Publications by authors named "Michael P Whyte"

146 Publications

Skeletal and extraskeletal disorders of biomineralization.

Nat Rev Endocrinol 2022 Aug 16;18(8):473-489. Epub 2022 May 16.

Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The physiological process of biomineralization is complex and deviation from it leads to a variety of diseases. Progress in the past 10 years has enhanced understanding of the genetic, molecular and cellular pathophysiology underlying these disorders; sometimes, this knowledge has both facilitated restoration of health and clarified the very nature of biomineralization as it occurs in humans. In this Review, we consider the principal regulators of mineralization and crystallization, and how dysregulation of these processes can lead to human disease. The knowledge acquired to date and gaps still to be filled are highlighted. The disorders of mineralization discussed comprise a broad spectrum of conditions that encompass bone disorders associated with alterations of mineral quantity and quality, as well as disorders of extraskeletal mineralization (hyperphosphataemic familial tumoural calcinosis). Included are disorders of alkaline phosphatase (hypophosphatasia) and phosphate homeostasis (X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets, fluorosis, rickets and osteomalacia). Furthermore, crystallopathies are covered as well as arterial and renal calcification. This Review discusses the current knowledge of biomineralization derived from basic and clinical research and points to future studies that will lead to new therapeutic approaches for biomineralization disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41574-022-00682-7DOI Listing
August 2022

Effect of Burosumab Compared With Conventional Therapy on Younger vs Older Children With X-linked Hypophosphatemia.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 07;107(8):e3241-e3253

Department of Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indianapolis 46202, USA.

Context: Younger age at treatment onset with conventional therapy (phosphate salts and active vitamin D; Pi/D) is associated with improved growth and skeletal outcomes in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). The effect of age on burosumab efficacy and safety in XLH is unknown.

Objective: This work aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of burosumab vs Pi/D in younger (< 5 years) and older (5-12 years) children with XLH.

Methods: This post hoc analysis of a 64-week, open-label, randomized controlled study took place at 16 academic centers. Sixty-one children aged 1 to 12 years with XLH (younger, n = 26; older, n = 35) participated. Children received burosumab starting at 0.8 mg/kg every 2 weeks (younger, n = 14; older, n = 15) or continued Pi/D individually titrated per recommended guidelines (younger, n = 12; older, n = 20). The main outcome measure included the least squares means difference (LSMD) in Radiographic Global Impression of Change (RGI-C) rickets total score from baseline to week 64.

Results: The LSMD in outcomes through 64 weeks on burosumab vs conventional therapy by age group were as follows: RGI-C rickets total score (younger, +0.90; older, +1.07), total Rickets Severity Score (younger, -0.86; older, -1.44), RGI-C lower limb deformity score (younger, +1.02; older, +0.91), recumbent length or standing height Z-score (younger, +0.20; older, +0.09), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (younger, -31.15% of upper normal limit [ULN]; older, -52.11% of ULN). On burosumab, dental abscesses were not reported in younger children but were in 53% of older children.

Conclusion: Burosumab appears to improve outcomes both in younger and older children with XLH, including rickets, lower limb deformities, growth, and ALP, compared with Pi/D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgac296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9282253PMC
July 2022

Periarticular calcifications containing giant pseudo-crystals of francolite in skeletal fluorosis from 1,1-difluoroethane "huffing".

Bone 2022 07 13;160:116421. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children - St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Inhalant use disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by repeated deliberate inhalation from among a broad range of household and industrial chemical products with the intention of producing psychoactive effects. In addition to acute intoxication, prolonged inhalation of fluorinated compounds can cause skeletal fluorosis (SF). We report a young woman referred for hypophosphatasemia and carrying a heterozygous ALPL gene variant (c.457T>C, p.Trp153Arg) associated with hypophosphatasia, the heritable metabolic bone disease featuring impaired skeletal mineralization, who instead suffered from SF. Manifestations of her SF included recurrent articular pain, axial osteosclerosis, elevated bone mineral density, maxillary exostoses, and multifocal periarticular calcifications. SF was suspected when a long history was discovered of 'huffing' a computer cleaner containing 1,1-difluoroethane. Investigation revealed markedly elevated serum and urine levels of F. Histopathology and imaging techniques including backscattered electron mode scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microtomography, energy dispersive and wavelength dispersive X-ray emission microanalysis, and polarized light microscopy revealed that her periarticular calcifications were dystrophic deposition of giant pseudo-crystals of francolite, a carbonate-rich fluorapatite. Identifying unusual circumstances of F exposure is key for diagnosing non-endemic SF. Increased awareness of the disorder can be lifesaving.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2022.116421DOI Listing
July 2022

Adult hypophosphatasia treated with reduced frequency of teriparatide dosing.

J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2021 12;21(4):584-589

Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children, St. Louis, MO, USA.

We report a 41-year-old man diagnosed with the adult form of hypophosphatasia (HPP) and treated for 4 years with less frequent than conventional daily doses of teriparatide (TPTD). He presented with a history of three low-energy fractures and low bone mineral density (BMD) ineffectively treated with bisphosphonate. We identified within , the gene that encodes the homodimeric "tissue-nonspecific" isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and underlies HPP, a heterozygous missense mutation (c.455 G>A→R135H). Characteristic painful periarticular calcification removed at a shoulder did not recur. However, access to medical treatment with asfotase alfa (AA) was denied. After he sustained a low-energy metatarsal fracture, we administered TPTD subcutaneously "off-label" at 20 μg/d. An elbow fracture occurred two months later. Five months afterwards, due to his limited number of approved TPTD doses, TPTD treatment was extended using alternate-day dosing. Although his serum ALP activity did not increase (33-48 U/l; reference range 40-120) with 4 years of TPTD treatment, his BMD improved 15% in the lumbar spine and 6% in the femoral neck with no further fractures. Our experience represents success overcoming two prescription deadlocks; AA was denied for adult HPP, and TPTD was not to be administered daily for more than two years.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8672398PMC
December 2021

Sustained Efficacy and Safety of Burosumab, a Monoclonal Antibody to FGF23, in Children With X-Linked Hypophosphatemia.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 02;107(3):813-824

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Purpose: In X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), excess fibroblast growth factor-23 causes hypophosphatemia and low calcitriol, leading to musculoskeletal disease with clinical consequences. XLH treatment options include conventional oral phosphate with active vitamin D, or monotherapy with burosumab, a monoclonal antibody approved to treat children and adults with XLH. We have previously reported outcomes up to 64 weeks, and here we report safety and efficacy follow-up results up to 160 weeks from an open-label, multicenter, randomized, dose-finding trial of burosumab for 5- to 12-year-old children with XLH.

Methods: After 1 week of conventional therapy washout, patients were randomized 1:1 to burosumab every 2 weeks (Q2W) or every 4 weeks (Q4W) for 64 weeks, with dosing titrated based on fasting serum phosphorus levels between baseline and week 16. From week 66 to week 160, all patients received Q2W burosumab.

