Publications by authors named "Michael R Jensen"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Case Report on Deep Brain Stimulation Rescue After Suboptimal MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy for Essential Tremor: A Tractography-Based Investigation.

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 26;14:191. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States.

Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder in adults, and can often be medically refractory, requiring surgical intervention. MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a less invasive procedure that uses ultrasonic waves to induce lesions in the ventralis intermedius nucleus (VIM) to treat refractory ET. As with all procedures for treating ET, optimal targeting during MRgFUS is essential for efficacy and durability. Various studies have reported cases of tremor recurrence following MRgFUS and long-term outcome data is limited to 3-4 years. We present a tractography-based investigation on a case of DBS rescue for medically refractory ET that was treated with MRgFUS that was interrupted due to the development of dysarthria during the procedure. After initial improvement, her hand tremor started to recur within 6 months after treatment, and bilateral DBS was performed targeting the VIM 24 months after MRgFUS. DBS induced long-term tremor control with monopolar stimulation. Diffusion MRI tractography was used to reconstruct the dentatorubrothalamic (DRTT) and corticothalmic (CTT) tracts being modulated by the procedures to understand the variability in efficacy between MRgFUS and DBS in treating ET in our patient. By comparing the MRgFUS lesion and DBS volume of activated tissue (VAT), we found that the MRgFUS lesion was located ventromedially to the VAT, and was less than 10% of the size of the VAT. While the lesion encompassed the same proportion of DRTT streamlines, it encompassed fewer CTT streamlines than the VAT. Our findings indicate the need for further investigation of targeting the CTT when using neuromodulatory procedures to treat refractory ET for more permanent tremor relief.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333679PMC
June 2020

Genetic heterogeneity and clonal evolution during metastasis in breast cancer patient-derived tumor xenograft models.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2020 31;18:323-331. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Disease Area Oncology, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Genetic heterogeneity within a tumor arises by clonal evolution, and patients with highly heterogeneous tumors are more likely to be resistant to therapy and have reduced survival. Clonal evolution also occurs when a subset of cells leave the primary tumor to form metastases, which leads to reduced genetic heterogeneity at the metastatic site. Although this process has been observed in human cancer, experimental models which recapitulate this process are lacking. Patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDX) have been shown to recapitulate the patient's original tumor's intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity, as well as its genomics and response to treatment, but whether they can be used to model clonal evolution in the metastatic process is currently unknown. Here, we address this question by following genetic changes in two breast cancer PDX models during metastasis. First, we discovered that mouse stroma can be a confounding factor in assessing intra-tumor heterogeneity by whole exome sequencing, thus we developed a new bioinformatic approach to correct for this. Finally, in a spontaneous, but not experimental (tail-vein) metastasis model we observed a loss of heterogeneity in PDX metastases compared to their orthotopic "primary" tumors, confirming that PDX models can faithfully mimic the clonal evolution process undergone in human patients during metastatic spreading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2020.01.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026725PMC
January 2020

EQ-5D Quality-of-Life Analysis and Cost-Effectiveness After Skull Base Meningioma Resection.

Neurosurgery 2019 09;85(3):E543-E552

Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neurosciences Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Background: Skull base meningioma management is complicated by their proximity to intracranial neurovascular structures because complete resection may pose a risk of worsening morbidity.

Objective: To assess the influence of clinical outcomes and surgical management on patient-perceived quality-of-life outcomes, value, and cost-effectiveness.

Methods: Patients who underwent resection of a skull base meningioma, had adequate clinical follow-up, and completed EQ-5D-3L questionnaires preoperatively and at 1 mo and 1 yr postoperatively were identified in a retrospective review. Cost data from the Value Driven Outcomes database were analyzed.

Results: A total of 52 patients (83.0% women, mean age 51.9 yr) were categorized by worsened (n = 7), unchanged (n = 24), or improved (n = 21) EQ-5D-3L index scores at 1-mo follow-up. No difference in subcategory cost contribution or total cost was seen in the 3 groups. Patients with improved scores showed a steady improvement through each follow-up period, whereas those with unchanged or worsened scores did not. Mean quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost per QALY improved for all groups but at a higher rate for patients with better outcomes at 30-d follow-up. Female sex, absence of proptosis, nonfrontotemporal approaches, no optic nerve decompression, and absence of surgical complications demonstrated improved EQ-5D-3L scores at 1-yr follow-up. A mean cost per QALY of $27 731.06 ± 22 050.58 was observed for the whole group and did not significantly differ among patient groups (P = .1).

