Publications by authors named "Michael Szarek"

71 Publications

Reduction in Acute Limb Ischemia with Rivaroxaban versus Placebo in Peripheral Artery Disease after Lower Extremity Revascularization: Insights from VOYAGER PAD.

Circulation 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO.

Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at heightened risk of acute limb ischemia (ALI), a thrombotic event associated with amputation, disability, and mortality. Prior lower extremity revascularization (LER) is associated with increased ALI risk in chronic PAD. However, the pattern of risk, clinical correlates, and outcomes after ALI early after LER are not well-studied, and effective therapies to reduce ALI post-LER are lacking. VOYAGER PAD (NCT02504216) randomized patients with PAD undergoing LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily or placebo on a background of low-dose aspirin. The primary outcome was a composite of ALI, major amputation of vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. ALI was prospectively ascertained and adjudicated by a blinded committee. The cumulative incidence of ALI was calculated using Kaplan Meier estimates, and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to generate hazard ratios and associated confidence intervals. Analyses were performed as intention-to-treat. Among 6,564 patients followed for a median of 2.3 years, 382 (5.8%) had a total of 508 ALI events. In placebo patients, the 3-year cumulative incidence of ALI was 7.8%. After multivariable modeling, prior LER, baseline ABI <0.50, surgical LER, and longer target lesion length were associated with increased risk of ALI. Incident ALI was associated with subsequent all-cause mortality (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.98-3.39) and major amputation (HR 24.87, 95% CI 18.68-33.12). Rivaroxaban reduced ALI relative to placebo by 33% (absolute risk reduction 2.6% at 3 years, HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55-0.82, P=0.0001), with benefit starting early (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.85, P=0.0068 at 30 days). Benefit was present for severe ALI (associated with death, amputation, or prolonged hospitalization and ICU stay, HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83, P=0.003) and regardless of LER type (surgical vs endovascular revascularization, p-interaction=0.42) or clopidogrel use (p-interaction=0.59). After LER for symptomatic PAD, ALI is frequent, particularly early after LER, and is associated with poor prognosis. Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduces ALI after LER, including ALI events associated with the most severe outcomes. The benefit of rivaroxaban for ALI appears early, continues over time, and is consistent regardless of revascularization approach or clopidogrel use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055146DOI Listing
October 2021

Low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin among patients with peripheral artery disease: a meta-analysis of the COMPASS and VOYAGER trials.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 13001 E 17th Pl, Boulder, Colorado 80045, USA.

Aims: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients suffer a high risk of major cardiovascular (CV) events, with athero-thrombo-embolism as the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism. Recently, two large randomized clinical trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of low-dose rivaroxaban twice daily plus aspirin in stable PAD outpatients and those immediately after peripheral revascularization. We sought to determine if the effects of low-dose rivaroxaban and aspirin compared to aspirin alone are consistent across this broad spectrum of PAD patients.

Methods And Results: We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of the COMPASS and VOYAGER randomized trials among 11 560 PAD patients (4996 from COMPASS and 6564 from VOYAGER) in the primary analysis and 9332 (2768 from COMPASS and 6564 from VOYAGER) with lower extremity (LE)-PAD in the secondary analysis. The hazard ratio (HR) for the composite of CV death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, acute limb ischaemia, or major vascular amputation was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.65-0.95) comparing low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin to aspirin alone. While the risk of major bleeding was increased with low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin compared to aspirin alone [HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.22-1.87)], there was no significant increase in severe bleeding [HR: 1.18 (95% CI: 0.79-1.76)]. Similar effects were observed in the subset with symptomatic LE-PAD.

Conclusions: Among PAD patients, low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin is superior to aspirin alone in reducing CV and limb outcomes including acute limb ischaemia and major vascular amputation. This reduction is offset by a relative increase in major bleeding, but not by an excess of fatal or critical organ bleeding. The consistency of findings of these trials supports the use of combination low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in PAD patients across a broad spectrum of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwab128DOI Listing
August 2021

Low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in older patients with peripheral artery disease undergoing acute limb revascularization: insights from the VOYAGER PAD trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 10;42(39):4040-4048

CPC Clinical Research, 2115 N Scranton Street, Suite 2040, Aurora, CO, USA.

Aims: In this secondary analysis of the VOYAGER trial, rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice/day plus aspirin 100 mg/day was assessed in older adults. Advanced age is associated with elevated bleeding risk and unfavourable net benefit for dual antiplatelet therapy in chronic coronary artery disease. The risk-benefit of low-dose rivaroxaban in patients ≥75 years with peripheral artery disease (PAD) after lower extremity revascularization (LER) has not been described.

Methods And Results: The primary endpoint was a composite of acute limb ischaemia, major amputation, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major bleeding analysed by the pre-specified age cut-off of 75 years. Of 6564 patients randomized, 1330 (20%) were >75 years. Absolute 3-year Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence rates for primary efficacy (23.4% vs. 19.0%) and safety (3.5% vs. 1.5%) endpoints were higher in elderly vs. non-elderly patients. Efficacy of rivaroxaban (P-interaction 0.83) and safety (P-interaction 0.38) was consistent irrespective of age. The combination of intracranial and fatal bleeding was not increased in patients >75 years (2 rivaroxaban vs. 8 placebo). Overall, benefits (absolute risk reduction 3.8%, number needed to treat 26 for the primary endpoint) exceeded risks (absolute risk increase 0.81%, number needed to harm 123 for TIMI major bleeding).

Conclusion: Patients ≥75 years with PAD are at both heightened ischaemic and bleeding risk after LER. No excess harm with respect to major, intracranial or fatal bleeding was seen in older patients yet numerically greater absolute benefits were observed. This suggests that low-dose rivaroxaban combined with aspirin should be considered in PAD after LER regardless of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab408DOI Listing
October 2021

Lipoprotein(a) and Benefit of PCSK9 Inhibition in Patients With Nominally Controlled LDL Cholesterol.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Aug;78(5):421-433

Université de Paris, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials, and INSERM U1148, Paris, France; Imperial College, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/gabrielsteg.

Background: Guidelines recommend nonstatin lipid-lowering agents in patients at very high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) if low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains ≥70 mg/dL on maximum tolerated statin treatment. It is uncertain if this approach benefits patients with LDL-C near 70 mg/dL. Lipoprotein(a) levels may influence residual risk.