Results: Twenty-six children were randomized initially into each Q2W and Q4W group and all completed treatment to week 160. In 41 children with open distal femoral and proximal tibial growth plates (from both treatment groups), total Rickets Severity Score significantly decreased by 0.9 ± 0.1 (least squares mean ± SE; P < 0.0001) from baseline to week 160. Fasting serum phosphorus increases were sustained by burosumab therapy throughout the study, with an overall population mean (SD) of 3.35 (0.39) mg/dL, within the pediatric normal range (3.2-6.1 mg/dL) at week 160 (mean change from baseline P < 0.0001). Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity.

Main Conclusions: In children with XLH, burosumab administration for 160 weeks improved phosphate homeostasis and rickets and was well-tolerated. Long-term safety was consistent with the reported safety profile of burosumab.

Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02163577.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8851952PMC
February 2022

Hypophosphatasia: Vitamin B status of affected children and adults.

Bone 2022 01 20;154:116204. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Chemistry, Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, IN 46805, USA. Electronic address:

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the heritable dento-osseous disease caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) of the gene ALPL that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). TNSALP is a cell-surface homodimeric phosphomonoester phosphohydrolase expressed in healthy people especially in the skeleton, liver, kidneys, and developing teeth. In HPP, diminished TNSALP activity leads to extracellular accumulation of its natural substrates including inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of mineralization, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the principal circulating form of vitamin B (B). Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance involving >450 usually missense defects scattered throughout ALPL largely explains the remarkably broad-ranging severity of this inborn-error-of-metabolism. In 1985 when we identified elevated plasma PLP as a biochemical hallmark of HPP, all 14 investigated affected children and adults had markedly increased PLP levels. However, pyridoxal (PL), the dephosphorylated form of PLP that enters cells to cofactor many enzymatic reactions, was not low but often inexplicably elevated. Levels of pyridoxic acid (PA), the B degradation product quantified to assess B sufficiency, were unremarkable. Canonical signs or symptoms of B deficiency or toxicity were absent. B-dependent seizures in infants with life-threatening HPP were later explained by their profound deficiency of TNSALP activity blocking PLP dephosphorylation to PL and diminishing gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis in the brain. Now, there is speculation that altered B metabolism causes further clinical complications in HPP. Herein, we assessed the plasma PL and PA levels accompanying previously reported elevated plasma PLP concentrations in 150 children and adolescents with HPP. Their mean (SD) plasma PL level was nearly double the mean for our healthy pediatric controls: 66.7 (59.0) nM versus 37.1 (22.2) nM (P < 0.0001), respectively. Their PA levels were broader than our pediatric control range, but their mean value was normal; 40.2 (25.1) nM versus 39.3 (9.9) nM (P = 0.7793), respectively. In contrast, adults with HPP often had plasma PL and PA levels suggestive of dietary B insufficiency. We discuss why the B levels of our pediatric patients with HPP would not cause B toxicity or deficiency, whereas in affected adults dietary B insufficiency can develop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116204DOI Listing
January 2022

Vitamin B deficiency with normal plasma levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in perinatal hypophosphatasia.

Bone 2021 09 14;150:116007. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, St. Louis Children's Hospital at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the principal circulating form of vitamin B (B), is elevated in the plasma of individuals with hypophosphatasia (HPP). HPP is the inborn-error-of-metabolism caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) of ALPL, the gene that encodes the "tissue-nonspecific" isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). PLP accumulates extracellularly in HPP because it is a natural substrate of this cell-surface phosphomonoester phosphohydrolase. Even individuals mildly affected by HPP manifest this biochemical hallmark, which is used for diagnosis. Herein, an exclusively breast-fed newborn boy with life-threatening perinatal HPP had uniquely normal instead of markedly elevated plasma PLP levels before beginning asfotase alfa (AA) TNSALP-replacement therapy. These abnormal PLP levels were explained by B deficiency, confirmed by his low plasma level of 4-pyridoxic acid (PA), the B degradation product. His mother, a presumed carrier of one of his two ALPL missense mutations, had serum ALP activity of 50 U/L (Nl 40-130) while her plasma PLP level was 9 μg/L (Nl 5-50) and PA was 3 μg/L (Nl 3-30). Her dietary history and breast milk pyridoxal (PL) level indicated she too was B deficient. With B supplementation using a breast milk fortifier, the patient's plasma PA level corrected, while his PLP level remained in the normal range but now in keeping with AA treatment. Our experience reveals that elevated levels of PLP in the circulation in HPP require some degree of B sufficiency, and that anticipated increases in HPP can be negated by hypovitaminosis B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116007DOI Listing
September 2021

Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia: Treatment Progress Using Burosumab, an Anti-FGF23 Monoclonal Antibody.

Authors:
Michael P Whyte

J Bone Miner Res 2021 04 19;36(4):625-626. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4280DOI Listing
April 2021

Patient-Reported Outcomes from a Randomized, Active-Controlled, Open-Label, Phase 3 Trial of Burosumab Versus Conventional Therapy in Children with X-Linked Hypophosphatemia.

Calcif Tissue Int 2021 05 23;108(5):622-633. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Changing to burosumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting fibroblast growth factor 23, significantly improved phosphorus homeostasis, rickets, lower-extremity deformities, mobility, and growth versus continuing oral phosphate and active vitamin D (conventional therapy) in a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving children aged 1-12 years with X-linked hypophosphatemia. Patients were randomized (1:1) to subcutaneous burosumab or to continue conventional therapy. We present patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from this trial for children aged ≥ 5 years at screening (n = 35), using a Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) questionnaire and SF-10 Health Survey for Children. PROMIS pain interference, physical function mobility, and fatigue scores improved from baseline with burosumab at weeks 40 and 64, but changed little with continued conventional therapy. Pain interference scores differed significantly between groups at week 40 (- 5.02, 95% CI - 9.29 to - 0.75; p = 0.0212) but not at week 64. Between-group differences were not significant at either week for physical function mobility or fatigue. Reductions in PROMIS pain interference and fatigue scores from baseline were clinically meaningful with burosumab at weeks 40 and 64 but not with conventional therapy. SF-10 physical health scores (PHS-10) improved significantly with burosumab at week 40 (least-squares mean [standard error] + 5.98 [1.79]; p = 0.0008) and week 64 (+ 5.93 [1.88]; p = 0.0016) but not with conventional therapy (between-treatment differences were nonsignificant). In conclusion, changing to burosumab improved PRO measures, with statistically significant differences in PROMIS pain interference at week 40 versus continuing with conventional therapy and in PHS-10 at weeks 40 and 64 versus baseline.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02915705.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-020-00797-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064984PMC
May 2021

Non-endemic skeletal fluorosis: Causes and associated secondary hyperparathyroidism (case report and literature review).

