Publications by authors named "Michael Picton"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Can direct oral anticoagulants be used in kidney transplant recipients?

Clin Transplant 2021 Sep 9:e14474. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Haematology, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK.

Background: Kidney transplant recipients(KTRs) are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and atrial fibrillation(AF). Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have shown important advantages over vitamin K antagonists; however, in KTRs, concerns regarding interactions and use in severe kidney disease may limit their use. This evaluation describes a large UK kidney transplant center's experience of DOACs in KTRs with CrCl > 15 mL/min.

Methods: Electronic records were reviewed for all adult KTRs at Manchester University Foundation Trust Hospitals taking DOACs between January 2018 and October 2020 with VTE or AF. The primary outcome was trough and peak DOAC levels within the expected reference ranges and secondary outcomes included bleeding and thrombotic events.

Results: In 31 KTRs taking DOACS, eight patients had a CrCl < 30 mL/min. Overall, 94% (62/66) of DOAC levels were within the recommended ranges. There were no thrombotic events and four bleeding events (two major and two clinically relevant non-major bleeds). The overall bleeding rate was 6.9 per 100 patient-years at risk.

Conclusions: There was no evidence of a significant interaction of apixaban or rivaroxaban with CNIs based on expected DOAC and CNI levels. Their use was found to be safe and effective with no VTE events and bleeding episodes similar to published trial data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.14474DOI Listing
September 2021

Kidney Transplantation From a 5-Day-Old Donor With a Single Functioning Kidney.

Exp Clin Transplant 2020 11;18(6):732-736

From the Department of Renal and Pancreas Transplantation, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Unitek Kingdom.

Kidney transplant restores renal function in eligible patients with end-stage renal failure who require renal replacement therapy. There remains a significant disparity between the demand and supply of suitable kidneys for transplant. In recent years, pediatric donors have formed an important area for expansion of the donor pool. However, neonatal donation (< 28 days) remains an underutilized resource. We describe a case of en bloc kidney transplant from a 5-day-old donor after circulatory death into an adult recipient. One kidney thrombosed almost immediately, leaving a single 4.5-cm, poorly functioning kidney. Eighteen months after transplant, the recipient has shown good function with the estimated glomerular filtration rate continuing to improve. This case demonstrates that a single neonatal kidney can grow and adapt to provide adequate renal function in an adult. This experience suggests that a single kidney from a neonate can sustain renal function in adults, and every effort should be made to maximize their use in transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2020.0254DOI Listing
November 2020

Living donor kidney transplantation: often a missed opportunity.

Br J Gen Pract 2019 Sep 29;69(686):428-429. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Renal and Pancreatic Transplantation, Manchester, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3399/bjgp19X705173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6715493PMC
September 2019

Update to the study protocol, including statistical analysis plan, for the multicentre, randomised controlled OuTSMART trial: a combined screening/treatment programme to prevent premature failure of renal transplants due to chronic rejection in patients with HLA antibodies.

Trials 2019 Aug 5;20(1):476. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

MRC Centre for Transplantation, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London, SE1 9RT, UK.

Background: Chronic rejection is the single biggest cause of premature kidney graft failure. HLA antibodies (Ab) are an established prognostic biomarker for premature graft failure so there is a need to test whether treatment decisions based on the presence of the biomarker can alter prognosis. The Optimised TacrolimuS and MMF for HLA Antibodies after Renal Transplantation (OuTSMART) trial combines two elements. Firstly, testing whether a routine screening programme for HLA Ab in all kidney transplant recipients is useful by comparing blinding versus unblinding of HLA Ab status. Secondly, for those found to be HLA Ab+, testing whether the introduction of a standard optimisation treatment protocol can reduce graft failure rates.

Methods: OuTSMART is a prospective, open-labelled, randomised biomarker-based strategy (hybrid) trial, with two arms stratified by biomarker (HLA Ab) status. The primary outcome was amended from graft failure rates at 3 years to time to graft failure to increase power and require fewer participants to be recruited. Length of follow-up subsequently is variable, with all participants followed up for at least 43 months up to a maximum of 89 months. The primary outcome will be analysed using Cox regression adjusting for stratification factors. Analyses will be according to the intention-to-treat using all participants as randomised. Outcomes will be analysed comparing standard care versus biomarker-led care groups within the HLA Ab+ participants (including those who become HLA Ab+ through re-screening) as well as between HLA-Ab-unblinded and HLA-Ab-blinded groups using all participants.

