Publications by authors named "Michael O Gardner"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of intrauterine marijuana exposure on fetal growth patterns and placental vascular resistance.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Nov 11:1-5. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Las Vegas School of Medicine Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

The recent legalization of marijuana has increased overall use, including in pregnancy. Studies have previously associated marijuana use with adverse fetal neurodevelopmental outcomes. We sought to compare fetal sonographic growth parameters and placental perfusion, as measured by umbilical artery Dopplers, in women using daily marijuana versus nonusers. A retrospective cohort study capturing self - identified pregnant daily marijuana users with gestational aged matched controls was performed. We compared maternal demographics, fetal biometry, nuchal translucency, and umbilical artery Dopplers in marijuana users versus controls. Intrauterine growth restriction was defined as an estimated fetal weight <10th %. In 55 first trimester ultrasounds, there were no differences in crown rump lengths or nuchal translucencies between the groups. Likewise, in 195-second trimester ultrasounds, no differences were noted in biometry. Second trimester umbilical artery systolic to diastolic ratios were higher in marijuana users compared to nonusers (4.02 versus 3.92,  = .024). In the third trimester, 26 of 192 marijuana exposed fetuses were growth restricted compared to 6 of 192 controls ( = .002), and umbilical artery systolic to diastolic ratios were higher (3.52 versus 3.12,  = .0001). Four cases of absent and reversed end diastolic flow were observed in marijuana users, while no cases were observed in controls. Our data shows that daily marijuana use is associated with impaired fetal growth and increased placental vascular resistance. Marijuana consumption in pregnancy should be avoided until further studies delineate its exact potential for fetotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1683541DOI Listing
November 2019

Robotic surgery training in gynecologic fellowship programs in the United States.

JSLS 2014 Jul-Sep;18(3)

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Background And Objectives: The increasing use and acceptance of robotic platforms calls for the need to train not only established surgeons but also residents and fellow trainees within the context of the traditional residency and fellowship program. Our study aimed to clarify the current status of robotic training in gynecologic fellowship programs in the United States.

Methods: This was a Web-based survey of four gynecology fellowship programs in the United States from November 2010 to March 2011. Programs were selected based on their geographic areas. A questionnaire with 43 questions inquiring about robotic surgery performance and training was sent to the programs and either a fellow or the fellowship director was asked to complete. Participation was voluntary.

Results: We had 102 responders (18% respond rate) with an almost equal response rate from all four gynecologic fellowships, with a median response rate of 25% (range 21-29%). Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) and Gynecologic Oncology (Gyn Onc) fellowships had the highest rate of robotic training in their fellowship curriculum-95% and 83%, respectively. Simulator training was used as a training tool in 74% of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS); however, just 22% of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellowships had simulator training. Eighty-seven percent of Gyn Onc fellows graduate with >50 robotic cases, but this was 0% for Reproductive Endocrinology Infertility fellows.

Conclusion: Our study showed that the use of a robotic system was built into fellowship curriculum of >80% of MIS and Gyn Onc fellowship programs that were entered in our study. Simulator training has been used widely in Ob&Gyn fellowship programs as part of their robotic training curriculum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4293/JSLS.2014.00402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154438PMC
March 2016

Routine antenatal thrombophilia screening in high-risk pregnancies: a decision analysis.

Am J Perinatol 2011 Jun 4;28(6):495-500. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA.

Thrombophilias have been implicated in complications related to ischemic placental disease including recurrent pregnancy loss, intrauterine fetal demise, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, placental abruption, and preterm delivery. Maternal screening and treatment may lower the recurrence of these outcomes. Our objective was to estimate if antenatal screening for thrombophilias with the intention to offer treatment among women with a prior adverse pregnancy outcome (APO) is preferable to no screening. A decision-analytical model was constructed for pregnant women with prior APO, comparing screening for thrombophilia with intention to treat with no screening. Values obtained from previously published studies include probability of positive test: 0.3 (0.1 to 0.6); good outcome with treatment: 0.9 (0.3 to 0.99); no thrombophilia, good outcome: 0.75 (0.5 to 0.9); test negative, thrombophilia positive: 0.05 (0.01 to 0.1); test negative, thrombophilia positive, good outcome: 0.75 (0.5 to 0.9); thrombophilia/test negative, good outcome: 0.98 (0.5 to 0.99). Sensitivity analyses were run over a wide range of assumptions. Thrombophilia screening with intention to treat in women with prior APO associated with ischemic placental disease is the strategy of choice compared with no testing over a wide range of assumptions. Sensitivity analyses support this to be robust. Women with poor pregnancy history related to placental ischemic disease may benefit from thrombophilia screening and treatment in a subsequent pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1272964DOI Listing
June 2011

