Publications by authors named "Michael V Holmes"

164 Publications

Body muscle gain and markers of cardiovascular disease susceptibility in young adulthood: A cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 Sep 9;18(9):e1003751. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: The potential benefits of gaining body muscle for cardiovascular disease (CVD) susceptibility, and how these compare with the potential harms of gaining body fat, are unknown. We compared associations of early life changes in body lean mass and handgrip strength versus body fat mass with atherogenic traits measured in young adulthood.

Methods And Findings: Data were from 3,227 offspring of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (39% male; recruited in 1991-1992). Limb lean and total fat mass indices (kg/m2) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans performed at age 10, 13, 18, and 25 y (across clinics occurring from 2001-2003 to 2015-2017). Handgrip strength was measured at 12 and 25 y, expressed as maximum grip (kg or lb/in2) and relative grip (maximum grip/weight in kilograms). Linear regression models were used to examine associations of change in standardised measures of these exposures across different stages of body development with 228 cardiometabolic traits measured at age 25 y including blood pressure, fasting insulin, and metabolomics-derived apolipoprotein B lipids. SD-unit gain in limb lean mass index from 10 to 25 y was positively associated with atherogenic traits including very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides. This pattern was limited to lean gain in legs, whereas lean gain in arms was inversely associated with traits including VLDL triglycerides, insulin, and glycoprotein acetyls, and was also positively associated with creatinine (a muscle product and positive control). Furthermore, this pattern for arm lean mass index was specific to SD-unit gains occurring between 13 and 18 y, e.g., -0.13 SD (95% CI -0.22, -0.04) for VLDL triglycerides. Changes in maximum and relative grip from 12 to 25 y were both positively associated with creatinine, but only change in relative grip was also inversely associated with atherogenic traits, e.g., -0.12 SD (95% CI -0.18, -0.06) for VLDL triglycerides per SD-unit gain. Change in fat mass index from 10 to 25 y was more strongly associated with atherogenic traits including VLDL triglycerides, at 0.45 SD (95% CI 0.39, 0.52); these estimates were directionally consistent across sub-periods, with larger effect sizes with more recent gains. Associations of lean, grip, and fat measures with traits were more pronounced among males. Study limitations include potential residual confounding of observational estimates, including by ectopic fat within muscle, and the absence of grip measures in adolescence for estimates of grip change over sub-periods.

Conclusions: In this study, we found that muscle strengthening, as indicated by grip strength gain, was weakly associated with lower atherogenic trait levels in young adulthood, at a smaller magnitude than unfavourable associations of fat mass gain. Associations of muscle mass gain with such traits appear to be smaller and limited to gains occurring in adolescence. These results suggest that body muscle is less robustly associated with markers of CVD susceptibility than body fat and may therefore be a lower-priority intervention target.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428664PMC
September 2021

The genomics of heart failure: design and rationale of the HERMES consortium.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: The HERMES (HEart failure Molecular Epidemiology for Therapeutic targetS) consortium aims to identify the genomic and molecular basis of heart failure.

Methods And Results: The consortium currently includes 51 studies from 11 countries, including 68 157 heart failure cases and 949 888 controls, with data on heart failure events and prognosis. All studies collected biological samples and performed genome-wide genotyping of common genetic variants. The enrolment of subjects into participating studies ranged from 1948 to the present day, and the median follow-up following heart failure diagnosis ranged from 2 to 116 months. Forty-nine of 51 individual studies enrolled participants of both sexes; in these studies, participants with heart failure were predominantly male (34-90%). The mean age at diagnosis or ascertainment across all studies ranged from 54 to 84 years. Based on the aggregate sample, we estimated 80% power to genetic variant associations with risk of heart failure with an odds ratio of ≥1.10 for common variants (allele frequency ≥ 0.05) and ≥1.20 for low-frequency variants (allele frequency 0.01-0.05) at P < 5 × 10 under an additive genetic model.

Conclusions: HERMES is a global collaboration aiming to (i) identify the genetic determinants of heart failure; (ii) generate insights into the causal pathways leading to heart failure and enable genetic approaches to target prioritization; and (iii) develop genomic tools for disease stratification and risk prediction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13517DOI Listing
September 2021

The impact of education inequality on rheumatoid arthritis risk is mediated by smoking and body mass index: mendelian randomization study.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Objective: To estimate the causal relationship between educational attainment-as a proxy for socioeconomic inequality-and risk of RA, and quantify the roles of smoking and body mass index (BMI) as potential mediators.

Methods: Using the largest genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study of genetically predicted educational attainment (instrumented using 1265 variants from 766 345 individuals) and RA (14 361 cases, 43 923 controls). We used two-step MR to quantify the proportion of education's effect on RA mediated by smoking exposure (as a composite index capturing duration, heaviness and cessation, using 124 variants from 462 690 individuals) and BMI (517 variants, 681 275 individuals), and multivariable MR to estimate proportion mediated by both factors combined.