Bone 2021 04 6;145:115839. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO 63110, USA; Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children - St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Skeletal fluorosis (SF) is endemic primarily in regions with fluoride (F)-contaminated well water, but can reflect other types of chronic F exposure. Calcium (Ca) and vitamin D (D) deficiency can exacerbate SF. A 51-year-old man with years of musculoskeletal pain and opiate use was hypocalcemic with secondary hyperparathyroidism upon manifesting recurrent long bone fractures. He smoked cigarettes, drank large amounts of cola beverage, and consumed little dietary Ca. Then, after 5 months of Ca and D supplementation, serum 25(OH)D was 21 ng/mL (Nl, 30-100), corrected serum Ca had normalized from 7.8 to 9.4 mg/dL (Nl, 8.5-10.1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) had decreased from 1080 to 539 U/L (Nl, 46-116), yet parathyroid hormone (PTH) had increased from 133 to 327 pg/mL (Nl, 8.7-77.1). Radiographs revealed generalized osteosclerosis and a cystic lesion in a proximal femur. DXA BMD Z-scores were +7.4 and +0.4 at the lumbar spine and "1/3" radius, respectively. Bone scintigraphy showed increased uptake in two ribs, periarticular areas, and proximal left femur at the site of a subsequent atraumatic fracture. Elevated serum collagen type I C-telopeptide 2513 pg/mL (Nl, 87-345) and osteocalcin >300 ng/mL (Nl, 9-38) indicated rapid bone turnover. Negative studies included hepatitis C Ab, prostate-specific antigen, serum and urine electrophoresis, and Ion Torrent mutation analysis for dense or high-turnover skeletal diseases. After discovering markedly elevated F concentrations in his plasma [4.84 mg/L (Nl, 0.02-0.08)] and spot urine [42.6 mg/L (Nl, 0.2-3.2)], a two-year history emerged of "huffing" computer cleaner containing difluoroethane. Non-decalcified histology of a subsequent right femur fracture showed increased osteoblasts and osteoclasts and excessive osteoid. A 24-hour urine collection contained 27 mg/L F (Nl, 0.2-3.2) and <2 mg/dL Ca. Then, 19 months after "huffing" cessation and improved Ca and D intake, yet with persisting bone pain, serum PTH was normal (52 pg/mL) and serum ALP and urine F had decreased to 248 U/L and 3.3 mg/L, respectively. Our experience combined with 15 publications in PubMed concerning unusual causes of non-endemic SF where the F source became known (19 cases in all) revealed: 11 instances from high consumption of black tea and/or F-containing toothpaste, 1 due to geophagia of F-rich soil, and 7 due to "recreational" inhalation of F-containing vapors. Circulating PTH measured in 14 was substantially elevated in 2 (including ours) and mildly increased in 2. The severity of SF in the cases reviewed seemed to reflect cumulative F exposure, renal function, and Ca and D status. Several factors appeared to influence our patient's skeletal disease: i) direct anabolic effects of toxic amounts of F on his skeleton, ii) secondary hyperparathyroidism from degradation-resistant fluorapatite bone crystals and low dietary Ca, and iii) impaired mineralization of excessive osteoid due to hypocalcemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.115839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142331PMC
April 2021

Coalescing expansile skeletal disease: Delineation of an extraordinary osteopathy involving the IFITM5 mutation of osteogenesis imperfecta type V.

Bone 2021 04 24;145:115835. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children - St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

In 2003, we briefly reported the remarkable osteopathy of a 12-year-old boy who at age two months began fracturing his limbs with subsequent hyperplastic callus formation and expansion and fusion of appendicular bones. By age ten years he had coalesced his lumbosacral spine, pelvis, femurs, and leg and foot bones as a single structure. Computed tomography of expanded bone revealed a thin cortical shell, diminished irregular trabeculae, and cystic areas. Histopathology featured foci of woven bone, densely packed osteocytes, cartilage, fibrovascular tissue, and massive fat deposition in the marrow space lacking hematogenous precursor cells. Bone turnover markers indicated accelerated remodeling and the few radiographically assessable appendicular bones improved during brief adherence to alendronate therapy. Following puberty, serum multiplex biomarker profiling confirmed accelerated bone turnover. At age 23 years, macrospecimens from leg amputation revealed ossification along capsular tissue together with hyaline cartilage degeneration. Concurrently, the life-long course of this same disorder was delineated in an unrelated woman until her death at age 51 years. Both patients demonstrated the radiographic hallmarks and harbored the heterozygous point mutation (c.-14C>T) in the 5'-UTR of IFITM5 associated with osteogenesis imperfecta type V (OI-V). Herein, we detail the clinical, radiological, histopathological, biochemical, and molecular findings and discuss the etiology and pathogenesis of this extraordinary osteopathy that we call coalescing expansile skeletal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115835DOI Listing
April 2021

Pharmacodynamics of asfotase alfa in adults with pediatric-onset hypophosphatasia.

Bone 2021 01 26;142:115664. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Program for Metabolic Bone Disorders at Vanderbilt, Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the rare, inherited, metabolic bone disease characterized by low activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) leading to excess extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). Asfotase alfa is the human recombinant enzyme-replacement therapy that replaces deficient TNSALP. However, there is limited information concerning the appropriate dose of asfotase alfa for adult patients with pediatric-onset HPP. Thus, we evaluated the pharmacodynamics and safety/tolerability of different doses of asfotase alfa in such patients.

Methods: This 13-week, Phase 2a, open-label study enrolled adults (aged ≥18 years) with pediatric-onset HPP. They were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single subcutaneous dose of asfotase alfa (0.5, 2.0, or 3.0 mg/kg) at Week 1, then 3 times per week (ie, 1.5, 6.0, or 9.0 mg/kg/wk) starting at Week 3 for 7 weeks. Key outcome measures included change from Baseline to before the third dose during Week 9 (trough) in plasma PPi (primary outcome measure) and PLP (secondary outcome measure).

Results: Twenty-seven adults received asfotase alfa 0.5 (n = 8), 2.0 (n = 10), and 3.0 (n = 9) mg/kg; all completed the study. Median (range) age was 45 (18-77) years; most patients were white (96%) and female (59%). Median plasma PPi and PLP concentrations decreased from Baseline to Week 9 in all 3 cohorts. Differences in least squares mean (LSM) changes in PPi were significant with 2.0 mg/kg (p = 0.0008) and 3.0 mg/kg (p < 0.0001) vs. 0.5 mg/kg. Differences in LSM changes in PLP were also significant for 2.0 mg/kg (p = 0.0239) and 3.0 mg/kg (p = 0.0128) vs. 0.5 mg/kg. Injection site reactions were the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse event (78%), showing increasing frequency with increasing dose.

Conclusions: Adults with pediatric-onset HPP receiving asfotase alfa at 6.0 mg/kg/wk (the recommended dose) or 9.0 mg/kg/wk had greater reductions in circulating PPi and PLP concentrations compared with a lower dose of 1.5 mg/kg/wk.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02797821.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115664DOI Listing
January 2021

High bone mass from mutation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6).