Objectives: In a post hoc analysis of the ODYSSEY Outcomes (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) trial, the authors evaluated the benefit of adding the proprotein subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab to optimized statin treatment in patients with LDL-C levels near 70 mg/dL. Effects were evaluated according to concurrent lipoprotein(a) levels.

Methods: ODYSSEY Outcomes compared alirocumab with placebo in 18,924 patients with recent acute coronary syndromes receiving optimized statin treatment. In 4,351 patients (23.0%), screening or randomization LDL-C was <70 mg/dL (median 69.4 mg/dL; interquartile range: 64.3-74.0 mg/dL); in 14,573 patients (77.0%), both determinations were ≥70 mg/dL (median 94.0 mg/dL; interquartile range: 83.2-111.0 mg/dL).

Results: In the lower LDL-C subgroup, MACE rates were 4.2 and 3.1 per 100 patient-years among placebo-treated patients with baseline lipoprotein(a) greater than or less than or equal to the median (13.7 mg/dL). Corresponding adjusted treatment hazard ratios were 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.90) and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.83-1.49), with treatment-lipoprotein(a) interaction on MACE (P = 0.017). In the higher LDL-C subgroup, MACE rates were 4.7 and 3.8 per 100 patient-years among placebo-treated patients with lipoprotein(a) >13.7 mg/dL or ≤13.7 mg/dL; corresponding adjusted treatment hazard ratios were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72-0.92) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.75-1.06), with P = 0.43.

Conclusions: In patients with recent acute coronary syndromes and LDL-C near 70 mg/dL on optimized statin therapy, proprotein subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibition provides incremental clinical benefit only when lipoprotein(a) concentration is at least mildly elevated. (ODYSSEY Outcomes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.102DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of Sotagliflozin on Total Hospitalizations in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Worsening Heart Failure : A Randomized Trial.

Ann Intern Med 2021 08 22;174(8):1065-1072. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (B.P.).

Background: In the SOLOIST-WHF (Effect of Sotagliflozin on Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Post Worsening Heart Failure) trial, sotagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-1 and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, reduced total occurrences of cardiovascular deaths, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure relative to placebo by 33%.

Objective: To determine whether sotagliflozin increased the prespecified efficacy outcome of days alive and out of the hospital (DAOH) in the SOLOIST-WHF trial.

Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03521934).

Setting: 306 sites in 32 countries.

Participants: 1222 patients with type 2 diabetes and reduced or preserved ejection fraction who were recently hospitalized for worsening heart failure.

Intervention: 200 mg of sotagliflozin once daily (with a possible dose increase to 400 mg) or matching placebo.

Measurements: The primary analysis included hospitalizations for any reason on the basis of investigator-reported incidence and duration of admissions after randomization. Days alive and out of the hospital and its converse (days dead and days in the hospital) were analyzed using prespecified Poisson regression models.

Results: Although similar proportions of patients in the sotagliflozin and placebo groups were hospitalized at least once (38.5% vs. 41.4%), fewer patients in the sotagliflozin group were hospitalized more than once (16.3% vs. 22.1%). There were 64 and 76 deaths in the sotagliflozin and placebo groups, respectively. The DAOH rate in the sotagliflozin group was 3% higher than in the placebo group (rate ratio [RR], 1.03 [95% CI, 1.00 to 1.06]; = 0.027). This difference was primarily driven by a reduction in the rate of days dead (RR, 0.71 [CI, 0.52 to 0.99]; = 0.041) rather than by a reduction in the rate of days hospitalized for any cause. For every 100 days of follow-up, patients in the sotagliflozin group were alive and out of the hospital for 3% or 2.9 more days than those in the placebo group (91.8 vs. 88.9 days); this difference reflected a 2.6-day difference in days dead (6.3 vs. 8.9 days) and a 0.3-day difference in days in the hospital (1.9 vs. 2.2 days).

Limitation: Other than heart failure, the primary reason for each hospitalization was unspecified.

Conclusion: Sotagliflozin increased DAOH, a metric that may provide an additional patient-centered outcome to capture the totality of disease burden. Future studies are needed to quantify the consequences of increasing DAOH in terms of health economics and patient quality of life.

Primary Funding Source: Sanofi at initiation and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals at completion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M21-0651DOI Listing
August 2021

Total Ischemic Event Reduction With Rivaroxaban After Peripheral Arterial Revascularization in the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jul 16;78(4):317-326. Epub 2021 May 16.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of major adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD (Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Subjects With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Peripheral Revascularization Procedures of the Lower Extremities) trial demonstrated that rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily reduced first events by 15%. The benefit of rivaroxaban on total (first and subsequent) events in this population is unknown.

Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the total burden of vascular events in patients with PAD after LER and the efficacy of low-dose rivaroxaban on total events.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD randomized patients with PAD undergoing LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or aspirin alone. The primary endpoint was time to first event of acute limb ischemia, major amputation of a vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The current analysis considered all events (first and subsequent) for components of the primary endpoint as well as additional vascular events including peripheral revascularizations and venous thromboembolism. HRs were estimated by marginal proportional hazards models.

Results: Among 6,564 randomized events, there were 4,714 total first and subsequent vascular events including 1,614 primary endpoint events and 3,100 other vascular events. Rivaroxaban reduced total primary endpoint events (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75-0.98; P = 0.02) and total vascular events (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.79-0.95; P = 0.003). An estimated 4.4 primary and 12.5 vascular events per 100 participants were avoided with rivaroxaban over 3 years.

Conclusions: Patients with symptomatic PAD who are undergoing LER have a high total event burden that is significantly reduced with rivaroxaban. Total event reduction may be a useful metric to quantify the efficacy of rivaroxaban in this setting. (Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban in Reducing the Risk of Major Thrombotic Vascular Events in Subjects With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Peripheral Revascularization Procedures of the Lower Extremities [VOYAGER PAD]; NCT02504216).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.05.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Q-TWiST Analysis of Tivozanib Versus Sorafenib in Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma in the TIVO-3 Study.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2021 10 3;19(5):468.e1-468.e5. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background: In TIVO-3, tivozanib increased progression-free survival with no difference in overall survival relative to sorafenib as third- or fourth-line therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We applied quality-adjusted time without symptoms of disease and toxicity (Q-TWiST) methods to quantify the net health benefits of tivozanib, in the presence of similar survival, when compared with sorafenib.