Acute colonic pseudoobstruction complicating twin pregnancy: a case report.

J Reprod Med 2008 Jan;53(1):52-4

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Acute colonic pseudoobstruction, or Ogilvie's syndrome, is a rare but serious medical and obstetric complication. When diagnosed early, treatment with expectant management or more invasive decompression is often successful. However, if not recognized promptly or managed appropriately, this condition can be fatal.

Case: We present an unusual case of acute colonic pseudoobstruction occurring after management of preterm labor in a monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy at 29 weeks' gestation complicated with twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

Conclusion: Acute colonic pseudoobstruction should be considered in the differential diagnosis in pregnant women who present with abdominal distention and vomiting.
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January 2008

Late preterm gestation: physiology of labor and implications for delivery.

Clin Perinatol 2006 Dec;33(4):765-76; abstract vii

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.

The late preterm infant represents a significant portion of preterm deliveries. Historically, this cohort has been referred to as near-term, which may not address adequately the increased perinatal morbidity these neonates experience. The changing demographics of pregnant women also are increasing the number of inductions in this gestational age group. More women with chronic hypertension, diabetes, and other chronic medical problems are getting pregnant, and often these pregnancies may require induction during this gestational age. The increasing numbers of multi-fetal gestations also have an average gestational age at delivery in this range of 34 to 36.6 weeks. Preeclampsia is another factor that can lead to delivery and induction during this gestational age. This article discusses some of the physiologic causes behind late preterm deliveries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clp.2006.09.001DOI Listing
December 2006

Rapid HIV versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening in a low-risk Mexican American population presenting in labor: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005 Sep;193(3 Pt 2):1280-5

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Medicine, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, USA.

Objective: Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus is the most common cause of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus in the United States; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations endorse rapid human immunodeficiency virus testing for women with unknown viral status to quicken antiretroviral therapy. We compared the cost-effectiveness of Oraquick (Orasure Technologies, Bethlehem, Pa) rapid testing versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing for a low-risk population of Mexican American women who are in labor.

Study Design: Using decision analysis techniques, we tested 2 strategies: (1) testing with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that was confirmed by Western blot and (2) testing with Oraquick rapid testing that was confirmed by Western blot. All seropositive parturients received zidovudine treatment in labor. The baseline assumptions were the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus in Mexican American mothers (0.05%), mother-to-child transmission with no treatment (25%), with treatment in labor (10%), sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (98%), positive predictive value of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (10%), sensitivity/specificity of Oraquick rapid testing (99%/100%), positive predictive value of Oraquick rapid testing (83%-100%), sensitivity/specificity of Western blot (97%/99%), costs (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [dollar 5], Oraquick rapid testing [dollar 15], Western blot [dollar 25], zidovudine treatment [dollar 76] for 12 hours labor, neonatal treatment [dollar 2.50], lifetime treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-affected child [dollar 194,250]). Sensitivity analyses were done over a wide range of assumptions that included the costs of tests, the sensitivity of Oraquick rapid testing, the positive predictive value of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Oraquick rapid testing, and the costs of treatments.

Results: Oraquick rapid testing was the preferred strategy at dollar 98 spent per human immunodeficiency virus-negative child versus dollar 491 for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing. Much of the cost of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay strategy was due to the treatment of women and infants with false-positive tests. Sensitivity analysis over test costs, test sensitivity, and other variables found the analysis results to be robust. Threshold analysis revealed that, if the cost remained < dollar 409.90, Oraquick rapid testing was the dominant test.