Bone 2020 12 27;141:115550. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children, St. Louis, MO, USA; Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Wnt/β-catenin signaling is important for skeletal development and health. Eleven heterozygous gain-of-function missense mutations within the first β-propeller of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) are known to cause the autosomal dominant disorder called high bone mass (HBM). In 2019, different heterozygous LRP6 missense mutations were identified in two American families with the HBM phenotype but including absent lateral maxillary and mandibular incisors. We report a 19-year-old Argentinian man referred for "osteopetrosis" and nine years of generalized, medium-intensity bone pain and arthralgias of both knees. His jaw and nasal bridge were broad and several teeth were missing. Routine biochemical testing, including of mineral homeostasis, was normal. Urinary deoxypyridinoline and serum CTX were slightly increased. Radiographic skeletal survey showed diffusely increased radiodensity. DXA revealed substantially elevated BMD Z-scores. Digital orthopantomography confirmed agenesis of his maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors and his second left superior premolar. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse thickening of the calvarium and skull base, dilation of the sheath of the optic nerves containing increased fluid and associated with subtle stenosis of the optic canal, and narrow internal auditory canals. Mutation analyses identified a heterozygous indel mutation in exon 4 of LRP6 involving a single nucleotide change and 6-nucleotide deletion (c.678T>Adel679-684, p.His226Gln-del227-228ProPhe) leading to a missense change and 2-amino acid deletion that would compromise the first β-propeller of LRP6. Experience to date indicates LRP6 HBM is indistinguishable from LRP5 HBM without mutation analysis, although in LRP6 HBM absence of adult lateral incisors may prove to be a unique feature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115550DOI Listing
December 2020

Growth Curves for Children with X-linked Hypophosphatemia.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 10;105(10)

Pediatrics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Context: We characterized linear growth in infants and children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH).

Objective: Provide linear growth curves for children with XLH from birth to early adolescence.

Design: Data from 4 prior studies of XLH were pooled to construct growth curves. UX023-CL002 was an observational, retrospective chart review. Pretreatment data were collected from 3 interventional trials: two phase 2 trials (UX023-CL201, UX023-CL205) and a phase 3 trial (UX023-CL301).

Setting: Medical centers with expertise in treating XLH.

Patients: Children with XLH, 1-14 years of age.

Intervention: None.

Main Outcome Measure: Height-for-age linear growth curves, including values for the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for children with XLH compared to population norms.

Results: A total of 228 patients (132 girls, 96 boys) with 2381 height measurements were included. Nearly all subjects (> 99%) reported prior management with supplementation therapy. Compared to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention growth curves, boys at age 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 1 year, and 2 years had median height percentiles of 46%, 37%, 26%, 18%, and 5%, respectively; for girls the median height percentiles were 52%, 37%, 25%, 18%, and 7%, respectively. Annual growth in children with XLH fell below that of healthy children near 1 year of age and progressively declined during early childhood, with all median height percentiles < 8% between 2 and 12 years old.

Conclusion: Children with XLH show decreased height gain by 1 year of age and remain below population norms thereafter. These data will help evaluate therapeutic interventions on linear growth for pediatric XLH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448934PMC
October 2020

The two faces of giant cell tumor of bone.

Cancer Lett 2020 10 2;489:1-8. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Institute of Genetics and Biophysics "Adriano Buzzati-Traverso", National Research Council of Italy, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a bone-destructive benign neoplasm characterized by distinctive multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells with osteolytic properties distributed among neoplastic stromal cells. GCT is locally aggressive with progressive invasion of adjacent tissues and occasionally displays malignant characteristics including lung metastasis. GCT is characterized genetically by highly recurrent somatic mutations at the G34 position of the H3F3A gene, encoding the histone variant H3.3, in stromal cells. This leads to deregulated gene expression and increased proliferation of mutation-bearing cells. However, when GCT complicates Paget disease of bone (GCT/PDB) it behaves differently, showing a more malignant phenotype with 5-year survival less than 50%. GCT/PDB is caused by a germline mutation in the ZNF687 gene, which encodes a transcription factor involved in the repression of genes surrounding DNA double-strand breaks to promote repair by homologous recombination. Identification of these driver mutations led to novel diagnostic tools for distinguishing between these two tumors and other osteoclast-rich neoplasms. Herein, we review the clinical, histological, and molecular features of GCT in different contexts focusing also on pharmacological treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.05.031DOI Listing
October 2020

Persistent idiopathic hyperphosphatasemia from bone alkaline phosphatase in a healthy boy.

Bone 2020 09 28;138:115459. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, SE-58185 Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address:

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in humans comprises a family of four cell-surface phosphomonoester phosphohydrolase isozymes. Three genes separately encode the "tissue-specific" ALPs whereas the fourth gene encodes ubiquitous homodimeric "tissue-nonspecific" ALP (TNSALP) richly expressed in bone, liver, kidney, and developing teeth. TNSALP monomers have five putative N-linked glycosylation sites where different post-translational modifications account for this isozyme's distinctive physicochemical properties in different organs. Three bone-derived TNSALP (BALP) isoforms (B/I, B1, and B2) are present in healthy serum, whereas a fourth BALP isoform (B1x) can circulate in chronic kidney disease. Herein, we report a healthy boy with persistent hyperphosphatasemia due to BALP levels two- to threefold higher than age-appropriate reference values. High-performance liquid chromatography, electrophoresis, heat inactivation, catalysis inhibition, and polyethylene glycol precipitation revealed increased serum B/I, B1, and B2 differing from patterns found in skeletal diseases. B/I was ~23-fold elevated. Absence of mental retardation and physical stigmata excluded Mabry syndrome, the ALP-anchoring disorder causing hyperphosphatasemia. Routine biochemical studies indicated intact mineral homeostasis. Serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) level was normal, but C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) level was elevated. However, radiological studies showed no evidence for a generalized skeletal disturbance. Circulating pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, a TNSALP natural substrate, was not low despite the laboratory hyperphosphatasemia, thereby suggesting BALP phosphohydrolase activity was not elevated endogenously. Mutation analysis of the ALPL gene encoding TNSALP revealed no defect. His non-consanguineous healthy parents had serum total ALP activity and BALP protein levels that were normal. Our patient's sporadic idiopathic hyperphosphatasemia could reflect altered post-translational modification together with increased expression and/or impaired degradation of BALP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115459DOI Listing
September 2020

Juvenile Paget's Disease From Heterozygous Mutation of SP7 Encoding Osterix (Specificity Protein 7, Transcription Factor SP7).

Bone 2020 08 13;137:115364. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Center For Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children - St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Juvenile Paget's disease (JPD) became in 1974 the commonly used name for ultra-rare heritable occurrences of rapid bone remodeling throughout of the skeleton that present in infancy or early childhood as fractures and deformity hallmarked biochemically by marked elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (hyperphosphatasemia). Untreated, JPD can kill during childhood or young adult life. In 2002, we reported that homozygous deletion of the gene called tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 11B (TNFRSF11B) encoding osteoprotegerin (OPG) explained JPD in Navajos. Soon after, other bi-allelic loss-of-function TNFRSF11B defects were identified in JPD worldwide. OPG inhibits osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity by decoying receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B (RANK) ligand (RANKL) away from its receptor RANK. Then, in 2014, we reported JPD in a Bolivian girl caused by a heterozygous activating duplication within TNFRSF11A encoding RANK. Herein, we identify mutation of a third gene underlying JPD. An infant girl began atraumatic fracturing of her lower extremity long-bones. Skull deformity and mild hearing loss followed. Our single investigation of the patient, when she was 15 years-of-age, showed generalized osteosclerosis and hyperostosis. DXA revealed a Z-score of +5.1 at her lumbar spine and T-score of +3.3 at her non-dominant wrist. Biochemical studies were consistent with positive mineral balance and several markers of bone turnover were elevated and included striking hyperphosphatasemia. Iliac crest histopathology was consistent with rapid skeletal remodeling. Measles virus transcripts, common in classic Paget's disease of bone, were not detected in circulating mononuclear cells. Then, reportedly, she responded to several months of alendronate therapy with less skeletal pain and correction of hyperphosphatasemia but had been lost to our follow-up. After we detected no defect in TNFRSF11A or B, trio exome sequencing revealed a de novo heterozygous missense mutation (c.926C>G; p.S309W) within SP7 encoding the osteoblast transcription factor osterix (specificity protein 7, transcription factor SP7). Thus, mutation of SP7 represents a third genetic cause of JPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054448PMC
August 2020

Healing of vitamin D deficiency rickets complicating hypophosphatasia suggests a role beyond circulating mineral sufficiency for vitamin D in musculoskeletal health.