Results: Each standard deviation (SD) increase in educational attainment (4.2 years of schooling) was protective of RA (OR 0.37; 95%CI 0.31, 0.44). Higher educational attainment was also protective for smoking exposure (β= -0.25 SD; 95%CI -0.26, -0.23) and BMI (β= -0.27 SD (∼1.3 kg/m2); 95%CI -0.31, -0.24). Smoking mediated 24% (95%CI 13%, 35%) and BMI 17% (95%CI 11%, 23%) of the total effect of education on RA. Combined, the two risk factors explained 47% (95%CI 11%, 82%) of the total effect.

Conclusion: Higher educational attainment has a protective effect on RA risk. Interventions to reduce smoking and excess adiposity at a population level may reduce this risk, but a large proportion of education's effect on RA remains unexplained. Further research into other risk factors that act as potentially modifiable mediators are required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keab654DOI Listing
August 2021

Type 2 Diabetes, Metabolic Traits, and Risk of Heart Failure: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Diabetes Care 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Medical Research Council Population Health Research Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.

Objective: The aim of this study was to use Mendelian randomization (MR) techniques to estimate the causal relationships between genetic liability to type 2 diabetes (T2D), glycemic traits, and risk of heart failure (HF).

Research Design And Methods: Summary-level data were obtained from genome-wide association studies of T2D, insulin resistance (IR), glycated hemoglobin, fasting insulin and glucose, and HF. MR was conducted using the inverse-variance weighted method. Sensitivity analyses included the MR-Egger method, weighted median and mode methods, and multivariable MR conditioning on potential mediators.

Results: Genetic liability to T2D was causally related to higher risk of HF (odds ratio [OR] 1.13 per 1-log unit higher risk of T2D; 95% CI 1.11-1.14; < 0.001); however, sensitivity analysis revealed evidence of directional pleiotropy. The relationship between T2D and HF was attenuated when adjusted for coronary disease, BMI, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure in multivariable MR. Genetically instrumented higher IR was associated with higher risk of HF (OR 1.19 per 1-log unit higher risk of IR; 95% CI 1.00-1.41; = 0.041). There were no notable associations identified between fasting insulin, glucose, or glycated hemoglobin and risk of HF. Genetic liability to HF was causally linked to higher risk of T2D (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.01-2.19; = 0.042), although again with evidence of pleiotropy.

Conclusions: These findings suggest a possible causal role of T2D and IR in HF etiology, although the presence of both bidirectional effects and directional pleiotropy highlights potential sources of bias that must be considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-2518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323186PMC
June 2021

Causal effects of gallstone disease on risk of gastrointestinal cancer in Chinese.

Br J Cancer 2021 May 26;124(11):1864-1872. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Centre, Beijing, China.

Background: Gallstone disease (GSD) is associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. However, it is unclear whether the associations are causal.

Methods: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) recorded 17,598 cases of GI cancer among 510,137 participants without cancer at baseline during 10 years of follow-up. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for specific cancer by GSD status and duration. Mendelian randomisation was conducted to assess the genetic associations of GSD with specific cancer.

Results: Overall 6% of participants had symptomatic GSD at baseline. Compared with those without GSD, individuals with symptomatic GSD had adjusted HRs of 1.13 (1.01-1.29) for colorectal, 2.01 (1.78-2.26) for liver, 3.70 (2.88-4.87) for gallbladder, 2.31 (1.78-3.07) for biliary tract, and 1.38 (1.18-1.74) for pancreatic cancer. Compared with participants without GSD, the risks of colorectal, liver, gallbladder, biliary tract, and pancreatic cancer were highest during 0 to <5 years following disease diagnosis. There was evidence of genetic associations of GSD with these cancers, with odds ratios per 1-SD genetic score of 1.08 (1.05-1.11) for colorectal, 1.22 (1.19-1.25) for liver, 1.56 (1.49-1.64) for gallbladder, 1.39 (1.31-1.46) for biliary tract, and 1.16 (1.10-1.22) for pancreatic cancer. When meta-analysing the genetic estimates in CKB and UK Biobank, there was evidence of causal associations of GSD with colon cancer, gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (GBTC), and total GI cancer (RR per 1-SD: 1.05 [0.99-1.11], 2.00 [1.91-2.09], and 1.09 [1.05-1.13]).

Conclusions: GSD was associated with higher risks of several GI cancers, warranting future studies on the underlying mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01325-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144569PMC
May 2021

Integrating genomics with biomarkers and therapeutic targets to invigorate cardiovascular drug development.

Nat Rev Cardiol 2021 06 11;18(6):435-453. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Drug development in cardiovascular disease is stagnating, with lack of efficacy and adverse effects being barriers to innovation. Human genetics can provide compelling evidence of causation through approaches such as Mendelian randomization, with genetic support for causation increasing the probability of a clinical trial succeeding. Mendelian randomization applied to quantitative traits can identify risk factors for disease that are both causal and amenable to therapeutic modification. However, important differences exist between genetic investigations of a biomarker (such as HDL cholesterol) and a drug target aimed at modifying the same biomarker of interest (such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein), with implications for the methodology, interpretation and application of Mendelian randomization to drug development. Differences include the comparative nature of the genetic architecture - that is, biomarkers are typically polygenic, whereas protein drug targets are influenced by either cis-acting or trans-acting genetic variants - and the potential for drug targets to show disease associations that might differ from those of the biomarker that they are intended to modify (target-mediated pleiotropy). In this Review, we compare and contrast the use of Mendelian randomization to evaluate potential drug targets versus quantitative traits. We explain how genetic epidemiological studies can be used to assess the aetiological roles of biomarkers in disease and to prioritize drug targets, including designing their evaluation in clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41569-020-00493-1DOI Listing
June 2021

NMR Metabolite Profiles in Male Meat-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans, and Comparison with MS Metabolite Profiles.