Conclusion: Patients undergoing resection of skull base meningiomas and who experience an immediate improvement in EQ-5D are likely to show continued improvement at 1 yr, with improved QALY and reduced cost per QALY.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz040DOI Listing
September 2019

Trends and Cost Analysis of Upper Extremity Nerve Injury Using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample.

World Neurosurg 2019 Mar 28;123:e488-e500. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neurosciences Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Epidemiology in upper extremity peripheral nerve injury (PNI) has not been comprehensively evaluated. The aim of this study was to calculate updated incidence of upper extremity PNIs in the United States and examine clinical trends and costs using a national database.

Methods: The National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample was used to evaluate patients with upper extremity PNI (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 9534, 9550-9559) in 2001-2013.

Results: A weighted total of 170,579 patients experienced upper extremity PNI, representing a mean incidence of 43.8/1 million people annually. Mean (± SEM) age of patients was 38.1 ± 0.05 years, 74.3% of patients were male, and 49.0% were Caucasian. PNIs occurred to the ulnar (17.8%), radial (15.1%), digital (18.0%), median (13.0%), multiple (11.5%), and other (10.1%) nerves and brachial plexus (14.5%). The number of upper extremity PNIs decreased overall. Average care charge was $47,004 ± $185, with an average increase of $4623/year and compound annual growth rate of 9.59%. Although surgical nerve repair and home disposition were common with isolated PNIs, patients with brachial plexus PNIs did not have nerve surgery and were more likely to be discharged to skilled nursing facilities. Multivariate analysis showed that length of stay (β = 0.677, P = 0.0001) and number of procedures (β = 0.188, P = 0.0001) most affected total patient charges.

Conclusions: These results suggest an overall decrease in number of PNIs, suggesting lower incidence or frequency of detection; however, the cost of care has increased. Despite advances in nerve repair techniques, nerve surgery rates have not increased, especially for brachial plexus injuries, which may be undertreated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.11.192DOI Listing
March 2019

Dose and Schedule Determine Distinct Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Efficacy of the p53-MDM2 Inhibitor HDM201.

Cancer Res 2018 11 22;78(21):6257-6267. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Disease Area Oncology, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Activation of p53 by inhibitors of the p53-MDM2 interaction is being pursued as a therapeutic strategy in p53 wild-type cancers. Here, we report distinct mechanisms by which the novel, potent, and selective inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 interaction HDM201 elicits therapeutic efficacy when applied at various doses and schedules. Continuous exposure of HDM201 led to induction of p21 and delayed accumulation of apoptotic cells. By comparison, high-dose pulses of HDM201 were associated with marked induction of PUMA and a rapid onset of apoptosis. shRNA screens identified PUMA as a mediator of the p53 response specifically in the pulsed regimen. Consistent with this, the single high-dose HDM201 regimen resulted in rapid and marked induction of PUMA expression and apoptosis together with downregulation of Bcl-xL Knockdown of Bcl-xL was identified as the top sensitizer to HDM201 , and Bcl-xL was enriched in relapsing tumors from mice treated with intermittent high doses of HDM201. These findings define a regimen-dependent mechanism by which disruption of MDM2-p53 elicits therapeutic efficacy when given with infrequent dosing. In an ongoing HDM201 trial, the observed exposure-response relationship indicates that the molecular mechanism elicited by pulse dosing is likely reproducible in patients. These data support the clinical comparison of daily and intermittent regimens of p53-MDM2 inhibitors. Pulsed high doses versus sustained low doses of the p53-MDM2 inhibitor HDM201 elicit a proapoptotic response from wild-type p53 cancer cells, offering guidance to current clinical trials with this and other drugs that exploit the activity of p53. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-0338DOI Listing
November 2018

Trends and Cost-Analysis of Lower Extremity Nerve Injury Using the National Inpatient Sample.

Neurosurgery 2019 08;85(2):250-256

Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neurosciences Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Background: Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) of the lower extremities have been assessed in small cohort studies; however, the actual incidence, national trends, comorbidities, and cost of care in lower extremity PNI are not defined. Lack of sufficient data limits discussion on national policies, payors, and other aspects fundamental to the delivery of care in the US.

Objective: To establish estimates of lower extremity PNIs incidence, associated diagnoses, and cost in the US using a comprehensive database with a minimum of a decade of data.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample was utilized to evaluate International Classification of Disease codes for specific lower extremity PNIs (9560-9568) between 2001 and 2013.