Bone 2020 07 19;136:115322. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the metabolic bone disease caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) of the ALPL gene that encodes the cell-surface tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). In HPP, extracellular accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a TNSALP natural substrate and inhibitor of biomineralization, often leads to rickets or osteomalacia despite normal or sometimes elevated circulating levels of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). We report an infant girl with vitamin D deficiency rickets subsequently healed by cholecalciferol administration alone before receiving TNSALP-replacement therapy for accompanying HPP. Throughout her clinical course, circulating Ca and Pi levels were normal or elevated. At presentation with failure-to-thrive at age six months, radiographs revealed severe rickets and serum 25(OH)D was 8 ng/mL (Nl, 30-100), yet low ALP activity 55 U/L (Nl, 124-341), normal Ca 9.3 mg/dL (Nl, 8.5-10.1) and Pi 6.4 mg/dL (Nl, 3.5-7.0), and low-normal parathyroid hormone 21 pg/mL (Nl, 14-72) were instead consistent with HPP. At age nine months, after 1000 IU of cholecalciferol orally each day for six weeks, serum 25(OH)D was 86 ng/mL, strength markedly better, and radiographs documented significant improvement of rickets. At age 18 months, with fully healed vitamin D deficiency rickets, findings of underlying HPP included a waddling gait and Gower sign, metaphyseal "tongues" of radiolucency, elevated serum pyridoxal 5'-phosphate 121 ng/mL (Nl, 2-33), and bi-allelic ALPL missense mutations. Then, nearly complete restoration of strength and radiographic healing of her remaining skeletal disease from HPP occurred during asfotase alfa enzyme replacement treatment. At no time, including presentation, were circulating Ca or Pi levels compromised. Instead, and in keeping with HPP, high-normal or elevated serum Ca and Pi concentrations were consistently documented. Thus, our findings suggest some role for vitamin D in musculoskeletal health beyond assuring circulating mineral sufficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115322DOI Listing
July 2020

Genetics of Skeletal Disorders.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2020 ;262:325-351

Academic Endocrine Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Bone and mineral diseases encompass a variety of conditions that involve altered skeletal homeostasis and are frequently associated with changes in circulating calcium, phosphate, or vitamin D metabolites. These disorders often have a genetic etiology and comprise monogenic disorders caused by a single-gene mutation, which may be germline or somatic, or an oligogenic or polygenic condition involving multiple genetic variants. Single-gene mutations causing Mendelian diseases are usually highly penetrant, whereas the gene variants contributing to oligogenic or polygenic disorders are each associated with smaller effects with additional contributions from environmental factors. The detection of monogenic disorders is clinically important and facilitates timely assessment and management of the patient and their affected relatives. The diagnosis of monogenic metabolic bone disorders requires detailed clinical assessment of the wide variety of symptoms and signs associated with these diseases. Thus, clinicians should undertake a systematic approach commencing with careful history taking and physical examination, followed by appropriate laboratory and skeletal imaging investigations. Finally, clinicians should be familiar with the range of molecular genetic tests available to ensure their appropriate use and interpretation. These considerations are reviewed in this chapter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2020_350DOI Listing
December 2020

Hyperphosphatemia with low FGF7 and normal FGF23 and sFRP4 levels in the circulation characterizes pediatric hypophosphatasia.

Bone 2020 05 26;134:115300. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn-error-of-metabolism caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) of the ALPL gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). TNSALP in healthy individuals is on cell surfaces richly in bone, liver, and kidney. Thus, TNSALP natural substrates accumulate extracellularly in HPP, including inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent inhibitor of hydroxyapatite crystal formation and growth. Superabundance of extracellular PPi (ePPi) in HPP impairs mineralization of bones and teeth, often leading to rickets during childhood and osteomalacia in adult life and to tooth loss at any age. HPP's remarkably broad-ranging severity is largely explained by nearly four hundred typically missense mutations throughout the ALPL gene that are transmitted as an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive trait. In the clinical laboratory, the biochemical hallmark of HPP is low serum ALP activity (hypophosphatasemia). However, our experience indicates that hyperphosphatemia from increased renal reclamation of filtered inorganic phosphate (Pi) is also common. Herein, from our prospective single-center study, we document throughout the clinical spectrum of non-lethal pediatric HPP that hyperphosphatemia reflects increased renal tubular threshold maximum for phosphorus adjusted for the glomerular filtration rate (TmP/GFR). To explore its pathogenesis, we studied mineral metabolism and quantitated circulating levels of three phosphatonins [fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4), and fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7)] in 41 pediatric patients with HPP, 73 with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), and 15 healthy pediatric control (CTR) subjects. The HPP and XLH cohorts had normal serum total and ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone levels (Ps > 0.10) and uncompromised glomerular filtration. In XLH, serum FGF23 was characteristically elevated (P < 0.0001) and despite hypophosphatemia sFRP4 was normal (P > 0.4) while FGF7 was low (P < 0.0001). In HPP, despite hyperphosphatemia serum FGF23 and sFRP4 were normal (Ps > 0.8) while FGF7 was low (P < 0.0001). Subsequently, in rats, we confirmed that FGF7 is phosphaturic. Thus, hyperphosphatemia in non-lethal pediatric HPP is associated with phosphatonin insufficiency together with, as we discuss, ePPi excess and diminished renal TNSALP activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233305PMC
May 2020

ZNF687 Mutations in an Extended Cohort of Neoplastic Transformations in Paget's Disease of Bone: Implications for Clinical Pathology.

J Bone Miner Res 2020 10 11;35(10):1974-1980. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, National Research Council of Italy, Naples, Italy.