Methods: The mean Q-TWiST was calculated by applying utility coefficients of 0.5, 1.0, and 0.5 to the 36-month restricted mean health states of time with toxicity (TOX), TWiST, and time after progression/relapse, respectively. The relative Q-TWiST gain was defined as the mean absolute Q-TWiST difference divided by the sorafenib mean overall survival.

Results: The mean TWiST was longer for tivozanib than for sorafenib, mean time after progression/relapse was shorter for tivozanib, with no difference in mean TOX. Mean Q-TWiST was 15.04 months and 12.78 months for tivozanib and sorafenib, respectively (P = .0493). The tivozanib relative gain was 11.2%.

Discussion: Tivozanib increased Q-TWiST relative to sorafenib, primarily through an increase in TWiST, which is generally considered to be the highest utility state.

Conclusion: Q-TWiST may be considered an alternative patient-centered measure of benefit of tivozanib in as a third- or fourth-line therapy in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

Clinical Trial Information: NCT02627963.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2021.03.018DOI Listing
October 2021

Intensity of statin treatment after acute coronary syndrome, residual risk, and its modification by alirocumab: insights from the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 03 27;28(1):33-43. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Université de Paris, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, FACT (French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials), and INSERM, France.

Aims: Statins are pivotal to the secondary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events, but some patients are statin-intolerant. We examined the effects of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor alirocumab on the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events according to the intensity of background statin treatment.

Methods And Results: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial compared alirocumab with placebo in 18,924 patients with acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidaemia despite intensive or maximum-tolerated statin treatment (including no statin if intolerance was documented). The primary outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events) comprised coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Baseline statin treatment was high-intensity (88.8%), low/moderate-intensity (8.7%) or none (2.4%). Median baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 86, 89 and 139 mg/dL (P < 0.001) in these statin treatment categories, respectively. Alirocumab produced similar relative reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from baseline across statin treatment subgroups, but the mean absolute reductions differed (52.9, 56.7 and 86.1 mg/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). With placebo, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events was highest in the no statin subgroup (10.8%, 10.7% and 26.0% respectively). Alirocumab reduced major adverse cardiovascular events in each statin subgroup (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.96; 0.68, 0.49-0.94; and 0.65, 0.44-0.97, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.14) with a gradient of absolute risk reduction: 1.25%, 95% CI 0.34-2.16; 3.16%, 0.38-5.94; 7.97%, 0.42-15.51; Pinteraction = 0.106).

Conclusions: PCSK9 inhibition with alirocumab reduces the relative risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome irrespective of background statin treatment. However, patients on no statin are at high absolute risk for recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events; alirocumab substantially reduces that risk. PCSK9 inhibition may be an important therapeutic strategy for statin-intolerant patients with acute coronary syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487320941987DOI Listing
March 2021

Relation of Lipoprotein(a) Levels to Incident Type 2 Diabetes and Modification by Alirocumab Treatment.

Diabetes Care 2021 05 15;44(5):1219-1227. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Green Lane Cardiovascular Services, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Objective: In observational data, lower levels of lipoprotein(a) have been associated with greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Whether pharmacologic lowering of lipoprotein(a) influences incident type 2 diabetes is unknown. We determined the relationship of lipoprotein(a) concentration with incident type 2 diabetes and effects of treatment with alirocumab, a PCSK9 inhibitor.

Research Design And Methods: In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial alirocumab was compared with placebo in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Incident diabetes was determined from laboratory, medication, and adverse event data.

Results: Among 13,480 patients without diabetes at baseline, 1,324 developed type 2 diabetes over a median 2.7 years. Median baseline lipoprotein(a) was 21.9 mg/dL. With placebo, 10 mg/dL lower baseline lipoprotein(a) was associated with hazard ratio 1.04 (95% CI 1.02-1.06, < 0.001) for incident type 2 diabetes. Alirocumab reduced lipoprotein(a) by a median 23.2% with greater absolute reductions from higher baseline levels and no overall effect on incident type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.85-1.05). At low baseline lipoprotein(a) levels, alirocumab tended to reduce incident type 2 diabetes, while at high baseline lipoprotein(a) alirocumab tended to increase incident type 2 diabetes compared with placebo (treatment-baseline lipoprotein(a) interaction = 0.006). In the alirocumab group, a 10 mg/dL decrease in lipoprotein(a) from baseline was associated with hazard ratio 1.07 (95% CI 1.03-1.12; = 0.0002) for incident type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions: In patients with acute coronary syndrome, baseline lipoprotein(a) concentration associated inversely with incident type 2 diabetes. Alirocumab had neutral overall effect on incident type 2 diabetes. However, treatment-related reductions in lipoprotein(a), more pronounced from high baseline levels, were associated with increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes. Whether these findings pertain to other therapies that reduce lipoprotein(a) is undetermined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-2842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132323PMC
May 2021

Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Alirocumab After Acute Coronary Syndrome According to Achieved Level of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Trial.

Circulation 2021 Mar 13;143(11):1109-1122. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Division of Cardiology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora (G.G.S., M.S.).

Background: Recent international guidelines have lowered recommended target levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) for patients at very high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). However, uncertainty persists whether additional benefit results from achieved LDL-C levels below the conventional targets. Inferences from previous analyses are limited because patients who achieve lower versus higher LDL-C on lipid-lowering therapy differ in other characteristics prognostic for MACE and because few achieved very low LDL-C levels. To overcome these limitations, we performed a propensity score-matching analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) which compared alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome receiving intensive or maximum-tolerated statin treatment.

Methods: Patients on alirocumab were classified in prespecified strata of LDL-C achieved at 4 months of treatment: <25 (n=3357), 25 to 50 (n=3692), or >50 mg/dL (n=2197). For each stratum, MACE (coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) after month 4 was compared in patients receiving placebo with similar baseline characteristics and adherence by using 1:1 propensity score matching.

Results: Across achieved LDL-C strata of the alirocumab group, patients differed by baseline LDL-C, lipoprotein(a), use of intensive statin therapy, study medication adherence, and other demographic, medical history, biometric, and laboratory criteria. After propensity score matching, characteristics were similar in corresponding patients of the alirocumab and placebo groups. Treatment hazard ratio, 95% CI, and absolute risk reduction (number per 100 patient-years) for MACE were similar in those with achieved LDL-C <25 mg/dL (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.62-0.89]; absolute risk reduction, 0.92) or 25 to 50 mg/dL (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.64-0.87]; absolute risk reduction, 1.05). Patients with achieved LDL-C >50 mg/dL had poorer adherence and derived less benefit (hazard ratio, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.73-1.04]; absolute risk reduction, 0.62). No safety concerns were associated with a limited period of LDL-C levels <15 mg/dL.