Conclusion: In a low prevalence population, the universal use of Oraquick rapid testing is cost-effective because of the low rate of false-positive results, thus preventing the emotional and economic costs of unnecessary treatment for human immunodeficiency virus to the new mother and her family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2005.07.001DOI Listing
September 2005

Outcome of very low birth weight infants exposed to antenatal indomethacin for tocolysis.

J Perinatol 2005 May;25(5):336-40

Department of Obstetrics, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: Beginning in October 1995, and for several years thereafter, our institution used indomethacin as a first-line tocolytic drug. Our purpose is to compare the outcomes of very low birth weight infants who were exposed to antenatal indomethacin with those who were not exposed to this therapy.

Study Design: We used our center's component of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network's Generic Data Base which recorded the outcomes of all live born infants weighing less than 1500 g over a 5-year period. We abstracted data concerning neonatal morbidity (death, Grades III to IV intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis and patent ductus arteriosus), as well as other factors including gestational age, birth weight, antenatal corticosteroid treatment and maternal hypertension or pre-eclampsia. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression was performed to control for confounding factors.

Results: A total of 85 infants who were exposed to antenatal indomethacin were compared to 464 infants who were not exposed to the drug. In the univariate analysis, antenatal indomethacin exposure was not associated with a significant increase in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis or patent ductus arteriosus. The incidence of Grades III to IV IVH was 17.9% in those infants exposed to antenatal indomethacin compared to 7.1% in the nonexposed infants (p=0.008). The incidence of neonatal death in the exposed infants was 27.7 versus 16.4 in the nonexposed infants (p=0.02). After controlling for antenatal corticosteroids, maternal pre-eclampsia, gestational age and birth weight, antenatal indomethacin was significantly associated with an increased incidence of IVH, but not neonatal death.

Conclusion: Antenatal indomethacin was associated with significantly higher rates of IVH. Additional studies assessing the potential risks of indomethacin tocolysis are needed before it is used as a first-line tocolytic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.jp.7211256DOI Listing
May 2005

Perceptions toward HIV, HIV screening, and the use of antiretroviral medications: a survey of maternity-based health care providers in Zambia.

Int J STD AIDS 2004 Oct;15(10):685-90

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) is a major contributor to Zambia's HIV burden. Based on our experience in Zambia, we felt that provider perceptions, knowledge base, and practice patterns toward HIV-positive mothers may pose as significant obstacles to preventing MTCT. Two hundred and twenty-five health care providers throughout Zambia were surveyed in 2002. Providers reported widespread stigma associated with HIV. Physicians (OR = 1.9), providers with research affiliations (OR = 2.3), and those located in Lusaka (OR = 9.0) were more likely to offer HIV testing. Only 30% routinely prescribed antiretroviral treatment (ART) to reduce MTCT. Practitioners from district facilities, those from Lusaka, and those employed at research facilities were more likely to prescribe ART routinely (OR = 2.8, 10.1 and 3.4 respectively). Among those never prescribing ART, most cited a lack of availability (83%). Our results highlight the need for further provider education, critical appraisal of the current system for HIV testing, and widespread distribution of ART.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095646240401501010DOI Listing
October 2004

Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004 Sep;191(3):1019-23

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Reproductive Medicine, University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, USA.

Objective: Pulmonary embolism is a major cause of maternal death. The work up for suspected pulmonary embolism is complex, with many potential diagnostic options. We performed a cost analysis to evaluate which of several diagnostic strategies was the most cost-effective with the least number of deaths from pulmonary embolism.