Neoplastic transformation is a rare but serious complication of Paget's disease of bone (PDB), occurring in fewer than 1% of individuals with polyostotic disease. Their prognosis is poor, with less than 50% surviving 5 years. In 2016, the genetic alteration of giant cell tumor (GCT) complicating PDB was identified as a founder germline mutation (P937R) in the ZNF687 gene. However, the study population was exclusively of Italian descent, and patients of different ethnic origins were not studied. To fill this gap, herein we performed mutation analysis of ZNF687 in a GCT in the pelvis of a 45-year-old black American woman with polyostotic PDB. The P937R mutation in ZNF687 was found in her tumor but, as expected, the ancestral haplotype that characterizes the Italian GCT/PDB patients was not found. Furthermore, we identified two additional Italian GCT/PDB patients with this ZNF687 mutation, now constituting a cohort of 18 GCT/PDB cases, all harboring the identical mutation. We also searched for ZNF687 mutations in a unique collection of tumor tissues derived from Italian PDB patients, including 28 osteosarcomas (OS/PDB), 8 undifferentiated sarcomas (SRC/PDB), 1 fibrosarcoma (FS/PDB), and 1 chondrosarcoma (CS/PDB). We identified the P937R mutation in one SRC/PDB and a different ZNF687 mutation (R331W) in 1 of 28 pagetic osteosarcomas. Thus, whereas GCT/PDB pathogenesis globally seems to involve the P937R mutation in ZNF687, other neoplasms associated with PDB seem to be less related to mutations in this gene. Finally, we identified the G34W mutation in the H3F3A gene in the maxillary tumor masses of two PDB patients, defining them as conventional GCT rather than GCT/PDB. Thus, combined molecular analysis of H3F3A and ZNF687 is essential to clarify the origin and diagnosis of tumors in PDB. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3993DOI Listing
October 2020

Studies of mice deleted for Sox3 and uc482: relevance to X-linked hypoparathyroidism.

Endocr Connect 2020 Jan 1. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

R Thakker, NUFFIELD DEPARTMENT OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD, OXFORD, OX3 7LJ, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Hypoparathyroidism is genetically heterogeneous and characterized by low plasma calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. X-linked hypoparathyroidism (XLHPT) in two American families, is associated with interstitial deletion-insertions involving deletions of chromosome Xq27.1 downstream of SOX3 and insertions of predominantly non-coding DNA from chromosome 2p25.3. These could result in loss, gain, or movement of regulatory elements, which include ultraconserved element uc482, that could alter SOX3 expression,. To investigate this, we analysed SOX3 expression in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells from 3 affected males, 3 unaffected males, and 4 carrier females from one XLHPT family. SOX3 expression was similar in all individuals, indicating that the spatiotemporal effect of the interstitial deletion-insertion on SOX3 expression postulated to occur in developing parathyroids did not manifest in lymphoblastoids. Expression of SNTG2, which is duplicated and inserted into the X chromosome, and ATP11C, which is moved telomerically, were also similarly expressed in all individuals. Investigation of male hemizygous (Sox3-/Y and uc482-/Y) and female heterozygous (Sox3+/- and uc482+/-) knock-out mice, together with wild-type littermates (male Sox3+/Y and uc482+/Y, and female Sox3+/+ and uc482+/+), revealed Sox3-/Y, Sox3+/-, uc482-/Y, and uc482+/- mice to have normal plasma biochemistry, compared to their respective wild-type littermates. When challenged with a low calcium diet, all mice had hypocalcaemia, and elevated plasma PTH concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activities, and Sox3-/Y, Sox3+/-, uc482-/Y, and uc482+/- mice had similar plasma biochemistry, compared to wild-type littermates. Thus, these results indicate that absence of Sox3 or uc482 does not cause hypoparathyroidism, and that XLHPT likely reflects a more complex mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-19-0478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040864PMC
January 2020

Early-onset Paget's disease of bone in a Mexican family caused by a novel tandem duplication (77dup27) in TNFRSF11A that encodes RANK.

Bone 2020 04 8;133:115224. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO, USA; Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Four heterozygous in-frame tandem duplications of different lengths in TNFRSF11A, the gene that encodes receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), constitutively activate RANK and lead to high turnover skeletal disease. Each duplication elongates the signal peptide of RANK. The 18-base pair (bp) duplication at position 84 (84dup18) causes familial expansile osteolysis (FEO), the 15-bp duplication at position 84 (84dup15) causes expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia (ESH), the 12-bp duplication at position 90 (90dup12) causes panostotic expansile bone disease (PEBD), and the 27-bp duplication causes early-onset Paget's disease of bone (PDB2). The severity of the associated skeletal disease seems inversely related to the duplication's length. Additional 15- and 18-bp duplications of TNFRSF11A fit this pattern. Herein, we delineate the skeletal disease of a middle-aged man of Mexican descent who we found to harbor a novel 27-bp tandem duplication at position 77 (77dup27) of TNFRSF11A. His disorder shares features, particularly hand involvement, with the single Japanese (75dup27) and Chinese (78dup27) kindreds with PDB2 (PDB2 and PDB2, respectively). However, his distinct hearing loss developed later in adulthood compared to the other 27-bp families. He reported no morbidities during childhood, but in his late 20s developed unexplained tooth loss, low-trauma fractures, post-operative hypercalcemia, and painless enlargement of his fingers. Biochemical studies showed elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone-specific ALP, C-telopeptide, and osteocalcin consistent with rapid bone remodeling. Radiologic imaging revealed remarkably lucent bones with vertebral compression fractures, calvarial lucencies, and thinned long bone cortices. DXA showed extremely low bone mineral density. His disorder genetically and phenotypically fits best with PDB2 and can be called PDB2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179970PMC
April 2020

X-Linked Hypophosphatemia: Uniquely Mild Disease Associated With PHEX 3'-UTR Mutation c.*231A>G (A Retrospective Case-Control Study).

J Bone Miner Res 2020 05 10;35(5):920-931. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children - St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), the most prevalent heritable renal phosphate (Pi) wasting disorder, is caused by deactivating mutations of PHEX. Consequently, circulating phosphatonin FGF23 becomes elevated and hypophosphatemia in affected children leads to rickets with skeletal deformity and reduced linear growth while affected adults suffer from osteomalacia and forms of ectopic mineralization. In 2015, we reported uniquely mild XLH in six children and four of their mothers carrying the non-coding PHEX 3'-UTR mutation c.*231A>G. Herein, we characterize this mild XLH variant by comparing its features in 30 individuals to 30 age- and sex-matched patients with XLH but without the 3'-UTR mutation. The "UTR" and "XLH" groups, both comprising 17 children (2 to 17 years, 3 girls) and 13 adults (23 to 63 years, 10 women), had mean ages of 23 years. Only 43% of the UTR group versus 90% of the XLH group had received medical treatment for their disorder, including 0% versus 85% of the females, respectively (ps < .0001). The UTR group was taller: mean ± SD height Z-score (HZ) -1.0 ± 1.0 versus -2.0 ± 1.4 (p = .0034), with significantly greater height for females (-0.9 ± 0.7 versus -2.3 ± 1.4; p = .0050) but not males (-1.2 ± 1.1 versus -1.9 ± 1.5; p = .1541), respectively. Mean ± SD "arm span Z-score" (AZ) did not differ between the UTR -0.8 ± 1.3 versus XLH -1.3 ± 1.8 groups (p = .2269). Consequently, the UTR group was more proportionate with a mean ∆Z (AZ - HZ) of 0.1 ± 0.6 versus 0.7 ± 1.0 (p = .0158), respectively. Compared to the XLH group, the UTR group had significantly higher fasting serum Pi and renal tubular threshold maximum for phosphorus per glomerular filtration rate (TmP/GFR) (ps ≤ .0060), serum FGF23 concentrations within the reference range (p = .0068), and similar serum alkaline phosphatase levels (p = .6513). UTR lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was higher (p = .0343). Thus, the 3'-UTR variant of XLH is distinctly mild, especially in girls and women, posing challenges for its recognition and management. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3955DOI Listing
May 2020

Hypophosphatemic osteosclerosis, hyperostosis, and enthesopathy associated with novel homozygous mutations of DMP1 encoding dentin matrix protein 1 and SPP1 encoding osteopontin: The first digenic SIBLING protein osteopathy?