Metabolites 2021 Feb 20;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK.

Metabolomics may help to elucidate mechanisms underlying diet-disease relationships and identify novel risk factors for disease. To inform the design and interpretation of such research, evidence on diet-metabolite associations and cross-assay comparisons is needed. We aimed to compare nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolite profiles between meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans, and to compare NMR measurements to those from mass spectrometry (MS), clinical chemistry and capillary gas-liquid chromatography (GC). We quantified 207 serum NMR metabolite measures in 286 male participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we found that metabolite profiles varied by diet group, especially for vegans; the main differences compared to meat-eaters were lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid, total n-3 and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides in very-low-density lipoproteins, various lipid factions in high-density lipoprotein, sphingomyelins, tyrosine and creatinine, and higher levels of linoleic acid, total n-6, polyunsaturated fatty acids and alanine. Levels in fish-eaters and vegetarians differed by metabolite measure. Concentrations of 13 metabolites measured using both NMR and MS, clinical chemistry or GC were mostly similar. In summary, vegans' metabolite profiles were markedly different to those of men consuming animal products. The studied metabolomics platforms are complementary, with limited overlap between metabolite classes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11020121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923783PMC
February 2021

Colocalization analysis of polycystic ovary syndrome to identify potential disease-mediating genes and proteins.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Sep 4;29(9):1446-1454. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Big Data Institute at the Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common complex disease in women with a strong genetic component and downstream consequences for reproductive, metabolic and psychological health. There are currently 19 known PCOS risk loci, primarily identified in women of Han Chinese or European ancestry, and 14 of these risk loci were identified or replicated in a genome-wide association study of PCOS performed in up to 10,074 cases and 103,164 controls of European descent. However, for most of these loci the gene responsible for the association is unknown. We therefore use a Bayesian colocalization approach (Coloc) to highlight genes in PCOS-associated regions that may have a role in mediating the disease risk. We evaluated the posterior probabilities of evidence consistent with shared causal variants between 14 PCOS genetic risk loci and intermediate cellular phenotypes in one protein (N = 3301) and two expression quantitative trait locus datasets (N = 31,684 and N = 80-491). Through these analyses, we identified seven proteins or genes with evidence of a possibly shared causal variant for almost 30% of known PCOS signals, including follicle stimulating hormone and ERBB3, IKZF4, RPS26, SUOX, ZFP36L2, and C8orf49. Several of these potential effector proteins and genes have been implicated in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal signalling pathway and provide an avenue for functional follow-up in order to demonstrate a causal role in PCOS pathophysiology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00835-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440598PMC
September 2021

Mendelian randomization for studying the effects of perturbing drug targets.

Wellcome Open Res 2021 10;6:16. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Drugs whose targets have genetic evidence to support efficacy and safety are more likely to be approved after clinical development. In this paper, we provide an overview of how natural sequence variation in the genes that encode drug targets can be used in Mendelian randomization analyses to offer insight into mechanism-based efficacy and adverse effects. Large databases of summary level genetic association data are increasingly available and can be leveraged to identify and validate variants that serve as proxies for drug target perturbation. As with all empirical research, Mendelian randomization has limitations including genetic confounding, its consideration of lifelong effects, and issues related to heterogeneity across different tissues and populations. When appropriately applied, Mendelian randomization provides a useful empirical framework for using population level data to improve the success rates of the drug development pipeline.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16544.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903200PMC
February 2021

Commentary: Big data bring big controversies: HDL cholesterol and mortality.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 07;50(3):913-915

Medical Research Council Population Health Research Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271207PMC
July 2021

Evaluating the effects of cardiometabolic exposures on circulating proteins which may contribute to severe SARS-CoV-2.

EBioMedicine 2021 Feb 3;64:103228. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit (MRC IEU), Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN, United Kingdom.

Background: Developing insight into the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of critical importance to overcome the global pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). In this study, we have applied Mendelian randomization (MR) to systematically evaluate the effect of 10 cardiometabolic risk factors and genetic liability to lifetime smoking on 97 circulating host proteins postulated to either interact or contribute to the maladaptive host response of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: We applied the inverse variance weighted (IVW) approach and several robust MR methods in a two-sample setting to systemically estimate the genetically predicted effect of each risk factor in turn on levels of each circulating protein. Multivariable MR was conducted to simultaneously evaluate the effects of multiple risk factors on the same protein. We also applied MR using cis-regulatory variants at the genomic location responsible for encoding these proteins to estimate whether their circulating levels may influence severe SARS-CoV-2.