Results: Lower extremity PNIs occurred with a mean incidence of 13.3 cases per million population annually, which declined minimally from 2001 to 2013. The mean ± SEM age was 41.6 ± 0.1 yr; 61.1% of patients were males. Most were admitted via the emergency department (56.0%). PNIs occurred to the sciatic (16.6%), femoral (10.7%), tibial (6.0%), peroneal (33.4%), multiple nerves (1.3%), and other (32.0%). Associated diagnoses included lower extremity fracture (13.4%), complications of care (11.2%), open wounds (10.3%), crush injury (9.7%), and other (7.2%). Associated procedures included tibial fixation (23.3%), closure of skin (20.1%), debridement of open fractures (15.4%), fixation of other bones (13.5%), and wound debridement (14.5%). The mean annual unadjusted compounded growth rate of charges was 8.8%. The mean ± SEM annual charge over the time period was $64 031.20 ± $421.10, which was associated with the number of procedure codes (β = 0.2), length of stay (β = 0.6), and year (β = 0.1) in a multivariable analysis (P = .0001).

Conclusion: These data describe associations in the treatment of lower extremity PNIs, which are important for considering national policies, costs, research and the delivery of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyy265DOI Listing
August 2019

Thoracolumbar Cortical Screw Placement with Interbody Fusion: Technique and Considerations.

Cureus 2017 Jul 2;9(7):e1419. Epub 2017 Jul 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Utah.

A surge in interest in cortical bone trajectory (CBT), first described by Santoni in 2009, may be a result of its numerous advantages, including reduced surgical incision length and lateral dissection, limited disruption of the facet joints, and decreased blood loss. In addition, CBT offers improved screw pullout strength and the ability to perform hybrid constructs with pedicle screws using minimally invasive approaches. However, one of the main limitations of the technique involves the small screw size, which limits the potential for long-segment constructs. We describe a technique involving a more in-line anatomical trajectory, allowing for larger screw diameters. A feasibility study using a cadaveric model was performed and evaluated. Moreover, a focused review of the literature on the use of CBT was performed. Screw entry points are located along the inferomedial aspect of the facet and angled superolaterally. The use of this technique allows for the placement of larger screws (4.5 to 6.5 mm diameter) without pedicle breaches along with the alignment of screw heads from L1 to S1. In addition, the technique can be performed using stereotactic navigation or fluoroscopy. A direct, more in-line technique allows for larger screws to be placed using CBT. This technique can be combined with minimally invasive approaches. The potential advantages of the CBT technique support its use as a probable alternative to traditional pedicle screw fixation techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.1419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5580977PMC
July 2017

A distinct p53 target gene set predicts for response to the selective p53-HDM2 inhibitor NVP-CGM097.

Elife 2015 May 12;4. Epub 2015 May 12.

Disease Area Oncology, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Biomarkers for patient selection are essential for the successful and rapid development of emerging targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. In this study, we report the discovery of a novel patient selection strategy for the p53-HDM2 inhibitor NVP-CGM097, currently under evaluation in clinical trials. By intersecting high-throughput cell line sensitivity data with genomic data, we have identified a gene expression signature consisting of 13 up-regulated genes that predicts for sensitivity to NVP-CGM097 in both cell lines and in patient-derived tumor xenograft models. Interestingly, these 13 genes are known p53 downstream target genes, suggesting that the identified gene signature reflects the presence of at least a partially activated p53 pathway in NVP-CGM097-sensitive tumors. Together, our findings provide evidence for the use of this newly identified predictive gene signature to refine the selection of patients with wild-type p53 tumors and increase the likelihood of response to treatment with p53-HDM2 inhibitors, such as NVP-CGM097.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4468608PMC
May 2015

The novel, orally bioavailable HSP90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells and acts synergistically with melphalan by increased cleavage of caspases.