Bone 2020 03 13;132:115190. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children - St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

The SIBLINGs are a subfamily of the secreted calcium-binding phosphoproteins and comprise five small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins [dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), secreted phosphoprotein-1 (SPP1) also called osteopontin (OPN), integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP) also called bone sialoprotein (BSP), matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)]. Each SIBLING has at least one "acidic, serine- and aspartic acid-rich motif" (ASARM) and multiple Ser-x-Glu/pSer sequences that when phosphorylated promote binding of the protein to hydroxyapatite for regulation of biomineralization. Mendelian disorders from loss-of-function mutation(s) of the genes that encode the SIBLINGs thus far involve DSPP causing various autosomal dominant dysplasias of dentin but without skeletal disease, and DMP1 causing autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, type 1 (ARHR1). No diseases have been reported from gain-of-function mutation(s) of DSPP or DMP1 or from alterations of SPP1, IBSP, or MEPE. Herein, we describe severe hypophosphatemic osteosclerosis and hyperostosis associated with skeletal deformity, short stature, enthesopathy, tooth loss, and high circulating FGF23 levels in a middle-aged man and young woman from an endogamous family living in southern India. Both shared novel homozygous mutations within two genes that encode a SIBLING protein: stop-gain ("nonsense") DMP1 (c.556G>T,p.Glu186Ter) and missense SPP1 (c.769C>T,p.Leu266Phe). The man alone also carried novel heterozygous missense variants within two additional genes that condition mineral homeostasis and are the basis for autosomal recessive disorders: CYP27B1 underlying vitamin D dependent rickets, type 1, and ABCC6 underlying both generalized arterial calcification of infancy, type 2 and pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). By immunochemistry, his bone contained high amounts of OPN, particularly striking surrounding osteocytes. We review how our patients' disorder may represent the first digenic SIBLING protein osteopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.115190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271119PMC
March 2020

Bruck syndrome 2 variant lacking congenital contractures and involving a novel compound heterozygous PLOD2 mutation.

Bone 2020 01 28;130:115047. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Bruck syndrome (BRKS) is the rare disorder that features congenital joint contractures often with pterygia and subsequent fractures, also known as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type XI (OMIM # 610968). Its two forms, BRKS1 (OMIM # 259450) and BRKS2 (OMIM # 609220), reflect autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance of FKBP10 and PLOD2 loss-of-function mutations, respectively. A 10-year-old girl was referred with blue sclera, osteopenia, poorly-healing fragility fractures, Wormian skull bones, cleft soft palate, congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae, progressive scoliosis, bell-shaped thorax, restrictive and reactive pulmonary disease, protrusio acetabuli, short stature, and additional dysmorphic features without joint contractures. Iliac crest biopsy after alendronate treatment that improved her bone density revealed low trabecular connectivity, abundant patchy osteoid, and active bone formation with widely-spaced tetracycline labels. Chromosome 22q11 deletion analysis for velocardiofacial syndrome, COL1A1 and COL1A2 sequencing for prevalent types of OI, and Sanger sequencing of LRP5, PPIB, FKBP10, and IFITM5 for rare pediatric osteoporoses were negative. Copy number microarray excluded a contiguous gene syndrome. Instead, exome sequencing revealed two missense variants in PLOD2 which encodes procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (lysyl hydroxylase 2, LH2); exon 8, c.797G>T, p.Gly266Val (paternal), and exon 12, c.1280A>G, p.Asn427Ser (maternal). In the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database, low frequency (Gly266Val, 0.0000419) and absence (Asn427Ser) implicated both variants as mutations of PLOD2. The father, mother, and sister (who carried the exon 12 defect) were reportedly well with normal parental DXA findings. BRKS2, characterized by under-hydroxylation of type I collagen telopeptides compromising their crosslinking, has been reported in at least 16 probands/families. Most PLOD2 mutations involve exons 17-19 (of 20 total) encoding the C-terminal domain with LH activity. However, truncating defects (nonsense, frameshift, splice site mutations) are also found throughout PLOD2. In three reports, AR PLOD2 mutations are not associated with congenital contractures. Our patient's missense defects lie within the central domain of unknown function of PLOD2. In our patient, compound heterozygosity with PLOD2 mutations is associated with a clinical phenotype distinctive from classic BRKS2 indicating that when COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutation testing is negative for OI without congenital contractures or pterygia, atypical BRKS should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.115047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945817PMC
January 2020

Burosumab versus conventional therapy in children with X-linked hypophosphataemia: a randomised, active-controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2019 06 16;393(10189):2416-2427. Epub 2019 May 16.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: X-linked hypophosphataemia in children is characterised by elevated serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), hypophosphataemia, rickets, lower extremity bowing, and growth impairment. We compared the efficacy and safety of continuing conventional therapy, consisting of oral phosphate and active vitamin D, versus switching to burosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against FGF23, in paediatric X-linked hypophosphataemia.

Methods: In this randomised, active-controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial at 16 clinical sites, we enrolled children with X-linked hypophosphataemia aged 1-12 years. Key eligibility criteria were a total Thacher rickets severity score of at least 2·0, fasting serum phosphorus lower than 0·97 mmol/L (3·0 mg/dL), confirmed PHEX (phosphate-regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked) mutation or variant of unknown significance in the patient or a family member with appropriate X-linked dominant inheritance, and receipt of conventional therapy for at least 6 consecutive months for children younger than 3 years or at least 12 consecutive months for children older than 3 years. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either subcutaneous burosumab starting at 0·8 mg/kg every 2 weeks (burosumab group) or conventional therapy prescribed by investigators (conventional therapy group). Both interventions lasted 64 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in rickets severity at week 40, assessed by the Radiographic Global Impression of Change global score. All patients who received at least one dose of treatment were included in the primary and safety analyses. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02915705.

Findings: Recruitment took place between Aug 3, 2016, and May 8, 2017. Of 122 patients assessed, 61 were enrolled. Of these, 32 (18 girls, 14 boys) were randomly assigned to continue receiving conventional therapy and 29 (16 girls, 13 boys) to receive burosumab. For the primary endpoint at week 40, patients in the burosumab group had significantly greater improvement in Radiographic Global Impression of Change global score than did patients in the conventional therapy group (least squares mean +1·9 [SE 0·1] with burosumab vs +0·8 [0·1] with conventional therapy; difference 1·1, 95% CI 0·8-1·5; p<0·0001). Treatment-emergent adverse events considered possibly, probably, or definitely related to treatment by the investigator occurred more frequently with burosumab (17 [59%] of 29 patients in the burosumab group vs seven [22%] of 32 patients in the conventional therapy group). Three serious adverse events occurred in each group, all considered unrelated to treatment and resolved.