Findings: In total, we identified evidence supporting 105 effects between risk factors and circulating proteins which were robust to multiple testing corrections and sensitivity analyzes. For example, body mass index provided evidence of an effect on 23 circulating proteins with a variety of functions, such as inflammatory markers c-reactive protein (IVW Beta=0.34 per standard deviation change, 95% CI=0.26 to 0.41, P = 2.19 × 10) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IVW Beta=0.23, 95% CI=0.17 to 0.30, P = 9.04 × 10). Further analyzes using multivariable MR provided evidence that the effect of BMI on lowering immunoglobulin G, an antibody class involved in protection from infection, is substantially mediated by raised triglycerides levels (IVW Beta=-0.18, 95% CI=-0.25 to -0.12, P = 2.32 × 10, proportion mediated=44.1%). The strongest evidence that any of the circulating proteins highlighted by our initial analysis influence severe SARS-CoV-2 was identified for soluble glycoprotein 130 (odds ratio=1.81, 95% CI=1.25 to 2.62, P = 0.002), a signal transductor for interleukin-6 type cytokines which are involved in inflammatory response. However, based on current case samples for severe SARS-CoV-2 we were unable to replicate findings in independent samples.

Interpretation: Our findings highlight several key proteins which are influenced by established exposures for disease. Future research to determine whether these circulating proteins mediate environmental effects onto risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or covid-19 progression are warranted to help elucidate therapeutic strategies for severe covid-19 disease.

Funding: The Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust, the British Heart Foundation and UK Research and Innovation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857697PMC
February 2021

Genetic IL-6R variants and therapeutic inhibition of IL-6 receptor signalling in COVID-19 - Authors' reply.

Lancet Rheumatol 2021 Feb 15;3(2):e97-e98. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Medical Research Council Population Health Research Unit (MRC PHRU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30415-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836692PMC
February 2021

genetic variants and cognitive abilities: a large-scale Mendelian randomization study.

Arch Med Sci 2021 5;17(1):241-244. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Introduction: PCSK9 inhibitors lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and are efficacious at reducing vascular disease, however questions remain about potential effects on cognitive function.

Methods: We examined the association of genetic variants in with continuous measures of cognitive ability in UK Biobank. Six independent polymorphisms in were used in up to 337,348 individuals.

Results: The allele score was associated with a lower risk of CHD, and weakly with worse log reaction time.

Conclusions: We are unable to rule out meaningful associations of genetic variants with cognition, emphasising the potential need for continued pharmacovigilance for patients currently treated with PCSK9 inhibitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms/127226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811317PMC
January 2021

Using Mendelian Randomization to Improve the Design of Randomized Trials.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2021 Jul 1;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, United Kingdom.

Randomized controlled trials and Mendelian randomization studies are two study designs that provide randomized evidence in human biological and medical research. Both exploit the power of randomization to provide unconfounded estimates of causal effect. However, randomized trials and Mendelian randomization studies have very different study designs and scientific objectives. As a result, despite sometimes being referred to as "nature's randomized trial," a Mendelian randomization study cannot be used to replace a randomized trial but instead provides complementary information. In this review, we explain the similarities and differences between randomized trials and Mendelian randomization studies, and suggest several ways that Mendelian randomization can be used to directly inform and improve the design of randomized trials illustrated with practical examples. We conclude by describing how Mendelian randomization studies can employ the principles of trial design to be framed as "naturally randomized trials" that can provide a template for the design of future randomized trials evaluating therapies directed against genetically validated targets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a040980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247560PMC
July 2021

Metabolic profiling of angiopoietin-like protein 3 and 4 inhibition: a drug-target Mendelian randomization analysis.

Eur Heart J 2021 03;42(12):1160-1169

Computational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu and Biocenter Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Aims: Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and represent emerging drug targets to lower circulating triglycerides and reduce cardiovascular risk. To investigate the molecular effects of genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 inhibition and compare them to the effects of genetic mimicry of LPL enhancement.

Methods And Results: Associations of genetic variants in ANGPTL3 (rs11207977-T), ANGPTL4 (rs116843064-A), and LPL (rs115849089-A) with an extensive serum lipid and metabolite profile (208 measures) were characterized in six cohorts of up to 61 240 participants. Genetic associations with anthropometric measures, glucose-insulin metabolism, blood pressure, markers of kidney function, and cardiometabolic endpoints via genome-wide summary data were also explored. ANGPTL4 rs116843064-A and LPL rs115849089-A displayed a strikingly similar pattern of associations across the lipoprotein and lipid measures. However, the corresponding associations with ANGPTL3 rs11207977-T differed, including those for low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle concentrations and compositions. All three genotypes associated with lower concentrations of an inflammatory biomarker glycoprotein acetyls and genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition and LPL enhancement were also associated with lower C-reactive protein. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio, improved insulin-glucose metabolism, and lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, whilst genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 was associated with improved kidney function.