Conclusions: After accounting for differences in baseline characteristics and adherence, patients treated with alirocumab who achieved LDL-C levels <25 mg/dL had a reduction in the risk of MACE that was similar to that of patients who achieved LDL-C levels of 25 to 50 mg/dL. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01663402.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.049447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969166PMC
March 2021

Sotagliflozin in Patients with Diabetes and Recent Worsening Heart Failure.

N Engl J Med 2021 01 16;384(2):117-128. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

From Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart and Vascular Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston (D.L.B., C.P.C.); Colorado Prevention Center Clinical Research and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora (M.S.); State University of New York Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn (M.S.); Université de Paris, French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, INSERM Unité 1148 (P.G.S.), and Paris Sorbonne University and Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint Joseph (M.K.), Paris; Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute (L.A.L., S.V.) and the Divisions of Endocrinology and Metabolism (L.A.L.) and Cardiac Surgery (S.V.), St. Michael's Hospital, and the Departments of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences (L.A.L) and Surgery and Pharmacology and Toxicology (S.V.), University of Toronto, Toronto; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Parkland Health and Hospital System, Dallas (D.K.M.), and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, The Woodlands (P.L.) - both in Texas; Vanderbilt University, Nashville (J.B.L.); the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (M.C.R.); University of Groningen-University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands (A.A.V); Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale Spedali Civili and University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy (M.M.); Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (L.H.L.); Yale University, New Haven, CT (J.M.T.); Georgetown University, Washington, DC (C.S.W.); Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland (P.P.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (R.D.L.); and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (B.P.).

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes among patients with stable heart failure. However, the safety and efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors when initiated soon after an episode of decompensated heart failure are unknown.

Methods: We performed a multicenter, double-blind trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were recently hospitalized for worsening heart failure were randomly assigned to receive sotagliflozin or placebo. The primary end point was the total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes and hospitalizations and urgent visits for heart failure (first and subsequent events). The trial ended early because of loss of funding from the sponsor.

Results: A total of 1222 patients underwent randomization (608 to the sotagliflozin group and 614 to the placebo group) and were followed for a median of 9.0 months; the first dose of sotagliflozin or placebo was administered before discharge in 48.8% and a median of 2 days after discharge in 51.2%. Among these patients, 600 primary end-point events occurred (245 in the sotagliflozin group and 355 in the placebo group). The rate (the number of events per 100 patient-years) of primary end-point events was lower in the sotagliflozin group than in the placebo group (51.0 vs. 76.3; hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.85; P<0.001). The rate of death from cardiovascular causes was 10.6 in the sotagliflozin group and 12.5 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.22); the rate of death from any cause was 13.5 in the sotagliflozin group and 16.3 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.14). Diarrhea was more common with sotagliflozin than with placebo (6.1% vs. 3.4%), as was severe hypoglycemia (1.5% vs. 0.3%). The percentage of patients with hypotension was similar in the sotagliflozin group and the placebo group (6.0% and 4.6%, respectively), as was the percentage with acute kidney injury (4.1% and 4.4%, respectively). The benefits of sotagliflozin were consistent in the prespecified subgroups of patients stratified according to the timing of the first dose.

Conclusions: In patients with diabetes and recent worsening heart failure, sotagliflozin therapy, initiated before or shortly after discharge, resulted in a significantly lower total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes and hospitalizations and urgent visits for heart failure than placebo. (Funded by Sanofi and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals; SOLOIST-WHF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03521934.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2030183DOI Listing
January 2021

Sotagliflozin in Patients with Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease.

N Engl J Med 2021 01 16;384(2):129-139. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

From Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart and Vascular Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston (D.L.B., C.P.C., B.M.S.); Colorado Prevention Center Clinical Research and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora (M.S.); the State University of New York Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn (M.S.); the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (B.P.); Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute and the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St. Michael's Hospital, and the Departments of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto (L.A.L.), and the Division of Nephrology (D.Z.I.C.) and the Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Women's College Hospital and Peter Munk Cardiac Centre (J.A.U.), University Health Network, University of Toronto - all in Toronto; the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Parkland Health and Hospital System, Dallas (D.K.M.), and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, The Woodlands (P.L.) - both in Texas; Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville (J.B.L., J.P.D.); the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (M.C.R.); the Section of Endocrinology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (S.E.I.); Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City (M.N.K.); the School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham (C.J.B.), and the Imperial Centre for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London (K.K.R.) - both in the United Kingdom; the Department of Medicine, Estudios Clínicos Latinoamérica, Instituto Cardiovascular de Rosario, Rosario, Argentina (R.D.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (R.D.L.); and Université de Paris, French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, INSERM Unité 1148, Paris (P.G.S.).

Background: The efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors such as sotagliflozin in preventing cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes with chronic kidney disease with or without albuminuria have not been well studied.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter, double-blind trial in which patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (glycated hemoglobin level, ≥7%), chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area), and risks for cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive sotagliflozin or placebo. The primary end point was changed during the trial to the composite of the total number of deaths from cardiovascular causes, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure. The trial ended early owing to loss of funding.

Results: Of 19,188 patients screened, 10,584 were enrolled, with 5292 assigned to the sotagliflozin group and 5292 assigned to the placebo group, and followed for a median of 16 months. The rate of primary end-point events was 5.6 events per 100 patient-years in the sotagliflozin group and 7.5 events per 100 patient-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 0.88; P<0.001). The rate of deaths from cardiovascular causes per 100 patient-years was 2.2 with sotagliflozin and 2.4 with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.12; P = 0.35). For the original coprimary end point of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, the hazard ratio was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.99); for the original coprimary end point of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure, the hazard ratio was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.91). Diarrhea, genital mycotic infections, volume depletion, and diabetic ketoacidosis were more common with sotagliflozin than with placebo.

Conclusions: In patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, with or without albuminuria, sotagliflozin resulted in a lower risk of the composite of deaths from cardiovascular causes, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent visits for heart failure than placebo but was associated with adverse events. (Funded by Sanofi and Lexicon Pharmaceuticals; SCORED ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03315143.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2030186DOI Listing
January 2021

Lipoprotein(a) lowering by alirocumab reduces the total burden of cardiovascular events independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial.