Discussion: Changes to the primary outcome permit recruitment of fewer participants to achieve the same statistical power. Pre-stating the statistical analysis plan guards against changes to the analysis methods at the point of analysis that might otherwise introduce bias through knowledge of the data. Any deviations from the analysis plan will be justified in the final report.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN registry, ID: ISRCTN46157828 . Registered on 26 March 2013; EudraCT 2012-004308-36 . Registered on 10 December 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3602-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6683506PMC
August 2019

A single-center experience of post-transplant lymphomas involving the central nervous system with a review of current literature.

Oncotarget 2019 Jan 11;10(4):437-448. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Renal Medicine and Transplant Nephrology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Background: Central Nervous System (CNS) lymphoma is a rare presentation of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD).

Methods: This single center retrospective study reviewed presentations, management and outcomes of CNS lymphomas in kidney transplant patients transplanted 1968 to 2015, and reviews relevant current literature.

Results: We identified 5773 adult kidney transplant recipients of who 90 had a PTLD diagnosis confirmed. CNS disease was diagnosed in 6/90 (7%). Median age at presentation was 60 years and time from transplant 4.5 years. Immunosuppression at diagnosis included mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone without calcineurin inhibitor in 5/6 patients. Histological analysis diagnosed monomorphic disease in 5/6, and one polymorphic case with tissue positive for Epstein-barr virus (EBV) in 5/6 cases. Despite this 2/4 EBV positive cases had no detectable EBV in peripheral blood or CSF at diagnosis. Treatment strategies included reduction in immunosuppression in all, chemotherapy (n=5), radiotherapy (n=3), Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes and Craniotomy (n=2). Patient survival was 40% at 1 year with CTL treated patients surviving beyond three years from diagnosis.

Conclusion: This study supports observational data suggesting MMF treated patients without CNI may have increased risk of disease. Peripheral blood screening for EBV DNAemia does not seem helpful in early identification of those at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355190PMC
January 2019

Dissolution of extensive urolithiasis: extending the utility of rasburicase can avoid the need for surgical intervention and renal replacement therapy.

J Surg Case Rep 2016 Feb 24;2016(2). Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UK.

A 79-year-old male with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia and extensive bilateral renal stone disease was treated with intravenous rasburicase for persistent hyperuricaemia. Subsequent imaging revealed a complete dissolution of stone burden, avoiding the need for complex, invasive stone surgery and further renal replacement therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjw009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4766382PMC
February 2016

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult renal transplant recipients: survival and prognosis.

Leuk Lymphoma 2016 Feb;57(2):299-305

a Department of Renal Medicine , Central Manchester University Hospitals Foundation Trust , Manchester , UK.

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a rare, serious complication following solid organ transplantation, with an incidence of 2.6 cases per 1000 patient years. Optimal treatment strategies and risk stratifications specific to kidney transplantation are lacking and PTLD mortality remains high. This study investigated survival and prognosis in 89 cases of PTLD presenting over 44 years at Manchester Royal Infirmary. Patient survival following diagnosis was 72% at 6 months, 67% at 1 year and 54% at 3 years. In multivariate analysis, a poorer 3 year survival was associated with acute kidney injury at diagnosis (p = 0.0001), impaired renal function (p = 0.04), early onset (p = 0.02), T cell disease (p = 0.02) and previous treatment with anti-thymocyte globulin (p = 0.04). The inclusion of graft function adds prognostic value to risk stratification and should be explored further. Strategies to improve survival should include timing and choice of immuno-chemotherapy, preparation for dialysis and aggressive surveillance for sepsis and treatment toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2015.1050391DOI Listing
February 2016

rhErythropoietin-b as a tissue protective agent in kidney transplantation: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

BMC Res Notes 2015 Feb 3;8:21. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Department of Renal Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Rd, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK.