Eur J Haematol 2012 May 21;88(5):406-15. Epub 2012 Mar 21.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) binds and stabilizes numerous proteins and kinases essential for myeloma cell survival and proliferation. We and others have recently demonstrated that inhibition of HSP90 by small molecular mass inhibitors induces cell death in multiple myeloma (MM). However, some of the HSP90 inhibitors involved in early clinical trials have shown limited antitumor activity and unfavorable toxicity profiles. Here, we analyzed the effects of the novel, orally bioavailable HSP90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 on MM cell proliferation and survival. The inhibitor led to a significant reduction in myeloma cell viability and induced G2 cell cycle arrest, degradation of caspase-8 and caspase-3, and induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of the HSP90 ATPase activity was accompanied by the degradation of MM phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK1/2 and upregulation of Hsp70. Exposure of MM cells to a combination of NVP-HSP990 and either melphalan or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors caused synergistic inhibition of viability, increased induction of apoptosis, and was able to overcome the primary resistance of the cell line RPMI-8226 to HSP90 inhibition. Combined incubation with melphalan and NVP-HSP990 led to synergistically increased cleavage of caspase-2, caspase-9, and caspase-3. These data demonstrate promising activity for NVP-HSP990 as single agent or combination treatment in MM and provide a rationale for clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.2012.01764.xDOI Listing
May 2012

Preclinical activity of the novel orally bioavailable HSP90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 against multiple myeloma cells.

Anticancer Res 2012 Feb;32(2):453-62

Department of Internal Medicine II, Comprehensive Cancer Center Mainfranken, University Hospital of Würzburg, Versbacher Strasse 5, 97078 Würzburg, Germany.

Background: HSP90 inhibitors effectively reduce expression and activity levels of oncogenic survival proteins. However, their clinical anti-multiple myeloma (MM) activity has been found to be rather weak, spurring the exploration of combination therapies and development of compounds with improved physicochemical properties.

Materials And Methods: Preclinical effects of the novel orally bioavailable HSP90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 on the viability, apoptosis and client protein levels of MM cells (established cell lines and clinical specimens) were tested alone and in combination with other drugs.

Results: NVP-HSP990 exerted profound activity against MM cells, with a molecular mode of action conforming well with its role as HSP90 inhibitor. Enhanced activity was most obvious in combination with melphalan. Combination with a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rendered the HSP90 blockade-mediated stress response ineffective and considerably increased the anti-MM toxicity.

Conclusion: Given the current interest in both HSP90 and PI3-kinase/mTOR as potential clinical targets, these observations could broaden the therapeutic utility of either class of inhibitor in MM.
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February 2012

The novel oral Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 exhibits potent and broad-spectrum antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo.

Mol Cancer Ther 2012 Mar 12;11(3):730-9. Epub 2012 Jan 12.

Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 4560 Horton Street, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA.

A novel oral Hsp90 inhibitor, NVP-HSP990, has been developed and characterized in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, NVP-HSP990 exhibits single digit nanomolar IC(50) values on three of the Hsp90 isoforms (Hsp90α, Hsp90β, and GRP94) and 320 nanomolar IC(50) value on the fourth (TRAP-1), with selectivity against unrelated enzymes, receptors, and kinases. In c-Met amplified GTL-16 gastric tumor cells, NVP-HSP990 dissociated the Hsp90-p23 complex, depleted client protein c-Met, and induced Hsp70. NVP-HSP990 potently inhibited the growth of human cell lines and primary patient samples from a variety of tumor types. In vivo, NVP-HSP990 exhibits drug-like pharmaceutical and pharmacologic properties with high oral bioavailability. In the GTL-16 xenograft model, a single oral administration of 15 mg/kg of NVP-HSP990 induced sustained downregulation of c-Met and upregulation of Hsp70. In repeat dosing studies, NVP-HSP990 treatment resulted in tumor growth inhibition of GTL-16 and other human tumor xenograft models driven by well-defined oncogenic Hsp90 client proteins. On the basis of its pharmacologic profile and broad-spectrum antitumor activities, clinical trials have been initiated to evaluate NVP-HSP990 in advanced solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0667DOI Listing
March 2012

Discovery of 3-(2,6-dichloro-3,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-1-{6-[4-(4-ethyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenylamino]-pyrimidin-4-yl}-1-methyl-urea (NVP-BGJ398), a potent and selective inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinase.

J Med Chem 2011 Oct 21;54(20):7066-83. Epub 2011 Sep 21.

Novartis Institute for BioMedical Research, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

A novel series of N-aryl-N'-pyrimidin-4-yl ureas has been optimized to afford potent and selective inhibitors of the fibroblast growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases 1, 2, and 3 by rationally designing the substitution pattern of the aryl ring. On the basis of its in vitro profile, compound 1h (NVP-BGJ398) was selected for in vivo evaluation and showed significant antitumor activity in RT112 bladder cancer xenografts models overexpressing wild-type FGFR3. These results support the potential therapeutic use of 1h as a new anticancer agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm2006222DOI Listing
October 2011

89Zr-bevacizumab PET of early antiangiogenic tumor response to treatment with HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922.