Conclusions: Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement have very similar systemic metabolic effects, whereas genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition showed differing metabolic effects, suggesting potential involvement of pathways independent of LPL. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. These findings reinforce evidence that enhancing LPL activity (either directly or via upstream effects) through pharmacological approaches is likely to yield benefits to human health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982288PMC
March 2021

Sex Differences in the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Associated With Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

Diabetes Care 2021 02 4;44(2):556-562. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

George Institute for Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K.

Objective: Observational studies have demonstrated that type 2 diabetes is a stronger risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) in women compared with men. However, it is not clear whether this reflects a sex differential in the causal effect of diabetes on CHD risk or results from sex-specific residual confounding.

Research Design And Methods: Using 270 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for type 2 diabetes identified in a type 2 diabetes genome-wide association study, we performed a sex-stratified Mendelian randomization (MR) study of type 2 diabetes and CHD using individual participant data in UK Biobank (251,420 women and 212,049 men). Weighted median, MR-Egger, MR-pleiotropy residual sum and outlier, and radial MR from summary-level analyses were used for pleiotropy assessment.

Results: MR analyses showed that genetic risk of type 2 diabetes increased the odds of CHD for women (odds ratio 1.13 [95% CI 1.08-1.18] per 1-log unit increase in odds of type 2 diabetes) and men (1.21 [1.17-1.26] per 1-log unit increase in odds of type 2 diabetes). Sensitivity analyses showed some evidence of directional pleiotropy; however, results were similar after correction for outlier SNPs.

Conclusions: This MR analysis supports a causal effect of genetic liability to type 2 diabetes on risk of CHD that is not stronger for women than men. Assuming a lack of bias, these findings suggest that the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes for CHD risk reduction is of equal priority in both sexes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818328PMC
February 2021

Associations of Adiposity, Circulating Protein Biomarkers, and Risk of Major Vascular Diseases.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Mar;6(3):276-286

Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

Importance: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about the role that circulating protein biomarkers play in this association.

Objective: To examine the observational and genetic associations of adiposity with circulating protein biomarkers and the observational associations of proteins with incident CVD.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This subcohort study included 628 participants from the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank who did not have a history of cancer at baseline. The Olink platform measured 92 protein markers in baseline plasma samples. Data were collected from June 2004 to January 2016 and analyzed from January 2019 to June 2020.

Exposures: Measured body mass index (BMI) obtained during the baseline survey and genetically instrumented BMI derived using 571 externally weighted single-nucleotide variants.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Cross-sectional associations of adiposity with biomarkers were examined using linear regression. Associations of biomarkers with CVD risk were assessed using Cox regression among those without prior cancer or CVD at baseline. Mendelian randomization was conducted to derive genetically estimated associations of BMI with biomarkers.

Findings: In observational analyses of 628 individuals (mean [SD] age, 52.2 [10.5] years; 385 women [61.3%]), BMI (mean [SD], 23.9 [3.6]) was positively associated with 27 proteins (per 1-SD higher BMI; eg, interleukin-6: 0.21 [95% CI, 0.12-0.29] SD; interleukin-18: 0.13 [95% CI, 0.05-0.21] SD; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1: 0.12 [95% CI, 0.04-0.20] SD; hepatocyte growth factor: 0.31 [95% CI, 0.24-0.39] SD), and inversely with 3 proteins (Fas ligand: -0.11 [95% CI, -0.19 to -0.03] SD; TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis, -0.14 [95% CI, -0.23 to -0.06] SD; and carbonic anhydrase 9: (-0.14 [95% CI, -0.22 to -0.05] SD), with similar associations identified for other adiposity traits (eg, waist circumference [r = 0.96]). In mendelian randomization, the associations of genetically elevated BMI with specific proteins were directionally consistent with the observational associations. In meta-analyses of genetically elevated BMI with 8 proteins, combining present estimates with previous studies, the most robust associations were shown for interleukin-6 (per 1-SD higher BMI; 0.21 [95% CI, 0.13-0.29] SD), interleukin-18 (0.16 [95% CI, 0.06-0.26] SD), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (0.21 [95% CI, 0.11-0.30] SD), monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (0.12 [95% CI, 0.03-0.21] SD), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (0.23 [95% CI, 0.13-0.32] SD), and hepatocyte growth factor (0.14 [95% CI, 0.06-0.22] SD). Of the 30 BMI-associated biomarkers, 10 (including interleukin-6, interleukin-18, and hepatocyte growth factor) were nominally associated with incident CVD.

Conclusions And Relevance: Mendelian randomization shows adiposity to be associated with a range of protein biomarkers, with some biomarkers also showing association with CVD risk. Future studies are warranted to validate these findings and assess whether proteins may be mediators between adiposity and CVD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.6041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711564PMC
March 2021

Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I, total and free testosterone concentrations and prostate cancer risk in 200 000 men in UK Biobank.