Background: Extended criteria donor (ECD) and donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidneys are at increased risk of delayed graft function (DGF). Experimental evidence suggests that erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates renal damage in acute kidney injury. This study piloted the administration of high dose recombinant human EPO-beta at implantation of ECD and DCD kidneys, and evaluated biomarkers of kidney injury post-transplant.

Methods: Forty patients were randomly assigned to receive either rhEPO-b (100,000 iu) (n = 19 in the intervention group, as 1 patient was un-transplantable post randomisation), or placebo (n = 20) in this, double blind, placebo-controlled trial at Manchester Royal Infirmary from August 2007 to June 2009. Participants received either an ECD (n = 17) or DCD (n = 22) kidney. Adverse events, renal function, haematopoietic markers, and rejections were recorded out to 90 days post-transplant. Biomarkers of kidney injury (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, Kidney Injury Molecule-1 and IL-18) were measured in blood and urine during the first post-operative week.

Results: The incidence of DGF (53% vs 55%) (RR = 1.0; CI = 0.5-1.6; p = 0.93) and slow graft function (SGF) (32% vs 25%) (RR = 1.1; CI = 0.5-1.9; p = 0.73) respectively, serum creatinine, eGFR, haemoglobin and haematocrit, blood pressure, and acute rejection were similar in the 2 study arms. High dose rhEPO-b had little effect on the temporal profiles of the biomarkers.

Conclusions: High dose rhEPO-b appears to be safe and well tolerated in the early post- transplant period in this study, but has little effect on delayed or slow graft function in recipients of kidneys from DCD and ECD donors. Comparing the profiles of biomarkers of kidney injury (NGAL, IL-18 and KIM-1) showed little difference between the rhEPO-b treated and placebo groups. A meta-analysis of five trials yielded an overall estimate of the RR for DGF of 0.89 (CI = 0.73; 1.07), a modest effect favouring EPO but not a significant difference. A definitive trial based on this estimate would require 1000-2500 patients per arm for populations with base DGF rates of 50-30% and 90% power. Such a trial is clearly unfeasible.

Trial Registration: EudraCT Number 2006-005373-22 ISRCTN ISRCTN85447324 registered 19/08/09.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-014-0964-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330593PMC
February 2015

Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2015 Jul 6;26(7):1711-20. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Alberta Transplant Applied Genomics Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada;

The prevalent renal transplant population presents an opportunity to observe the adaptive changes in the alloimmune response over time, but such studies have been limited by uncertainties in the conventional biopsy diagnosis of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) and antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). To circumvent these limitations, we used microarrays and conventional methods to investigate rejection in 703 unselected biopsies taken 3 days to 35 years post-transplant from North American and European centers. Using conventional methods, we diagnosed rejection in 205 biopsy specimens (28%): 67 pure TCMR, 110 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (89 designated borderline). Using microarrays, we diagnosed rejection in 228 biopsy specimens (32%): 76 pure TCMR, 124 pure ABMR, and 28 mixed (no borderline). Molecular assessment confirmed most conventional diagnoses (agreement was 90% for TCMR and 83% for ABMR) but revealed some errors, particularly in mixed rejection, and improved prediction of failure. ABMR was strongly associated with increased graft loss, but TCMR was not. ABMR became common in biopsy specimens obtained >1 year post-transplant and continued to appear in all subsequent intervals. TCMR was common early but progressively disappeared over time. In 108 biopsy specimens obtained 10.2-35 years post-transplant, TCMR defined by molecular and conventional features was never observed. We conclude that the main cause of kidney transplant failure is ABMR, which can present even decades after transplantation. In contrast, TCMR disappears by 10 years post-transplant, implying that a state of partial adaptive tolerance emerges over time in the kidney transplant population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2014060588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4483591PMC
July 2015

The genetic contribution to recurrent autoimmune nephritis.

Transplant Rev (Orlando) 2014 Jul 27;28(3):140-4. Epub 2014 Jan 27.

Manchester Institute of Nephrology and Transplantation, Central Manchester University Hospital NHS Trust, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, UK.

