background: Mental health problems are common and place a burden on the individual as well as on societal resources. Despite the existence of evidence-based treatments, access to treatment is often prevented or delayed due to insufficient health care resources. Effective internet-based self-help interventions have the potential to reduce the risk for mental health problems, to successfully bridge waiting time for face-to-face treatment and to address inequities in access. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. This paper describes the study protocol for the economic evaluation of the studies that form the ICare programme of internet-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of a range of mental health problems.

Methods: An overarching work package within the ICare programme was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the internet-based interventions alongside the clinical trials. There are two underlying tasks in the ICare economic evaluation. First, to develop schedules that generate equivalent and comparable information on use of services and supports across seven countries taking part in clinical trials of different interventions and second, to estimate unit costs for each service and support used. From these data the cost per person will be estimated by multiplying each participant's use of each service by the unit cost for that service. Additionally, productivity losses will be estimated. This individual level of cost data matches the level of outcome data used in the clinical trials. Following the analyses of service use and costs data, joint analysis of costs and outcomes will be undertaken to provide findings on the relative cost-effectiveness of the interventions, taking both a public sector and a societal perspective. These analyses use a well-established framework, the Production of Welfare approach, and standard methods and techniques underpinned by economic theory.

Discussion/conclusion: Existing research tends to support the effectiveness of internet-based interventions, but there is little information on their cost-effectiveness compared to 'treatment as usual'. The economic evaluation of ICare interventions will add considerably to this evidence base.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2018.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364355PMC
April 2019

Prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems and subthreshold psychiatric disorders in Austrian adolescents and the need for prevention.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2018 Dec 29;53(12):1325-1337. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: Epidemiological data are crucial to plan adequate prevention strategies. Thus, this study aims at obtaining the prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) and subthreshold psychiatric disorders based on a representative sample of Austrian adolescents.

Methods: Adolescents aged 10-18 were recruited from Austrian schools. Emotional and behavioral problems were determined using the Youth Self-Report (YSR); the point prevalence of subthreshold psychiatric disorders was assessed using structured diagnostic interviews. Sociodemographic variables including socioeconomic background, migration status, family structure, and place of residence were obtained. In addition, a non-school sample (unemployed adolescents, and child and adolescent psychiatry patients) was included to enhance representativeness and generalizability.

Results: 3446 students, 37 unemployed adolescents, and 125 child and adolescent psychiatric patients provided analyzable YSR data sets. In the school sample, 16.5% scored in the clinically relevant range, while internalizing problems were more prevalent (17.8%) than externalizing problems (7.4%). These prevalences increased by 0.7-2.0% when the non-school sample was taken into account. A low socioeconomic status (SES) and living in single parent families were associated with higher problem scores. Regarding the interviewed sample (377 students and 407 parents), subthreshold psychiatric disorders were observed in 12.7% of students. 92.5% of them have not yet received any kind of help.

Conclusions: A significant proportion of Austrian adolescents are at risk for MHP. A non-responder analysis indicates that the observed prevalence may be even underestimated. These findings emphasize the urgent need for targeted prevention, especially for reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms and for adolescents in disadvantaged families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-018-1586-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267139PMC
December 2018

The Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT) Study: design, methodology, description of study population.

Neuropsychiatr 2018 Sep 15;32(3):121-132. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Health Promotion Research, Vienna, Austria.

Profound epidemiological data on the prevalence of mental health disorders and respective risk and protective factors is a prerequisite for adequate prevention, intervention and service planning. Children and adolescents are regarded as high priority groups for prevention in this field because of the high chronicity and individual burden of mental health disorders. The Mental Health in Austrian Teenagers (MHAT)-Study is the first epidemiological study based on a large representative sample of adolescents (N > 3700) in Austria in order to obtain the prevalence of a wide range of behavioral problems and psychiatric disorders. Adolescents are recruited from multiple settings (schools, course providers for early school leavers and psychiatric clinics) in order to enhance the representativity of the sample. A "gold-standard" two-stage design (screening questionnaire and diagnostic interviews) is used to obtain psychiatric diagnoses that are based on the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which was published by the American Psychiatric Association in 2013. This paper aims at presenting the study design and methodology of the MHAT study, describing the study population as well as discussing relevant strengths and limitations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40211-018-0273-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6132433PMC
September 2018

Supporting Carers of Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders in Austria (SUCCEAT): Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Eur Eat Disord Rev 2018 09 6;26(5):447-461. Epub 2018 May 6.

Eating Disorders Unit, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Supporting Carers of Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders in Austria (SUCCEAT) is an intervention for carers of children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa and atypical anorexia nervosa. This paper describes the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial including the process and economic evaluation. Carers are randomly allocated to one of the 2 SUCCEAT intervention formats, either 8 weekly 2-hr workshop sessions (n = 48) or web-based modules (n = 48), and compared with a nonrandomised control group (n = 48). SUCCEAT includes the cognitive-interpersonal model, cognitive behavioural elements, and motivational interviewing. The goal is to provide support for carers to improve their own well-being and to support their children. Outcome measures include carers' distress, anxiety, depression, expressed emotions, needs, motivation to change, experiences of caregiving, and skills. Further outcome measures are the patients' eating disorder symptoms, emotional problems, behavioural problems, quality of life, motivation to change, and perceived expressed emotions. These are measured before and after the intervention, and 1-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/erv.2600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175075PMC
September 2018

Mental health problems in Austrian adolescents: a nationwide, two-stage epidemiological study applying DSM-5 criteria.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2017 Dec 24;26(12):1483-1499. Epub 2017 May 24.