J Nucl Med 2010 May 15;51(5):761-7. Epub 2010 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Unlabelled: Angiogenesis is a critical step in tumor development, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key growth aspect. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a molecular chaperone, is essential for the activity of key proteins involved in VEGF transcription. Currently, no biomarkers to predict the effect of, or monitor, HSP90 inhibition therapy in individual patients exist. (89)Zr-bevacizumab PET provides a noninvasive tool to monitor tumor VEGF levels. The aim of this study was to investigate (89)Zr-bevacizumab PET for early antiangiogenic tumor response evaluation of treatment with the new HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922. In xenografts of A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant CP70 human ovarian cancer subline, (89)Zr-bevacizumab small-animal PET was performed before and after NVP-AUY922 treatment and verified with histologic response and ex vivo tumor VEGF levels. Compared with pretreatment values, 2 wk of NVP-AUY922 treatment decreased (89)Zr-bevacizumab uptake by 44.4% (P = 0.0003) in A2780 xenografts, whereas tumor uptake was not affected in CP70 xenografts. The same pattern was observed in A2780 and CP70 tumor VEGF levels, measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mean vessel density after NVP-AUY922 treatment. These findings coincided with reduction in the proliferation rate, assessed by Ki67 staining, in A2780 tumor tissue only.

Conclusion: (89)Zr-bevacizumab PET was in line with the antiangiogenic response and direct antitumor effects after NVP-AUY922 treatment, supporting the specificity of (89)Zr-bevacizumab PET as a sensitive technique to monitor the antiangiogenic response of HSP90 inhibition in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.109.071043DOI Listing
May 2010

Synergistic action of the novel HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 with histone deacetylase inhibitors, melphalan, or doxorubicin in multiple myeloma.

Eur J Haematol 2010 Apr 17;84(4):337-44. Epub 2009 Dec 17.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Charité- Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a promising target for tumor therapy. The novel HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 has preclinical activity in multiple myeloma, however, little is known about effective combination partners to design clinical studies. Multiple myeloma cell lines, OPM-2, RPMI-8226, U-266, LP-1, MM1.S, and primary myeloma cells were exposed to NVP-AUY922 and one of the combination partners histone deacetylase inhibitor NVP-LBH589, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), melphalan, or doxorubicin, either simultaneously or in sequential patterns. Effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined. Synergistic effects were evaluated using the method of Chou and Talalay. Combined sequential incubation with NVP-AUY922 and SAHA showed that best synergistic effects were achieved with 24 h preincubation with SAHA followed by another 48 h of combination treatment. Combination of NVP-AUY922 with SAHA, NVP-LBH589, melphalan, or doxorubicin resulted in synergistic inhibition of viability, with strong synergy (combination index < 0.3) in the case of melphalan. Importantly, resistance of the RPMI-8226 cell line and relative resistance of some primary myeloma cells against NVP-AUY922 could be overcome by combination treatment. These data show impressive synergistic action of the novel HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 with melphalan, doxorubicin, NVP-LBH589, and SAHA in multiple myeloma and build the frame work for clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.2009.01403.xDOI Listing
April 2010

Anti-myeloma activity of the novel 2-aminothienopyrimidine Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-BEP800.

Br J Haematol 2009 Nov 13;147(3):319-27. Epub 2009 Aug 13.

Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Haematology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany.

The 90 kD heat shock protein (Hsp90) molecular chaperone sustains multiple components of oncogenic pathways and has recently emerged as a therapeutic target that is now being clinically tested in a number of malignancies. In order to address formulation issues and to deal with possible resistance mechanisms against small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors, a range of compounds based on different molecular scaffolds are now being developed. The present study preclinically tested the effects of the novel 2-aminothienopyrimidine class Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-BEP800, which is suitable for oral formulations, on multiple myeloma cells from established cell lines and on a larger cohort (n = 40) of primary myeloma samples. The drug effectively and specifically killed the majority of primary myeloma cells in coculture with bone marrow stromal cells and reliably entailed molecular consequences of Hsp90 blockade - such as survival pathway breakdown and client protein depletion - in multiple myeloma cells from cell lines as well as from patients. Collectively, the properties of this novel drug support clinical testing in multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07852.xDOI Listing
November 2009

Suz12 is essential for mouse development and for EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity.