Eur Heart J 2020 11;41(44):4245-4255

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Box B130, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Aims: Lipoprotein(a) concentration is associated with first cardiovascular events in clinical trials. It is unknown if this relationship holds for total (first and subsequent) events. In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab reduced lipoprotein(a), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and cardiovascular events compared with placebo. This post hoc analysis determined whether baseline levels and alirocumab-induced changes in lipoprotein(a) and LDL-C [corrected for lipoprotein(a) cholesterol] independently predicted total cardiovascular events.

Methods And Results: Cardiovascular events included cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina or heart failure, ischaemia-driven coronary revascularization, peripheral artery disease events, and venous thromboembolism. Proportional hazards models estimated relationships between baseline lipoprotein(a) and total cardiovascular events in the placebo group, effects of alirocumab treatment on total cardiovascular events by baseline lipoprotein(a), and relationships between lipoprotein(a) reduction with alirocumab and subsequent risk of total cardiovascular events. Baseline lipoprotein(a) predicted total cardiovascular events with placebo, while higher baseline lipoprotein(a) levels were associated with greater reduction in total cardiovascular events with alirocumab (hazard ratio Ptrend = 0.045). Alirocumab-induced reductions in lipoprotein(a) (median -5.0 [-13.6, 0] mg/dL) and corrected LDL-C (median -51.3 [-67.1, -34.0] mg/dL) independently predicted lower risk of total cardiovascular events. Each 5-mg/dL reduction in lipoprotein(a) predicted a 2.5% relative reduction in cardiovascular events.

Conclusion: Baseline lipoprotein(a) predicted the risk of total cardiovascular events and risk reduction by alirocumab. Lipoprotein(a) lowering contributed independently to cardiovascular event reduction, supporting the concept of lipoprotein(a) as a treatment target after ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724642PMC
November 2020

Effect of alirocumab on major adverse cardiovascular events according to renal function in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome: prespecified analysis from the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES randomized clinical trial.

Eur Heart J 2020 11;41(42):4114-4123

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Aims: Statins reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and normal-to-moderately impaired renal function. It is not known whether proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors provide similar benefit across a range of renal function. We determined whether effects of the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab to reduce cardiovascular events and death after ACS are influenced by renal function.

Methods And Results: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared alirocumab with placebo in patients with recent ACS and dyslipidaemia despite intensive statin treatment. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 was exclusionary. In 18 918 patients, baseline eGFR was 82.8 ± 17.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 92 ± 31 mg/dL. At 36 months, alirocumab decreased LDL-C by 48.5% vs. placebo but did not affect eGFR (P = 0.65). Overall, alirocumab reduced risk of the primary outcome (coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization) with fewer deaths. There was no interaction between continuous eGFR and treatment on the primary outcome or death (P = 0.14 and 0.59, respectively). Alirocumab reduced primary outcomes in patients with eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 7470; hazard ratio 0.784, 95% confidence interval 0.670-0.919; P = 0.003) and 60 to <90 (n = 9326; 0.833, 0.731-0.949; P = 0.006), but not in those with eGFR < 60 (n = 2122; 0.974, 0.805-1.178; P = 0.784). Adverse events other than local injection-site reactions were similar in both groups across all categories of eGFR.

Conclusions: In patients with recent ACS, alirocumab was associated with fewer cardiovascular events and deaths across the range of renal function studied, with larger relative risk reductions in those with eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700757PMC
November 2020

Cost-Effectiveness of Alirocumab in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes: The ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Trial.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 05;75(18):2297-2308

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, Université de Paris, French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1148, Paris, France; National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/gabrielsteg.

Background: Cholesterol reduction with proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitors reduces ischemic events; however, the cost-effectiveness in statin-treated patients with recent acute coronary syndrome remains uncertain.

Objectives: This study sought to determine whether further cholesterol reduction with alirocumab would be cost-effective in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome on optimal statin therapy.

Methods: A cost-effectiveness model leveraging patient-level data from ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) was developed to estimate costs and outcomes over a lifetime horizon. Patients (n = 18,924) had a recent acute coronary syndrome and were on high-intensity or maximum-tolerated statin therapy, with a baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level ≥70 mg/dl, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dl, or apolipoprotein B ≥80 mg/l. Alirocumab 75 mg or placebo was administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Alirocumab was blindly titrated to 150 mg if LDL-C remained ≥50 mg/dl or switched to placebo if 2 consecutive LDL-C levels were <15 mg/dl. Incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) was determined with the addition of alirocumab versus placebo and, based on clinical efficacy findings from the trial, was stratified by baseline LDL-C levels ≥100 mg/dl and <100 mg/dl.

Results: Across the overall population recruited to the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial, using an annual treatment cost of US$5,850, the mean overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$92,200 per QALY (base case). The cost was US$41,800 per QALY in patients with baseline LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl, whereas in those with LDL-C <100 mg/dl the cost per QALY was US$299,400. Among patients with LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios remained below US$100,000 per QALY across a wide variety of sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome on optimal statin therapy, alirocumab improves cardiovascular outcomes at costs considered intermediate value, with good value in patients with baseline LDL-C ≥100 mg/dl but less economic value with LDL-C <100 mg/dl. (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab [ODYSSEY OUTCOMES]; NCT01663402).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.03.029DOI Listing
May 2020

Peripheral Artery Disease and Venous Thromboembolic Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome: Role of Lipoprotein(a) and Modification by Alirocumab: Prespecified Analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Randomized Clinical Trial.

Circulation 2020 05 29;141(20):1608-1617. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Brigham and Women's Hospital Heart & Vascular Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (D.L.B.).

Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome are at risk for peripheral artery disease (PAD) events and venous thromboembolism (VTE). PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitors reduce lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Our objective was to ascertain whether PCSK9 inhibition reduces the risk of PAD events or VTE after acute coronary syndrome, and if such effects are related to levels of lipoprotein(a) or LDL-C.

Methods: This was a prespecified analysis of the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES randomized clinical trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome), which was conducted in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome on intensive or maximum-tolerated statin treatment who were randomized to the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab or placebo. In a prespecified analysis, PAD events (critical limb ischemia, limb revascularization, or amputation for ischemia) and VTE (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) were assessed. LDL-C was corrected (LDL-C) for cholesterol content in lipoprotein(a).