Glomerulonephritis is a significant cause of chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy. For patients receiving a transplant, it is known that specific primary pathologies such as membranous nephropathy, IgA nephropathy and FSGS have a high risk of recurrence in the transplant but the reasons for this are unknown and the ability to predict recurrence is poor. The recent discovery that primary MN is an autoimmune disease characterised by an autoantibody to phospholipase A2 receptor 1 and the identification of two genes, PLA2R1 and DQA1 which account for the genetic susceptibility to the disease, open up the potential to understand the mechanism of recurrent MN and therefore to design and manage therapy to prevent recurrence. Transplantation offers a unique ethical experimental context in which to explore the genetic contribution to recurrent autoimmune membranous nephropathy. By analysing the genetic changes in the kidney transplant in the context of anti-PLA2R status post transplant, it may be possible to link genetic markers, anti-PLAR regulation with recurrence and non-recurrence of disease. If successful, similar strategies may help unravel mechanisms of recurrent IgA nephropathy and FSGS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trre.2014.01.004DOI Listing
July 2014

Can a combined screening/treatment programme prevent premature failure of renal transplants due to chronic rejection in patients with HLA antibodies: study protocol for the multicentre randomised controlled OuTSMART trial.

Trials 2014 Jan 21;15:30. Epub 2014 Jan 21.

MRC Centre for Transplantation, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT, UK.

Background: Renal transplantation is the best treatment for kidney failure, in terms of length and quality of life and cost-effectiveness. However, most transplants fail after 10 to 12 years, consigning patients back onto dialysis. Damage by the immune system accounts for approximately 50% of failing transplants and it is possible to identify patients at risk by screening for the presence of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens. However, it is not clear how best to treat patients with antibodies. This trial will test a combined screening and treatment protocol in renal transplant recipients.

Methods/design: Recipients>1 year post-transplantation, aged 18 to 70 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate>30 mL/min will be randomly allocated to blinded or unblinded screening arms, before being screened for the presence of antibodies. In the unblinded arm, test results will be revealed. Those with antibodies will have biomarker-led care, consisting of a change in their anti-rejection drugs to prednisone, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. In the blinded arm, screening results will be double blinded and all recruits will remain on current therapy (standard care). In both arms, those without antibodies will be retested every 8 months for 3 years. The primary outcome is the 3-year kidney failure rate for the antibody-positive recruits, as measured by initiation of long-term dialysis or re-transplantation, predicted to be approximately 20% in the standard care group but <10% in biomarker-led care. The secondary outcomes include the rate of transplant dysfunction, incidence of infection, cancer and diabetes mellitus, an analysis of adherence with medication and a health economic analysis of the combined screening and treatment protocol. Blood samples will be collected and stored every 4 months and will form the basis of separately funded studies to identify new biomarkers associated with the outcomes.

Discussion: We have evidence that the biomarker-led care regime will be effective at preventing graft dysfunction and expect this to feed through to graft survival. This trial will confirm the benefit of routine screening and lead to a greater understanding of how to keep kidney transplants working longer.

Trial Registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN46157828.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-15-30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3906093PMC
January 2014

Epidemiology of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder in adult renal transplant recipients.

Transplantation 2013 Feb;95(3):470-8

Department of Renal Medicine, Central Manchester University Hospitals Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Background: There is little information in the literature describing the relationship between posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) incidence and presentation with both recipient Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serostatus and EBV status of PTLD histology, particularly in the late posttransplantation period.

Methods: This study reports the largest UK single-center, single-organ analysis of PTLD to date in a retrospective cohort study of 80 cases occurring in 4189 adult renal transplant recipients.

Results: The incidence rate was 2.6 cases per 1000 patient-years (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.1-3.2) for PTLD, 1.8 (95% CI, 1.4-2.4) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 0.2 (95% CI, 0.07-4.2) for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurred at a rate 7.6 times that of the adult general population in England, whereas the rate for Hodgkin's lymphoma was 5.9 times. The incidence of PTLD was highest during the 10th to 14th posttransplantation years. Early-onset disease was associated with EBV-seronegative recipient status, EBV-positive histology, and the involvement of extranodal sites. PTLD occurring in EBV-seronegative recipients was associated with EBV nuclear antigen antibody deficiency, polymorphic disease, and the involvement of extranodal sites. EBV-negative histology occurred in 32% of cases at a median time to presentation of 109 months. PTLD involving the allograft, central nervous system, and skin was uncommon and occurred late.