Department for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

This is a nationwide epidemiological study using DSM-5 criteria to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in a large sample of Austrian adolescents between 10 and 18 years including hard-to-reach samples. A sample of 3615 adolescents from four cohorts (school grades 5, 7, 9, 11; age range 10-18 years) was recruited from 261 schools, samples of unemployed adolescents (n = 39) and adolescents from mental health institutions (n = 137) were added. The Youth Self-Report and SCOFF were used to screen for mental health problems. In a second phase, the Childrens' Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders was used to make point and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Mental health service use was also assessed. Point prevalence and lifetime prevalence rates for at least one psychiatric disorder were 23.9% and 35.8%. The highest lifetime prevalence rates were found for anxiety disorders (15.6%), neurodevelopmental disorders (9.3%; ADHD 5.2%) and depressive disorders (6.2%). Forty-seven percent of adolescents with a lifetime psychiatric disorder had a second diagnosis. Internalising disorders were more prevalent in girls, while neurodevelopmental disorders and disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders were more prevalent in boys. Of those with a lifetime psychiatric disorder, 47.5% had contacted mental health services. Of the residual 52.5% who had not contacted mental health services, 18.1% expressed an interest in treatment. DSM-5 mental health disorders are highly prevalent among Austrian adolescents. Over 50% had or were interested in accessing treatment. Early access to effective interventions for these problems is needed to reduce burden due to mental health disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-017-0999-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5701961PMC
December 2017

Coeliac disease in adolescence: Coping strategies and personality factors affecting compliance with gluten-free diet.

Appetite 2016 Jun 26;101:55-61. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, General Hospital of Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Objectives: Patients suffering from a chronic condition such as coeliac disease (CD) need to develop coping strategies in order to preserve emotional balance and psychosocial functioning while adhering to their obligatory life-long gluten free diet (GFD). However, this can be particularly challenging for adolescents and may lead to dietary transgressions. Little is currently known about the influence of coping strategies and personality factors on dietary compliance. This study aims to explore these factors for the first time in adolescents with biopsy-proven CD.

Study Design: We included 281 adolescents with CD and 95 healthy controls. We classified patients according to their GFD adherence status (adherent vs. non-adherent) and assessed coping strategies using the KIDCOPE and personality traits using the Junior-Temperament and Character Inventory (J-TCI).

Results: Adolescents with CD adherent to GFD used less emotional regulation and distraction as coping strategies than non-adherent patients. In terms of personality traits, adherent patients differed from non-adherent patients with respect to temperament, but not with respect to character, showing lower scores in novelty seeking, impulsivity and rule transgressions and higher scores in eagerness with work and perfectionism compared to non-adherent patients. No differences were found between healthy controls and adherent CD patients across these personality traits.

Conclusions: Coping strategies and personality traits differ in adolescent patients with CD adherent to GFD from those not adherent, and may therefore relate to risk or protective factors in adherence. Targeting coping and temperament using psychological interventions may therefore be beneficial to support adolescents with CD and optimise their adherence to GFD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2016.02.155DOI Listing
June 2016

Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences: How strong are they and what do they mean?

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2015 Oct 9;57:411-32. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

Department of Basic Psychological Research and Research Methods, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Georg Elias Müller Department of Psychology, Georg August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; Department of Psychology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Positive associations between human intelligence and brain size have been suspected for more than 150 years. Nowadays, modern non-invasive measures of in vivo brain volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) make it possible to reliably assess associations with IQ. By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples (>8000 individuals). Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ (r=.24, R(2)=.06) that generalize over age (children vs. adults), IQ domain (full-scale, performance, and verbal IQ), and sex. Application of a number of methods for detection of publication bias indicates that strong and positive correlation coefficients have been reported frequently in the literature whilst small and non-significant associations appear to have been often omitted from reports. We show that the strength of the positive association of brain volume and IQ has been overestimated in the literature, but remains robust even when accounting for different types of dissemination bias, although reported effects have been declining over time. While it is tempting to interpret this association in the context of human cognitive evolution and species differences in brain size and cognitive ability, we show that it is not warranted to interpret brain size as an isomorphic proxy of human intelligence differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.09.017DOI Listing
October 2015

Eating Disorders in Adolescents with Celiac Disease: Influence of Personality Characteristics and Coping.

Eur Eat Disord Rev 2015 Sep 23;23(5):361-70. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

Eating Disorders Unit, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: Patients suffering from celiac disease (CD) have a higher risk of developing disturbed eating behaviour.

Method: In a multi-centre study, 259 female adolescents with CD and without a chronic condition were analysed regarding their eating disorder (ED) status, depression, personality, coping strategies and quality of life.

Results: Patients with CD and comorbid EDs were older and more often non-compliant with their diet and had a higher body mass index (BMI) and higher levels of depression. Differences in personality features disappear when controlling for age and depression. Higher ill-being and lower joy in life were reported by patients with CD and ED compared with patients without EDs, even when controlling for age and depression levels. No differences between patients (with CD) with and without EDs in coping strategies were found. BMI and lower self-directedness predicted ED status.

Conclusions: Early identification of EDs in patients with CD is suggested and should include BMI and personality factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/erv.2376DOI Listing
September 2015
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