Int J Cancer 2021 05 11;148(9):2274-2288. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and testosterone have been implicated in prostate cancer aetiology. Using data from a large prospective full-cohort with standardised assays and repeat blood measurements, and genetic data from an international consortium, we investigated the associations of circulating IGF-I, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and total and calculated free testosterone concentrations with prostate cancer incidence and mortality. For prospective analyses, risk was estimated using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression in 199 698 male UK Biobank participants. Hazard ratios (HRs) were corrected for regression dilution bias using repeat hormone measurements from a subsample. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis of IGF-I and risk used genetic instruments identified from UK Biobank men and genetic outcome data from the PRACTICAL consortium (79 148 cases and 61 106 controls). We used cis- and all (cis and trans) SNP MR approaches. A total of 5402 men were diagnosed with and 295 died from prostate cancer (mean follow-up 6.9 years). Higher circulating IGF-I was associated with elevated prostate cancer diagnosis (HR per 5 nmol/L increment = 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.12) and mortality (HR per 5 nmol/L increment = 1.15, 1.02-1.29). MR analyses also supported the role of IGF-I in prostate cancer diagnosis (cis-MR odds ratio per 5 nmol/L increment = 1.34, 1.07-1.68). In observational analyses, higher free testosterone was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer (HR per 50 pmol/L increment = 1.10, 1.05-1.15). Higher SHBG was associated with a lower risk (HR per 10 nmol/L increment = 0.95, 0.94-0.97), neither was associated with prostate cancer mortality. Total testosterone was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings implicate IGF-I and free testosterone in prostate cancer development and/or progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048461PMC
May 2021

Genomic and drug target evaluation of 90 cardiovascular proteins in 30,931 individuals.

Nat Metab 2020 10 16;2(10):1135-1148. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

SCALLOP consortium.

Circulating proteins are vital in human health and disease and are frequently used as biomarkers for clinical decision-making or as targets for pharmacological intervention. Here, we map and replicate protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) for 90 cardiovascular proteins in over 30,000 individuals, resulting in 451 pQTLs for 85 proteins. For each protein, we further perform pathway mapping to obtain trans-pQTL gene and regulatory designations. We substantiate these regulatory findings with orthogonal evidence for trans-pQTLs using mouse knockdown experiments (ABCA1 and TRIB1) and clinical trial results (chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5), with consistent regulation. Finally, we evaluate known drug targets, and suggest new target candidates or repositioning opportunities using Mendelian randomization. This identifies 11 proteins with causal evidence of involvement in human disease that have not previously been targeted, including EGF, IL-16, PAPPA, SPON1, F3, ADM, CASP-8, CHI3L1, CXCL16, GDF15 and MMP-12. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the utility of large-scale mapping of the genetics of the proteome and provide a resource for future precision studies of circulating proteins in human health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-00287-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611474PMC
October 2020

Genetic variants mimicking therapeutic inhibition of IL-6 receptor signaling and risk of COVID-19.

Lancet Rheumatol 2020 Nov 25;2(11):e658-e659. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Medical Research Council Population Health Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30345-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518829PMC
November 2020

Observational and Genetic Associations of Body Mass Index and Hepatobiliary Diseases in a Relatively Lean Chinese Population.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 10 1;3(10):e2018721. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Clinical Trial Service Unit and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, Big Data Institute University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Importance: There is some support for the existence of genetic associations between adiposity and certain hepatobiliary diseases in Western populations. However, there is little evidence of such genetic associations in China, where the causes of these diseases may differ from those in Western populations and the mean body mass index (BMI) is much lower.

Objectives: To compare the observational associations of BMI with hepatobiliary diseases and liver biomarkers with the genetic associations between BMI and these factors and to assess whether the genetic associations of BMI with liver diseases differed by hepatitis B virus infection status.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study used data from the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank, including 473 938 adults aged 30 to 79 years without hepatobiliary diseases at baseline from 10 diverse areas in China from June 25, 2004, to July 15, 2008. A random sample of 75 736 participants with genotyping data was included in the Mendelian randomization analysis. Follow-up was completed January 1, 2017 (median [interquartile range] length of follow-up, 10.2 [9.2-11.1] years). Data were analyzed from January to October 2019.

Exposures: Measured BMI obtained during the baseline survey and genetically instrumented BMI derived using 92 single-nucleotide variations.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Incident cases of hepatobiliary diseases, liver enzymes, fatty liver index, and fibrosis score.

Results: Among 473 938 individuals (276 041 [58.2%] women), the mean (SD) age was 52 (10.9) years and mean (SD) BMI was 23.8 (3.4). Baseline BMI was associated with higher risks of chronic liver disease (adjusted risk ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.17) and gallbladder disease (adjusted risk ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.31), with heterogeneity by disease subtype (P < .001). Genetically instrumented BMI was associated with higher risks of chronic liver disease (risk ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.24) and gallbladder disease (risk ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.76), with no heterogeneity between subtypes. A meta-analysis of the genetic associations in China Kadoorie Biobank and those calculated in UK Biobank gave a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.30 to 1.84) for chronic liver disease and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.22 to 1.64) for gallbladder disease. In the China Kadoorie Biobank study, there were positive genetic associations of BMI with liver enzymes, steatosis, and fibrosis scores, consistent with observational associations. The genetic associations of BMI with liver diseases and biomarkers did not differ by hepatitis B virus infection status.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study of a relatively lean Chinese population, there were positive genetic associations of BMI with hepatobiliary diseases. These results suggest that maintaining a healthy weight through diet and physical activity may help prevent hepatobiliary diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.18721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532388PMC
October 2020

Response by Siedlinski et al to Letters Regarding Article, "White Blood Cells and Blood Pressure: A Mendelian Randomization Study".