Study Design: We created a decision tree to evaluate the following strategies: (1) Compression ultrasonography followed by anticoagulation (if there is a positive result) or secondary tests, ventilation perfusion scans or spiral computed tomography (if there is a negative result); high probability ventilation perfusion scans (a positive test result) resulted in anticoagulation; low probability ventilation perfusion scans (a negative test) resulted in no treatment; intermediate tests that resulted in a second test (computed tomography or pulmonary angiography). (2) Ventilation perfusion scans as a primary test followed by anticoagulation. (3) Computed tomography followed by anticoagulation (if there is a positive result). The following assumptions were made: The incidence of pulmonary embolism in pregnant women with suspected pulmonary embolism is 5%; 40% of documented pulmonary embolisms have a positive compression ultrasound result; 10% of ventilation perfusion scans for suspected pulmonary embolism are high probability, 60% are indeterminate, and 30% are low probability for pulmonary embolism; the sensitivity of computed tomography is 95%; the sensitivity of angiography is 98%. The assumed mortality rate of treated pulmonary embolism is 0.7% and of untreated pulmonary embolism in pregnancy is 15% (range, 10%-50%). The angiography-associated mortality rate is 0.5%, and the anticoagulation associated mortality rate is 0.2%. The following costs were used for the model: compression ultrasonography, 200.00 dollars; ventilation perfusion scans, 400.00 dollars; angiography, 1000.00 dollars; computed tomography, 500.00 dollars; and anticoagulation, 5982.00 dollars. With baseline assumptions, spiral computed tomography as the initial diagnostic regimen was found to be the most cost-effective at 17,208 dollars per life saved. Sensitivity analyses were performed over a wide range of assumptions that included alteration of the probability of pulmonary embolism, the sensitivity of computed tomography, ventilation perfusion scans, and compression ultrasonography, the cost of computed tomography, and the mortality rate of untreated pulmonary embolism. Our findings remained robust over a wide range of assumptions.

Conclusion: Suspected pulmonary embolism remains a diagnostic quandary. Our analysis indicated that spiral computed tomography offers the most cost-effective method for diagnosing this potentially fatal condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2004.06.048DOI Listing
September 2004

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and somatic support of the pregnant patient.

Crit Care Clin 2004 Oct;20(4):747-61, x

Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Ben Taub General Hospital, 1504 Taub Loop, 6th Floor, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Cardiopulmonary arrest during pregnancy is a rare event that critical care clinicians must be prepared to manage. The causes of cardiopulmonary arrest during pregnancy, recommended modifications to cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocols that are specific to pregnancy, indications for and timing of perimortem cesarean delivery, and the expected fetal outcomes are reviewed. Rarely, brain death of a pregnant patient may occur in which continued support of the mother is possible to prolong the pregnancy and improve fetal outcome. Prolonged somatic support of pregnant patients who are brain dead presents specific management challenges, but has been accomplished. The physiologic changes that occur after brain death and recommendations for somatic support of the brain dead pregnant patient also are reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccc.2004.05.005DOI Listing
October 2004

High false-positive rate of human immunodeficiency virus rapid serum screening in a predominantly hispanic prenatal population.

J Perinatol 2004 Dec;24(12):743-7

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: To identify the characteristics of the gravidas delivering at our birthing center that place them at risk for false-positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Study Design: The medical records of all rapid HIV-ELISA-positive gravidas that delivered at our hospital between January 2000 and October 2001 were retrieved, and information was gathered regarding maternal demographics. The results of the Western blot tests were also retrieved and correlated to the ELISA results, across varying maternal characteristics. chi(2), Student's t-test and multivariate analysis were performed, as appropriate, using the SAS software; statistical significance was denoted by p<0.05.

Results: A total of 69 patients had a positive rapid HIV-ELISA out of 9,781 deliveries. Of those, 26 were confirmed as HIV infected by Western blot (overall HIV prevalence: 0.27%, ELISA-positive predictive value: 37.7%). The subgroup prevalence of HIV and positive predictive value of ELISA were 1.53 and 75% among Caucasians; 2.43 and 82.6% among African-Americans; and 0.05 and 9.8% among Hispanics, respectively (p<0.05 for the comparisons between Hispanics and non-Hispanics only). A history of multiple (> or =5 lifetime) sexual partners was elicited in the majority of HIV-infected patients.

Conclusions: The positive predictive value of rapid HIV-ELISA during pregnancy varies widely, depending on maternal race/ethnicity and sexual behavior. The routine disclosure of rapid intrapartum HIV serum screening results prior to Western blot confirmation should be avoided in very low-risk populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.jp.7211184DOI Listing
December 2004

Asthma in pregnancy.

Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2004 Jun;31(2):385-413, vii

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin Street, MSB # 3.430, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway system that is characterized by bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness that are triggered by a host of stimuli. Asthma is the most common respiratory disease in pregnancy and affects approximately 4% of pregnant women. This article reviews asthma as a public health concern, the normal physiology of pregnancy,the pathophysiology of asthma in pregnancy, the effects of asthma on pregnancy and pregnancy on asthma, objective lung function testing, goals for the pregnant woman who has asthma, and treatment of chronic and acute episodes of asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ogc.2004.03.010DOI Listing
June 2004

Prenatal cystic fibrosis screening in Mexican Americans: an economic analysis.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003 Sep;189(3):769-74

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, USA.

Objective: We evaluated the cost benefit of cystic fibrosis screening in Mexican American gravid women.

Study Design: With the use of decisions analysis techniques, a cost-benefit analysis was performed. Baseline assumptions were based on published references. Sensitivity analyses were performed.

Results: Under the baseline assumptions, screening was not cost beneficial. Threshold analysis showed that, if the test was priced under 53.00 dollars, screening became cost beneficial. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that lower acceptance rates of amniocentesis or termination made the screening strategy less attractive. If the test sensitivity was raised to 90%, which required testing of >60 mutations, the cost of screening would need to be <100.00 dollars for the program to be cost beneficial.

Conclusion: Cystic fibrosis screening is not cost beneficial in Mexican American women over a wide range of assumptions. This is principally due to the poor sensitivity of the test in this population. Cultural factors, such as lower acceptance of amniocentesis and pregnancy termination of affected fetuses, further lower the cost-benefit ratio of screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/s0002-9378(03)00717-8DOI Listing
September 2003

Sperm exposure and development of preeclampsia.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003 May;188(5):1241-3

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, 6550 Fannin, Suite 901, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Objective: Length of sperm exposure has been proposed to influence the risk of preeclampsia. The main objective was to determine the relationship between extent of exposure to sperm, both before and during pregnancy, and the risk of preeclampsia.

Study Design: A case-control design was used where women with preeclampsia (cases) were matched with two women without preeclampsia (controls) by age and parity. Data were analyzed by Student t test, chi(2) test, and logistic regression analysis.

Results: A total of 113 cases were compared with 226 controls. Women with a short period of cohabitation (<4 months) who used barrier methods for contraception had a substantially elevated risk for development of preeclampsia compared with women with more than 12 months of cohabitation before conception (odds ratio 17.1, P =.004).

Conclusion: Fewer than 4 months of cohabitation among users of barrier methods for contraception is associated with a significantly increased risk for preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mob.2003.401DOI Listing
May 2003

The effects of amnioinfused solutions for meconium-stained amniotic fluid on neonatal plasma electrolyte concentrations and pH.

J Perinatol 2002 Jun;22(4):279-81

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

Objective: To determine if amnioinfused normal saline or lactated Ringer's solution in cases of meconium-stained amniotic fluid is associated with significant changes on neonatal plasma electrolyte concentrations or pH.

Study Design: This was a prospective randomized study using normal saline or lactated Ringer's solution for amnioinfusion in women with thick meconium in the amniotic fluid. The control group was composed of women with clear amniotic fluid not receiving amnioinfusion. Cord blood arterial sampling was analyzed for sodium, potassium, and chloride plasma concentrations and pH. The sample sizes allowed for an alpha of 0.05 and power of 0.80.

Results: We evaluated 61 cases (20 normal saline solution, 20 lactated Ringer's solution, and 21 control). No significant differences in cord blood arterial plasma concentrations of sodium (p=0.43), potassium (p=0.21), chloride (p=0.68), and pH (p=0.11) were noted.

Conclusion: Use of normal saline or lactated Ringer's solution for amnioinfusion in meconium-stained amniotic fluid is not associated with changes on neonatal plasma electrolyte concentrations or pH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.jp.7210732DOI Listing
June 2002