Conclusion: The incidence of PTLD is highest in the late posttransplantation period. Close clinical surveillance and education for transplant recipients is required for the duration of time while immunosuppressed. Failure to detect EBV DNA in blood should not reassure, particularly in patients with symptoms such as abdominal pain, oropharyngeal complaints, neck lumps, and B-symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e318276a237DOI Listing
February 2013

Outcome of pancreas transplantation in recipients older than 50 years: a single-centre experience.

Transplantation 2008 Dec;86(11):1511-4

The Renal and Pancreas Transplant Unit, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Background: Pancreas transplantation (PT) remains the only treatment that can restore insulin independence among insulin-dependent diabetics. An ageing population in developed countries has led to an increasing number of older patients who may be suitable for PT. Some investigators argue that PT in recipients older than 50 years has an inferior outcome compared with the younger group.

Methods: The object of this study was to compare the outcomes of 31 PT in patients aged 50 and above 105 PT in recipients below 50 years performed between June 2001 and December 2007.

Results: The incidence of general posttransplant complications were similar in both; 60% in less than 50 vs. 58% in more than or equal to 50, P=0.539. So, as the incidence of other surgical complication in the more than or equal to 50 group compared with less than 50 (graft thrombosis 13% vs. 11.5%; bleeding 19% vs. 6.7%; abdominal abscess 23% vs. 19%; pancreatic leak 13% vs. 9.6%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of urinary tract infection and early rejection in either group. However, the incidence of respiratory tract infection was significantly higher in more than or equal to 50 (38.7% in >or=50 vs. 9.6% in <50, P=0.003). One-year patient survival was 88% in more than or equal to 50 vs. 92% in less than 50 group, P=0.399; and pancreas graft survival rate was similar (79% in the >or=50 and 74% in <50, P=0.399).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that it is feasible to safely transplant potential PT recipients aged 50 and above. However, good medical assessment and careful patient selection is strongly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0b013e3181891cd6DOI Listing
December 2008

Association between C4d staining in renal transplant biopsies, production of donor-specific HLA antibodies, and graft outcome.

Transplantation 2007 Feb;83(4):398-403

Transplantation Laboratory, Manchester Institute of Nephrology and Transplantation, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester United Kingdom.

Background: We carried out a retrospective study of C4d staining in paraffin sections from renal transplant biopsies to determine the association between C4d staining, donor-specific antibodies (DSA), histological features, and graft outcome.

Methods: We studied 92 patients who had been biopsied for graft dysfunction. Biopsies were classified using Banff 97 criteria and features suggestive of antibody-mediated rejection were noted. Paraffin sections were stained with a polyclonal antibody using an immunoperoxidase technique. The presence of DSA in concurrent sera was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and clinical data were reviewed.

Results: Of the 92 cases, 15% showed diffuse and 24% showed focal C4d positivity. The grafts failed in 36% of the diffuse (P<0.025), 23% of the focal, and 7% of the negative group at between one month and 15 years posttransplantation. Only patients in the group with diffuse C4d positivity had concurrent DSA (five cases, P<0.001). Of the five DSA-positive patients, three had type II acute rejection and two of these transplants subsequently failed. The remaining two had chronic allograft nephropathy with features of alloimmune injury. Only two of the nine DSA-negative/C4d-positive transplants had failed at the time of writing, in one case due to recurrent disease.

Conclusion: We demonstrated a significant association between diffuse C4d staining, production of DSA, and graft failure. Although the concurrent detection of DSA and C4d positivity is uncommon in our patients, these results indicate that outcome in this group is poor and they may benefit from therapies directed at the humoral response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.tp.0000251430.11723.b6DOI Listing
February 2007
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