Circulation 2020 09 28;142(13):e191-e192. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Internal and Agricultural Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland (M.S., T.J.G.).

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.049870DOI Listing
September 2020

The relationship between body mass index and the risk of development of Dupuytren's disease: a Mendelian randomization study.

J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2021 May 25;46(4):406-410. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

We performed Mendelian randomization analyses of body mass index and waist-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index in Dupuytren's disease using summary statistics from genome-wide association study meta-analyses. We found that adiposity is causally protective against Dupuytren's disease, with the inverse-variance weighted Mendelian randomization analysis estimating that a 1 standard deviation increase in body mass index (equivalent to 4.8 kg/m) leads to 28% (95% confidence interval: 18-37%) lower relative odds of developing Dupuytren's disease, and a 1 standard deviation increase in waist-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (equivalent to a waist-hip ratio of 0.09) leads to 26% (95% confidence interval: 6-42%) lower relative odds of developing Dupuytren's disease. We conclude from this study that regardless of the well-established negative health effects of obesity, the raised body mass index is associated with a lower risk of Dupuytren's disease and may be causally protective for the development of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753193420958553DOI Listing
May 2021

Phenome-wide Mendelian randomization mapping the influence of the plasma proteome on complex diseases.

Nat Genet 2020 10 7;52(10):1122-1131. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU), Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

The human proteome is a major source of therapeutic targets. Recent genetic association analyses of the plasma proteome enable systematic evaluation of the causal consequences of variation in plasma protein levels. Here we estimated the effects of 1,002 proteins on 225 phenotypes using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) and colocalization. Of 413 associations supported by evidence from MR, 130 (31.5%) were not supported by results of colocalization analyses, suggesting that genetic confounding due to linkage disequilibrium is widespread in naïve phenome-wide association studies of proteins. Combining MR and colocalization evidence in cis-only analyses, we identified 111 putatively causal effects between 65 proteins and 52 disease-related phenotypes ( https://www.epigraphdb.org/pqtl/ ). Evaluation of data from historic drug development programs showed that target-indication pairs with MR and colocalization support were more likely to be approved, evidencing the value of this approach in identifying and prioritizing potential therapeutic targets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0682-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610464PMC
October 2020

Genome-wide Study Identifies Association between HLA-B55:01 and Self-Reported Penicillin Allergy.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 10 3;107(4):612-621. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen 2300, Denmark; Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Diabetes Centre, 214 28 Malmö, Sweden; Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland.

Hypersensitivity reactions to drugs are often unpredictable and can be life threatening, underscoring a need for understanding their underlying mechanisms and risk factors. The extent to which germline genetic variation influences the risk of commonly reported drug allergies such as penicillin allergy remains largely unknown. We extracted data from the electronic health records of more than 600,000 participants from the UK, Estonian, and Vanderbilt University Medical Center's BioVU biobanks to study the role of genetic variation in the occurrence of self-reported penicillin hypersensitivity reactions. We used imputed SNP to HLA typing data from these cohorts to further fine map the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association and replicated our results in 23andMe's research cohort involving a total of 1.12 million individuals. Genome-wide meta-analysis of penicillin allergy revealed two loci, including one located in the HLA region on chromosome 6. This signal was further fine-mapped to the HLA-B55:01 allele (OR 1.41 95% CI 1.33-1.49, p value 2.04 × 10) and confirmed by independent replication in 23andMe's research cohort (OR 1.30 95% CI 1.25-1.34, p value 1.00 × 10). The lead SNP was also associated with lower lymphocyte counts and in silico follow-up suggests a potential effect on T-lymphocytes at HLA-B55:01. We also observed a significant hit in PTPN22 and the GWAS results correlated with the genetics of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. We present robust evidence for the role of an allele of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I gene HLA-B in the occurrence of penicillin allergy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.08.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536643PMC
October 2020

Association of physical activity with risk of hepatobiliary diseases in China: a prospective cohort study of 0.5 million people.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Sep 21;55(18):1024-1033. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China

Objective: There is limited prospective evidence on the association of physical activity with hepatobiliary cancer subtypes and other major hepatobiliary diseases, especially in China. We aimed to quantify the associations with risk of these diseases.

Methods: The study population involved 460 937 participants of the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse areas in China without history of cancer or hepatobiliary disease at baseline. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for each disease associated with self-reported total and domain-specific physical activity (occupational and non-occupational, ie, leisure time, household and commuting).