EMBO J 2004 Oct 23;23(20):4061-71. Epub 2004 Sep 23.

European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

SUZ12 is a recently identified Polycomb group (PcG) protein, which together with EZH2 and EED forms different Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC2/3). These complexes contain histone H3 lysine (K) 27/9 and histone H1 K26 methyltransferase activity specified by the EZH2 SET domain. Here we show that mice lacking Suz12, like Ezh2 and Eed mutant mice, are not viable and die during early postimplantation stages displaying severe developmental and proliferative defects. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that SUZ12 is required for proliferation of cells in tissue culture. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SUZ12 is essential for the activity and stability of the PRC2/3 complexes in mouse embryos, in tissue culture cells and in vitro. Strikingly, Suz12-deficient embryos show a specific loss of di- and trimethylated H3K27, demonstrating that Suz12 is indeed essential for EZH2 activity in vivo. In conclusion, our data demonstrate an essential role of SUZ12 in regulating the activity of the PRC2/3 complexes, which are required for regulating proliferation and embryogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.emboj.7600402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524339PMC
October 2004

The negative role of cyclin G in ATM-dependent p53 activation.

Oncogene 2004 Jul;23(31):5405-8

Cancer Biology Program, Hematology/Oncology Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Cyclin G is one of the earliest p53 target genes to be identified, but its function in the p53 pathway has been elusive. Although the precise mechanisms of cyclin G in this novel network have not been explored, recent studies have demonstrated that cyclin G is a key regulator of the p53-Mdm2 network. Here we present evidence that cyclin G-mediated p53 regulation is dependent upon the status of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, which activates p53 in response to DNA damage. Abrogation of cyclin G enhances p53 accumulation and phosphorylation of p53 at the Ser-15 residue, resulting in cell cycle arrest. Ectopically expressed cyclin G significantly reduces the steady-state levels of p53 as well as that of phosphorylated p53 at Ser-15 after DNA damage in normal human dermal fibroblasts containing normal ATM. However, cyclin G does not cause similar reductions in p53 levels in ATM-mutated cells. We also show that translocation of cyclin G to the nucleus requires functional ATM. Thus, our findings identify a new role of cyclin G in ATM-dependent p53 regulation and in cell cycle regulation during DNA damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1207693DOI Listing
July 2004

Suppression of the p53- or pRB-mediated G1 checkpoint is required for E2F-induced S-phase entry.

Nat Genet 2002 Jun 6;31(2):190-4. Epub 2002 May 6.

Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Deregulation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) pathway is a hallmark of cancer. In the absence of other genetic alterations, this deregulation results in lack of differentiation, hyperproliferation and apoptosis. The pRB protein acts as a transcriptional repressor by targeting the E2F transcription factors, whose functions are required for entry into S phase. Increased E2F activity can induce S phase in quiescent cells--this is a central element of most models for the development of cancer. We show that although E2F1 alone is not sufficient to induce S phase in diploid mouse and human fibroblasts, increased E2F1 activity can result in S-phase entry in diploid fibroblasts in which the p53-mediated G1 checkpoint is suppressed. In addition, we show that E2F1 can induce S phase in primary mouse fibroblasts lacking pRB. These results indicate that, in addition to acting as an E2F-dependent transcriptional repressor, pRB is also required for the cells to retain the G1 checkpoint in response to unprogrammed proliferative signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng891DOI Listing
June 2002

Cyclin G recruits PP2A to dephosphorylate Mdm2.

Mol Cell 2002 Apr;9(4):761-71

Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

The function of cyclin G, a commonly induced p53 target, has remained elusive. We show that cyclin G forms a quaternary complex in vivo and in vitro with enzymatically active phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzymes containing B' subunits. Interestingly, cyclin G also binds in vivo and in vitro to Mdm2 and markedly stimulates the ability of PP2A to dephosphorylate Mdm2 at T216. Consistent with these data, cyclin G null cells have both Mdm2 that is hyperphosphorylated at T216 and markedly higher levels of p53 protein when compared to wild-type cells. Cyclin G expression also results in reduced phosphorylation of human Hdm2 at S166. Thus, our data suggest that cyclin G recruits PP2A in order to modulate the phosphorylation of Mdm2 and thereby to regulate both Mdm2 and p53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1097-2765(02)00504-xDOI Listing
April 2002
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