Results: At baseline, median lipoprotein(a) and LDL-C were 21 and 75 mg/dL, respectively; with alirocumab, median relative reductions were 23.5% and 70.6%, respectively. PAD events and VTE occurred in 246 and 92 patients, respectively. In the placebo group, risk of PAD events was related to baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (=0.0021), and tended to associate with baseline quartile of LDL-C (=0.06); VTE tended to associate with baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (=0.06), but not LDL-C (=0.85). Alirocumab reduced risk of PAD events (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.54-0.89]; =0.004), with nonsignificantly fewer VTE events (HR, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.44-1.01]; =0.06). Reduction in PAD events with alirocumab was associated with baseline quartile of lipoprotein(a) (=0.03), but not LDL-C (=0.50). With alirocumab, the change from baseline to Month 4 in lipoprotein(a), but not LDL-C, was associated with the risk of VTE and the composite of VTE and PAD events.

Conclusions: In statin-treated patients with recent acute coronary syndrome, risk of PAD events is related to lipoprotein(a) level and is reduced by alirocumab, particularly among those with high lipoprotein(a). Further study is required to confirm whether risk of VTE is related to lipoprotein(a) level and its reduction with alirocumab. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01663402.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.046524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242174PMC
May 2020

Role of Combination Antiplatelet and Anticoagulation Therapy in Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease: Insights From the COMPASS Trial.

Circulation 2020 06 28;141(23):1841-1854. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences, Ontario, Canada (J.W.E., S.J.C., S.S.A., J.B., O.S., S.Y.).

Background: Patients with established coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease often have diabetes mellitus. These patients are at high risk of future vascular events.

Methods: In a prespecified analysis of the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies), we compared the effects of rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg daily) versus placebo plus aspirin in patients with diabetes mellitus versus without diabetes mellitus in preventing major vascular events. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary end points included all-cause mortality and all major vascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major adverse limb events, including amputation). The primary safety end point was a modification of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria for major bleeding.

Results: There were 10 341 patients with diabetes mellitus and 17 054 without diabetes mellitus in the overall trial. A consistent and similar relative risk reduction was seen for benefit of rivaroxaban plus aspirin (n=9152) versus placebo plus aspirin (n=9126) in patients both with (n=6922) and without (n=11 356) diabetes mellitus for the primary efficacy end point (hazard ratio, 0.74, =0.002; and hazard ratio, 0.77, =0.005, respectively, =0.77) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.81, =0.05; and hazard ratio, 0.84, =0.09, respectively; =0.82). However, although the absolute risk reductions appeared numerically larger in patients with versus without diabetes mellitus, both subgroups derived similar benefit (2.3% versus 1.4% for the primary efficacy end point at 3 years, Gail-Simon qualitative <0.0001; 1.9% versus 0.6% for all-cause mortality, =0.02; 2.7% versus 1.7% for major vascular events, <0.0001). Because the bleeding hazards were similar among patients with and without diabetes mellitus, the prespecified net benefit for rivaroxaban appeared particularly favorable in the patients with diabetes mellitus (2.7% versus 1.0%; Gail-Simon qualitative =0.001).

Conclusions: In stable atherosclerosis, the combination of aspirin plus rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily provided a similar relative degree of benefit on coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral end points in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Given their higher baseline risk, the absolute benefits appeared larger in those with diabetes mellitus, including a 3-fold greater reduction in all-cause mortality. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01776424.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.046448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314494PMC
June 2020

Atorvastatin Reduces First and Subsequent Vascular Events Across Vascular Territories: The SPARCL Trial.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 05 16;75(17):2110-2118. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Rosalind Franklin University, North Chicago, Illinois.

Background: In the SPARCL (Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels) trial, atorvastatin was compared with placebo in 4,731 participants with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease. Atorvastatin reduced the first occurrence of stroke and the first occurrence of a composite of vascular events.

Objectives: The aim of this post hoc analysis was to assess the occurrence of all (first and subsequent) vascular events and the effect of atorvastatin to reduce these events by vascular territory (cerebrovascular, coronary, or peripheral) in SPARCL.

Methods: Treatment effects on total adjudicated vascular events, overall and by vascular territory, were summarized by marginal proportional hazards models. Vascular event rates were estimated for each treatment group with cumulative incidence functions.

Results: The placebo group had an estimated 41.2 first and 62.7 total vascular events per 100 participants over 6 years. There were 164 fewer first and 390 fewer total vascular events in the atorvastatin group (total events hazard ratio: 0.68; 95% confidence interval: 0.60 to 0.77). The total events reduction included 177 fewer cerebrovascular, 170 fewer coronary, and 43 fewer peripheral events. Over 6 years, an estimated 20 vascular events per 100 participants were avoided with atorvastatin treatment.

Conclusions: In participants with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack, the total number of vascular events prevented with atorvastatin was more than twice the number of first events prevented. Total event reduction provides a comprehensive metric to capture the totality of atorvastatin clinical efficacy in reducing disease burden after stroke or transient ischemic attack. (Lipitor in the Prevention of Stroke, for Patients Who Have Had a Previous Stroke [SPARCL]; NCT00147602).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.03.015DOI Listing
May 2020

Effect of Alirocumab on Lipoprotein(a) and Cardiovascular Risk After Acute Coronary Syndrome.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 01;75(2):133-144

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.

Background: Lipoprotein(a) concentration is associated with cardiovascular events. Alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor, lowers lipoprotein(a) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).

Objectives: A pre-specified analysis of the placebo-controlled ODYSSEY Outcomes trial in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) determined whether alirocumab-induced changes in lipoprotein(a) and LDL-C independently predicted major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE).

Methods: One to 12 months after ACS, 18,924 patients on high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo and followed for 2.8 years (median). Lipoprotein(a) was measured at randomization and 4 and 12 months thereafter. The primary MACE outcome was coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina.

Results: Baseline lipoprotein(a) levels (median: 21.2 mg/dl; interquartile range [IQR]: 6.7 to 59.6 mg/dl) and LDL-C [corrected for cholesterol content in lipoprotein(a)] predicted MACE. Alirocumab reduced lipoprotein(a) by 5.0 mg/dl (IQR: 0 to 13.5 mg/dl), corrected LDL-C by 51.1 mg/dl (IQR: 33.7 to 67.2 mg/dl), and reduced the risk of MACE (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78 to 0.93). Alirocumab-induced reductions of lipoprotein(a) and corrected LDL-C independently predicted lower risk of MACE, after adjustment for baseline concentrations of both lipoproteins and demographic and clinical characteristics. A 1-mg/dl reduction in lipoprotein(a) with alirocumab was associated with a HR of 0.994 (95% CI: 0.990 to 0.999; p = 0.0081).