Results: During ~10 years of follow-up, 22 012 incident cases of hepatobiliary diseases were recorded. The overall mean (SD) total physical activity was 21.2 (13.9) metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-hours/day, with 62% from occupational activity. Total physical activity was inversely associated with hospitalised non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (HR comparing top vs bottom quintile: 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 0.72), viral hepatitis (0.73, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.87), cirrhosis (0.76, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.88) and liver cancer (0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.93), as well as gallstone disease (0.86, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.90), gallbladder cancer (0.51, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.80) and biliary tract cancer (0.55, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.78). The associations for occupational physical activity were similar to those for total physical activity, but for non-occupational physical activity they differed by disease subtype. For leisure-time physical activity, there was an inverse association with liver cancer and an inverse trend for gallstone disease (HR comparing ≥7.5 MET-hours/day with none: 0.83, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.91 and 0.82, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.01).

Conclusion: Among Chinese adults, high total physical activity, particularly occupational physical activity, was inversely associated with risk of major hepatobiliary cancers and diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis and certain types of cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408581PMC
September 2021

Guidelines for performing Mendelian randomization investigations.

Wellcome Open Res 2019 28;4:186. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Centre for Global Health, Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

This paper provides guidelines for performing Mendelian randomization investigations. It is aimed at practitioners seeking to undertake analyses and write up their findings, and at journal editors and reviewers seeking to assess Mendelian randomization manuscripts. The guidelines are divided into nine sections: motivation and scope, data sources, choice of genetic variants, variant harmonization, primary analysis, supplementary and sensitivity analyses (one section on robust statistical methods and one on other approaches), data presentation, and interpretation. These guidelines will be updated based on feedback from the community and advances in the field. Updates will be made periodically as needed, and at least every 18 months.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15555.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384151PMC
April 2020

Association of Factor V Leiden With Subsequent Atherothrombotic Events: A GENIUS-CHD Study of Individual Participant Data.

Circulation 2020 08 13;142(6):546-555. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Cardiology, Division Heart and Lungs (V.T., A.F.S., J.v.S., A.O.K., F.W.A.), UMC Utrecht, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Background: Studies examining the role of factor V Leiden among patients at higher risk of atherothrombotic events, such as those with established coronary heart disease (CHD), are lacking. Given that coagulation is involved in the thrombus formation stage on atherosclerotic plaque rupture, we hypothesized that factor V Leiden may be a stronger risk factor for atherothrombotic events in patients with established CHD.

Methods: We performed an individual-level meta-analysis including 25 prospective studies (18 cohorts, 3 case-cohorts, 4 randomized trials) from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) consortium involving patients with established CHD at baseline. Participating studies genotyped factor V Leiden status and shared risk estimates for the outcomes of interest using a centrally developed statistical code with harmonized definitions across studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain age- and sex-adjusted estimates. The obtained estimates were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. The primary outcome was composite of myocardial infarction and CHD death. Secondary outcomes included any stroke, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality.

Results: The studies included 69 681 individuals of whom 3190 (4.6%) were either heterozygous or homozygous (n=47) carriers of factor V Leiden. Median follow-up per study ranged from 1.0 to 10.6 years. A total of 20 studies with 61 147 participants and 6849 events contributed to analyses of the primary outcome. Factor V Leiden was not associated with the combined outcome of myocardial infarction and CHD death (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.92-1.16]; =28%; -heterogeneity=0.12). Subgroup analysis according to baseline characteristics or strata of traditional cardiovascular risk factors did not show relevant differences. Similarly, risk estimates for the secondary outcomes including stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were also close to identity.

Conclusions: Factor V Leiden was not associated with increased risk of subsequent atherothrombotic events and mortality in high-risk participants with established and treated CHD. Routine assessment of factor V Leiden status is unlikely to improve atherothrombotic events risk stratification in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.045526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493828PMC
August 2020

Evaluating the cardiovascular safety of sclerostin inhibition using evidence from meta-analysis of clinical trials and human genetics.

Sci Transl Med 2020 06;12(549)

Big Data Institute at the Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7FZ, UK.

Inhibition of sclerostin is a therapeutic approach to lowering fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. However, data from phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of romosozumab, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody that inhibits sclerostin, suggest an imbalance of serious cardiovascular events, and regulatory agencies have issued marketing authorizations with warnings of cardiovascular disease. Here, we meta-analyze published and unpublished cardiovascular outcome trial data of romosozumab and investigate whether genetic variants that mimic therapeutic inhibition of sclerostin are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Meta-analysis of up to three RCTs indicated a probable higher risk of cardiovascular events with romosozumab. Scaled to the equivalent dose of romosozumab (210 milligrams per month; 0.09 grams per square centimeter of higher bone mineral density), the genetic variants were associated with lower risk of fracture and osteoporosis (commensurate with the therapeutic effect of romosozumab) and with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization and major adverse cardiovascular events. The same variants were also associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and higher systolic blood pressure and central adiposity. Together, our findings indicate that inhibition of sclerostin may elevate cardiovascular risk, warranting a rigorous evaluation of the cardiovascular safety of romosozumab and other sclerostin inhibitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aay6570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116615PMC
June 2020

Publisher Correction: Systemic inflammation is associated with incident stroke and heart disease in East Asians.

Sci Rep 2020 May 12;10(1):8084. Epub 2020 May 12.

Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit (CTSU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64764-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217894PMC
May 2020
-->