Interpretation: Significantly greater clinical improvements were shown in rickets severity, growth, and biochemistries among children with X-linked hypophosphataemia treated with burosumab compared with those continuing conventional therapy.

Funding: Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical and Kyowa Kirin International.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30654-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179969PMC
June 2019

New explanation for autosomal dominant high bone mass: Mutation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6.

Bone 2019 10 11;127:228-243. Epub 2019 May 11.

Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research, Shriners Hospitals for Children - St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA; Division of Bone and Mineral Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

LRP5 encodes low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5). When LRP5 with a Frizzled receptor join on the surface of an osteoblast and bind a member of the Wnt family of ligands, canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling occurs and increases bone formation. Eleven heterozygous gain-of-function missense mutations within LRP5 are known to prevent the LRP5 inhibitory ligands sclerostin and dickkopf1 from attaching to LRP5's first β-propeller, and thereby explain the rare autosomal dominant (AD) skeletal disorder "high bone mass" (HBM). LRP6 is a cognate co-receptor of LRP5 and similarly controls Wnt signaling in osteoblasts, yet the consequences of increased LRP6-mediated signaling remain unknown. We investigated two multi-generational American families manifesting the clinical and routine laboratory features of LRP5 HBM but without an LRP5 defect and instead carrying a heterozygous LRP6 missense mutation that would alter the first β-propeller of LRP6. In Family 1 LRP6 c.602C>T, p.A201V was homologous to LRP5 HBM mutation c.641C>T, p.A214V, and in Family 2 LRP6 c.553A>C, p.N185H was homologous to LRP5 HBM mutation c.593A>G, p.N198S but predicting a different residue at the identical amino acid position. In both families the LRP6 mutation co-segregated with striking generalized osteosclerosis and hyperostosis. Clinical features shared by the seven LRP6 HBM family members and ten LRP5 HBM patients included a broad jaw, torus palatinus, teeth encased in bone and, reportedly, resistance to fracturing and inability to float in water. For both HBM disorders, all affected individuals were taller than average for Americans (Ps < 0.005), but with similar mean height Z-scores (P = 0.7606) and indistinguishable radiographic skeletal features. Absence of adult maxillary lateral incisors was reported by some LRP6 HBM individuals. In contrast, our 16 patients with AD osteopetrosis [i.e., Albers-Schönberg disease (A-SD)] had an unremarkable mean height Z-score (P = 0.9401) lower than for either HBM group (Ps < 0.05). DXA mean BMD Z-scores in LRP6 HBM versus LRP5 HBM were somewhat higher at the lumbar spine (+7.8 vs +6.5, respectively; P = 0.0403), but no different at the total hip (+7.9 vs +7.7, respectively; P = 0.7905). Among the three diagnostic groups, only the LRP6 HBM DXA BMD values at the spine seemed to increase with subject age (R = +0.7183, P = 0.0448). Total hip BMD Z-scores were not significantly different among the three disorders (Ps > 0.05), and showed no age effect (Ps > 0.1). HR-pQCT available only for LRP6 HBM revealed indistinct corticomedullary boundaries, high distal forearm and tibial total volumetric BMD, and finite element analysis predicted marked fracture resistance. Hence, we have discovered mutations of LRP6 that cause a dento-osseous disorder indistinguishable without mutation analysis from LRP5 HBM. LRP6 HBM seems associated with generally good health, providing some reassurance for the development of anabolic treatments aimed to enhance LRP5/LRP6-mediated osteogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.05.003DOI Listing
October 2019

Natural History of Perinatal and Infantile Hypophosphatasia: A Retrospective Study.

J Pediatr 2019 06 9;209:116-124.e4. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

University Children's Hospital, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Objective: To report clinical characteristics and medical history data obtained retrospectively for a large cohort of pediatric patients with perinatal and infantile hypophosphatasia.

Study Design: Medical records from academic medical centers known to diagnose and/or treat hypophosphatasia were reviewed. Patients born between 1970 and 2011 with hypophosphatasia and any of the following signs/symptoms at age <6 months were eligible: vitamin B6-dependent seizures, respiratory compromise, or rachitic chest deformity (NCT01419028). Patient demographics and characteristics, respiratory support requirements, invasive ventilator-free survival, and further complications of hypophosphatasia were followed for up to the first 5 years of life.

Results: Forty-eight patients represented 12 study sites in 7 countries; 13 patients were alive, and 35 were dead (including 1 stillborn). Chest deformity, respiratory distress, respiratory failure (as conditioned by the eligibility criteria), failure to thrive, and elevated calcium levels were present in >70% of patients between birth and age 5 years. Vitamin B6-dependent seizures and respiratory distress and failure were associated significantly (P < .05) with the risk of early death. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity in all 41 patients tested (mean [SD]: 18.1 [15.4] U/L) was below the mean lower limit of normal of the reference ranges of the various laboratories (88.2 U/L). Among the 45 patients with relevant data, 29 had received respiratory support, of whom 26 had died at the time of data collection. The likelihood of invasive ventilator-free survival for this cohort decreased to 63% at 3 months, 54% at 6 months, 31% at 12 months, and 25% at 5 years.

Conclusions: Patients with perinatal or infantile hypophosphatasia and vitamin B6-dependent seizures, with or without significant respiratory distress or chest deformities, have high morbidity and mortality in the first 5 years of life.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01419028.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.01.049DOI Listing
June 2019

No vascular calcification on cardiac computed tomography spanning asfotase alfa treatment for an elderly woman with hypophosphatasia.

Bone 2019 05 28;122:231-236. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn-error-of-metabolism characterized enzymatically by insufficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) and caused by either mono- or bi-allelic loss-of-function mutation(s) of the gene ALPL that encodes this cell surface phosphomonoester phosphohydrolase. In HPP, the natural substrates of TNSALP accumulate extracellularly and include inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent inhibitor of biomineralization. This PPi excess leads to rickets or osteomalacia in all but the most mild "odonto" form of the disease. Adults with HPP understandably often also manifest calcium PPi dihydrate deposition, whereas enthesopathy and calcific periarthritis from hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal deposition can seem paradoxical in face of the defective skeletal mineralization. In 2015, asfotase alfa (AA), a HA-targeted TNSALP, was approved multinationally as an enzyme replacement therapy for HPP. AA hydrolyzes extracellular PPi (ePPi) and in HPP enables HA crystals to grow and mineralize skeletal matrix. In direct contrast to HPP, deficiency of ePPi characterizes the inborn-errors-of-metabolism generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) and pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). In GACI and PXE, deficiency of ePPi leads to ectopic mineralization including vascular calcification (VC). Therefore, in HPP, ectopic mineralization including VC could hypothetically result from, or be exacerbated by, the persistently high circulating TNSALP activity that occurs during AA treatment. Herein, using a routine computed tomography (CT) method to quantitate coronary artery calcium, we found no ectopic mineralization in the heart of an elderly woman with HPP before or after 8 months of AA treatment. Subsequently, investigational high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry showed absence of peripheral artery and aortic calcium after further AA treatment. Investigation of additional adults with HPP could reveal if the superabundance of ePPi protects against VC, and whether long-term AA therapy causes or exacerbates any ectopic mineralization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.02.025DOI Listing
May 2019
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