Conclusions: Baseline lipoprotein(a) and corrected LDL-C levels and their reductions by alirocumab predicted the risk of MACE after recent ACS. Lipoprotein(a) lowering by alirocumab is an independent contributor to MACE reduction, which suggests that lipoprotein(a) should be an independent treatment target after ACS. (ODYSSEY Outcomes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.10.057DOI Listing
January 2020

Effect of alirocumab on cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndromes according to age: an ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial analysis.

Eur Heart J 2020 06;41(24):2248-2258

Hopital Bichat, Universiteé de Paris, FACT (French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials), INSERM U1148, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Aims: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduces cardiovascular risk irrespective of age, but the evidence is less strong for older patients.

Methods And Results: This prespecified analysis from ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the effect of alirocumab vs. placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) according to age. We examined the effect of assigned treatment on occurrence of the primary study outcome, a composite of coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization [major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE)] and all-cause death. Relative risk reductions were consistent for patients ≥65 vs. <65 years for MACE [hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.91 vs. 0.89, 0.80-1.00; Pinteraction = 0.19] and all-cause death [HR 0.77, 0.62-0.95 vs. 0.94, 0.77-1.15; Pinteraction = 0.46], and consistent for MACE when dichotomizing at age 75 years (HR 0.85, 0.64-1.13 in ≥75 vs. 0.85, 0.78-0.93 in <75, Pinteraction = 0.19). When considering age as a continuous variable in regression models, advancing age increased risk of MACE, as well as the absolute reduction in MACE with alirocumab, with numbers-needed-to-treat for MACE at 3 years of 43 (25-186) at age 45 years, 26 (15-97) at age 75 years, and 12 (6-81) for those at age 85 years. Although adverse events were more frequent in older patients, there were no differences between alirocumab and placebo.

Conclusion: In patients with recent ACS, alirocumab improves outcomes irrespective of age. Increasing absolute benefit but not harm with advancing age suggests that LDL-C lowering is an important preventive intervention for older patients after ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308542PMC
June 2020

Patients With High Genome-Wide Polygenic Risk Scores for Coronary Artery Disease May Receive Greater Clinical Benefit From Alirocumab Treatment in the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Trial.

Circulation 2020 02 11;141(8):624-636. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc, Tarrytown, NY (A.D., P.B., G.M., R.P., J.D.O., L.A.L., G.D.Y., G.R.A., A.B., C.P.).

Background: Alirocumab, an antibody that blocks PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9), was associated with reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and death in the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab). In this study, higher baseline levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) predicted greater benefit from alirocumab treatment. Recent studies indicate high polygenic risk scores (PRS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) identify individuals at higher risk who derive increased benefit from statins. We performed post hoc analyses to determine whether high PRS for CAD identifies higher-risk individuals, independent of baseline LDL-C and other known risk factors, who might derive greater benefit from alirocumab treatment.

Methods: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing alirocumab or placebo in 18 924 patients with acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite optimized statin treatment. The primary endpoint (MACE) comprised death of CAD, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. A genome-wide PRS for CAD comprising 6 579 025 genetic variants was evaluated in 11 953 patients with available DNA samples. Analysis of MACE risk was performed in placebo-treated patients, whereas treatment benefit analysis was performed in all patients.

Results: The incidence of MACE in the placebo group was related to PRS for CAD: 17.0% for high PRS patients (>90th percentile) and 11.4% for lower PRS patients (≤90th percentile; <0.001); this PRS relationship was not explained by baseline LDL-C or other established risk factors. Both the absolute and relative reduction of MACE by alirocumab compared with placebo was greater in high versus low PRS patients. There was an absolute reduction by alirocumab in high versus low PRS groups of 6.0% and 1.5%, respectively, and a relative risk reduction by alirocumab of 37% in the high PRS group (hazard ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.46-0.86]; =0.004) versus a 13% reduction in the low PRS group (hazard ratio, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.78-0.98]; =0.022; interaction =0.04).

Conclusions: A high PRS for CAD is associated with elevated risk for recurrent MACE after acute coronary syndrome and a larger absolute and relative risk reduction with alirocumab treatment, providing an independent tool for risk stratification and precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044434DOI Listing
February 2020

Alirocumab Reduces Total Hospitalizations and Increases Days Alive and Out of Hospital in the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Trial.

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2019 11 11;12(11):e005858. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (G.G.S.).

Background: In ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), alirocumab was compared with placebo, added to high-intensity or maximum tolerated statin treatment after acute coronary syndrome in 18 924 patients. Alirocumab reduced first occurrence of the primary composite end point-coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina-as well as total nonfatal cardiovascular events and all-cause deaths. The present analysis determined whether alirocumab reduced total (first and subsequent) hospitalizations and death and increased days alive and out of hospital (DAOH) and percent DAOH in ODYSSEY OUTCOMES.

Methods And Results: In prespecified analyses, hazard functions for total hospitalizations and death were jointly estimated by a semiparametric model, while in post hoc analyses, DAOH and percent DAOH were compared between treatment groups with Poisson regression and one-inflated beta regression, respectively. With 16 629 total hospitalizations and 726 deaths, 331 fewer hospitalizations, and 58 fewer deaths were observed with alirocumab compared with placebo, translating to 15.6 total hospitalizations or deaths avoided with alirocumab per 1000 patient-years of assigned treatment. Alirocumab reduced total hospitalizations (hazard ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.92-1.00]; =0.04) and increased DAOH relative to placebo (rate ratio, 1.003 [95% CI, 1.000-1.007]; =0.05), primarily through a reduction in days dead (rate ratio, 0.847 [95% CI, 0.728-0.986]; =0.03). Patients randomized to alirocumab were also more likely to survive to the end of the study without hospitalization (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.00-1.13]; =0.03).

Conclusions: Alirocumab reduced total hospitalizations with corresponding small increases in DAOH and percent DAOH. These outcomes provide alternative patient-centered metrics to capture the totality of alirocumab clinical efficacy after acute coronary syndrome.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.119.005858DOI Listing
November 2019

Effect of Alirocumab on Stroke in ODYSSEY OUTCOMES.

