Publications by authors named "Michael W Koulopoulos"

2 Publications

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COX-2 mediates tumor-stromal prolactin signaling to initiate tumorigenesis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 03 28;116(12):5223-5232. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center,Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129;

Tumor-stromal communication within the microenvironment contributes to initiation of metastasis and may present a therapeutic opportunity. Using serial single-cell RNA sequencing in an orthotopic mouse prostate cancer model, we find up-regulation of prolactin receptor as cancer cells that have disseminated to the lungs expand into micrometastases. Secretion of the ligand prolactin by adjacent lung stromal cells is induced by tumor cell production of the COX-2 synthetic product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 treatment of fibroblasts activates the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A (Nur77), with prolactin as a major transcriptional target for the NR4A-retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimer. Ectopic expression of prolactin receptor in mouse cancer cells enhances micrometastasis, while treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib abrogates prolactin secretion by fibroblasts and reduces tumor initiation. Across multiple human cancers, COX-2, prolactin, and prolactin receptor show consistent differential expression in tumor and stromal compartments. Such paracrine cross-talk may thus contribute to the documented efficacy of COX-2 inhibitors in cancer suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1819303116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431196PMC
March 2019

Revascularization and muscle adaptation to limb demand ischemia in diet-induced obese mice.

J Surg Res 2016 09 8;205(1):49-58. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Obesity and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease in humans, which can result in lower limb demand ischemia and exercise intolerance. Exercise triggers skeletal muscle adaptation including increased vasculogenesis. The goal of this study was to determine whether demand ischemia modulates revascularization, fiber size, and signaling pathways in the ischemic hind limb muscles of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO).

Materials And Methods: DIO mice (n = 7) underwent unilateral femoral artery ligation and recovered for 2 wks followed by 4 wks with daily treadmill exercise to induce demand ischemia. A parallel sedentary ischemia (SI) group (n = 7) had femoral artery ligation without exercise. The contralateral limb muscles of SI served as control. Muscles were examined for capillary density, myofiber cross-sectional area, cytokine levels, and phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2.

Results: Exercise significantly enhanced capillary density (P < 0.01) and markedly lowered cross-sectional area (P < 0.001) in demand ischemia compared with SI. These findings coincided with a significant increase in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (P < 0.001) and interleukin-7 (P < 0.01) levels. In addition, phosphorylation levels of STAT3 and ERK1/2 (P < 0.01) were increased, whereas UCP1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 protein levels were lower (P < 0.05) without altering vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor alpha protein levels. Demand ischemia increased the PGC1α messenger RNA (P < 0.001) without augmenting PGC1α protein levels.

Conclusions: Exercise-induced limb demand ischemia in the setting of DIO causes myofiber atrophy despite an increase in muscle capillary density. The combination of persistent increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha, lower vascular endothelial growth factor, and failure to increase PGC1α protein may reflect a deficient adaption to demand ischemia in DIO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2016.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5021992PMC
September 2016