Circulation 2019 12 11;140(25):2054-2062. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, Université de Paris, FACT (French Alliance for Cardiovascular Trials), INSERM U1148, Paris (P.G.S.).

Background: Lowering of atherogenic lipoproteins, including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), reduces the risk of ischemic stroke. However, concerns have been raised about very low LDL-C levels and a potential increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. ODYSSEY OUTCOMES compared the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab with placebo in 18 924 patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins, despite intensive statin therapy, targeting LDL-C levels of 25 to 50 mg/dL and avoiding sustained LDL-C <15 mg/dL. This prespecified analysis was designed to assess the effect of alirocumab on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. We hypothesized that for patients treated with alirocumab there would be a reduction in risk of ischemic stroke without increasing hemorrhagic stroke, irrespective of baseline LDL-C and of history of cerebrovascular disease.

Methods: Patients were randomized to alirocumab or placebo 1 to 12 months after acute coronary syndrome. The risk of nonfatal or fatal ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke was evaluated, stratified by baseline LDL-C concentration and history of cerebrovascular disease. A potential association of very low achieved LDL-C with alirocumab treatment at month 4 and subsequent hemorrhagic stroke was assessed.

Results: Median follow-up was 2.8 years. In total, 263 ischemic and 33 hemorrhagic strokes occurred. Alirocumab reduced the risk of any stroke (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.57-0.91]) and ischemic stroke (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.57-0.93]) without increasing hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.42-1.65]). In total, 7164 (37.9%), 6128 (32.4%), and 5629 (29.7%) patients had a baseline LDL-C of <80, 80 to 100, and >100 mg/dL, respectively. The treatment effect on stroke appeared numerically greater for patients with higher baseline LDL-C, but there was no formal evidence of heterogeneity (=0.31). The effect of alirocumab on stroke was similar among 944 patients (5.0%) with a history of previous cerebrovascular disease and among those without a history of cerebrovascular disease (=0.37). There was no apparent adverse relation between lower achieved LDL-C and incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the alirocumab group.

Conclusions: In patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidemia despite intensive statin therapy, alirocumab decreased the risk of stroke, irrespective of baseline LDL-C and history of cerebrovascular disease, over a median follow-up of 2.8 years. Furthermore, risk of hemorrhagic stroke did not depend on achieved LDL-C levels within the alirocumab group.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6919220PMC
December 2019

Risk Categorization Using New American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines for Cholesterol Management and Its Relation to Alirocumab Treatment Following Acute Coronary Syndromes.

Circulation 2019 11 2;140(19):1578-1589. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

University of Colorado, Aurora (R.V., G.G.S.).

Background: The 2018 US cholesterol management guidelines recommend additional lipid-lowering therapies for secondary prevention in patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥70 mg/dL or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥100 mg/dL despite maximum tolerated statin therapy. Such patients are considered at very high risk (VHR) based on a history of >1 major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event or a single ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. We investigated the association of US guideline-defined risk categories with the occurrence of ischemic events after acute coronary syndrome and reduction of those events by alirocumab, a PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitor.

Methods: In the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab), patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and residual dyslipidemia despite optimal statin therapy were randomly assigned to alirocumab or placebo. The primary trial outcome (major adverse cardiovascular events, ie, coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) was examined according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association risk category.

Results: Of 18 924 participants followed for a median of 2.8 years, 11 935 (63.1%) were classified as VHR: 4450 (37.3%) had multiple prior ASCVD events and 7485 (62.7%) had 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 14.4% of placebo-treated patients at VHR versus 5.6% of those not at VHR. In the VHR category, major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 20.4% with multiple prior ASCVD events versus 10.7% with 1 ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions. Alirocumab was associated with consistent relative risk reductions in both risk categories (hazard ratio=0.84 for VHR; hazard ratio=0.86 for not VHR; =0.820) and by stratification within the VHR group (hazard ratio=0.86 for multiple prior ASCVD events; hazard ratio=0.82 for 1 major ASCVD event and multiple high-risk conditions; =0.672). The absolute risk reduction for major adverse cardiovascular events with alirocumab was numerically greater (but not statistically different) in the VHR group versus those not at VHR (2.1% versus 0.8%; =0.095) and among patients at VHR with multiple prior ASCVD events versus a single prior ASCVD event (2.4% versus 1.8%; =0.661).

Conclusions: The US guideline criteria identify patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and dyslipidemia who are at VHR for recurrent ischemic events and who may derive a larger absolute benefit from treatment with alirocumab.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01663402.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.042551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6830944PMC
November 2019

Effects of Alirocumab on Cardiovascular Events After Coronary Bypass Surgery.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 09;74(9):1177-1186

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.

Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and history of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are at high risk for recurrent cardiovascular events and death.

Objectives: This study sought to determine the clinical benefit of adding alirocumab to statins in ACS patients with prior CABG in a pre-specified analysis of ODYSSEY OUTCOMES (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab).

Methods: Patients (n = 18,924) 1 to 12 months post-ACS with elevated atherogenic lipoprotein levels despite high-intensity statin therapy were randomized to alirocumab or placebo subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. The primary composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) comprised coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. All-cause death was a secondary endpoint. Patients were categorized by CABG status: no CABG (n = 16,896); index CABG after qualifying ACS, but before randomization (n = 1,025); or CABG before the qualifying ACS (n = 1,003).

Results: In each CABG category, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for MACE (no CABG 0.86 [0.78 to 0.95], index CABG 0.85 [0.54 to 1.35], prior CABG 0.77 [0.61 to 0.98]) and death (0.88 [0.75 to 1.03], 0.85 [0.46 to 1.59], 0.67 [0.44 to 1.01], respectively) were consistent with the overall trial results (0.85 [0.78 to 0.93] and 0.85 [0.73 to 0.98], respectively). Absolute risk reductions (95% confidence intervals) differed across CABG categories for MACE (no CABG 1.3% [0.5% to 2.2%], index CABG 0.9% [-2.3% to 4.0%], prior CABG 6.4% [0.9% to 12.0%]) and for death (0.4% [-0.1% to 1.0%], 0.5% [-1.9% to 2.9%], and 3.6% [0.0% to 7.2%]).

Conclusions: Among patients with recent ACS and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite intensive statin therapy, alirocumab was associated with large absolute reductions in MACE and death in those with CABG preceding the ACS event. (ODYSSEY OUTCOMES: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).
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September 2019
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