Publications by authors named "Michael O"

58 Publications

Cadmium exposure induces cardiac glucometabolic dysregulation and lipid accumulation independent of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity.

Ann Med 2021 12;53(1):1108-1117

Cardiometabolic Research Unit, Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria.

Context: Suppressed glucose metabolism, elevated fatty acid metabolism and lipid deposition within myocardial cells are the key pathological features of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Studies have associated cadmium exposure with metabolic disturbances.

Objective: To examine the effects of cadmium exposure on cardiac glucose homeostasis and lipid accumulation in male Wistar rats.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated for 21days as (=5): Control, cadmium chloride Cd5 (5mg/kg, ), cadmium chloride Cd30 (30mg/kg, ).

Results: The fasting serum insulin level in this study decreased significantly. Pyruvate and hexokinase activity reduced significantly in the Cd5 group while no significant change in lactate and glycogen levels. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme significantly increased with an increasing dosage of cadmium. The free fatty acid, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the heart increased significantly with increasing dosage of cadmium when compared with the control. Lipoprotein lipase activity in the heart showed no difference in the Cd5 group but a reduction in the activity in the Cd30 group was observed.

Conclusion: This study indicates that cadmium exposure interferes with cardiac substrate handling resulting in impaired glucometabolic regulation and lipid accumulation which could reduce cardiac efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.1947519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280890PMC
December 2021

Pregnancy associated coagulopathies in selected community hospitals in Southwest Nigeria.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Apr 29;10(4):1614-1620. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Background And Aim: Pregnancy is characterized by multiple changes in the coagulation system which occurs at different stages of the condition, representing one of the major triggers of maternal and foetal morbidity/mortality in the world during complicated incidences. This study determined the prevalence of coagulation disorders among pregnant women in Southwest Nigeria to buttress the need for prompt and accurate routine diagnosis of these disorders.

Methods: Four hundred and five participants (405) attending some selected tertiary health facilities in Southwestern Nigeria were randomly recruited for the study, comprising two hundred and seventy (270) pregnant subjects and one hundred and thirty-five (135) apparently healthy age- and socio-economic status-matched non-pregnant women as controls. The platelet count was assessed; prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were assessed. Immunoturbidimetric and chromogenic techniques were also used to assess the level of D-dimer and activated protein C resistance.

Results: Platelet count, PT and INR in all three trimesters were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced when compared to the non-pregnant control subjects. However, the level of circulating D-dimer was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in all three trimesters when compared with the control group, with observable steady increase in the second and third trimesters. Also, 13% of respondents had thrombotic predisposition and 14.8% with tendencies for consumption coagulopathy while 1.1% are APCr positive individuals.

Conclusion: The study affirms the hypercoagulable state of pregnancy coupled with mild gestational thrombocytopenia which could be pointers to onset of coagulation disorders in some participants, subjects with coagulation profiles indicative of thrombotic tendencies and possible onset of consumption coagulopathy and the presence of activated protein C resistant in the region. A review of the coagulation monitoring strategies for pregnant women from primary care to include more definite assays and its proper implementation will immensely contribute to early diagnosis along with intervention for pregnancy associated coagulopathies in resource-limited settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1381_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144756PMC
April 2021

Comparative evaluation of three histidine-rich Protein-2 based rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy and PCR for guiding malaria treatment in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria.

Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Apr;24(4):496-504

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics; Institute for Advanced Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) are the preferred option for programmatic deployment.

Aims: There are numerous mRDTs on the Nigerian market and there is a need to guide practitioners on the relative performance of the commonly used brands of mRDT in Nigeria.

Subjects And Methods: The performance of three commonly used Histidine-Rich-Protein-2-based mRDTs (SD-Bioline™, Carestart™ and Paracheck-Pf™) against microscopy of Giemsa stained blood and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated among 190 febrile under-5 children in Ibadan, Nigeria. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, accuracy, and agreements.

Results: There were 53.2% males. The prevalence of malaria parasite by microscopy was 46.8% and 57.9% by PCR. Malaria parasite detection by SD-Bioline™ was 60.5%, Carestart™: 60.0% and Paracheck-Pf™ 60.0%. Using microscopy as the gold standard, the sensitivities of SD-Bioline™, Carestart™ and Paracheck-Pf™ mRDT were 97.8%, 96.7% and 97.8% respectively while the specificities were 73.0%, 72.0% and 74.0% respectively. Using PCR as the gold standard, the sensitivity for both SD-Bioline™ and Paracheck-Pf™ was 85.5% and for CareStart was 84.6% while the specificity of SD-Bioline™, Carestart™, and Paracheck-Pf™ was 73.8%, 72.4%, and 75.0% respectively. The test accuracy was 81.0% for both SD-Bioline™ and Paracheck-Pf™ and 80.0% for Caresatrt™. The kappa coefficient of agreement between PCR and each of SD-Bioline™, Carestart, ParaCheck™ and microscopy was 0.597, 0.578, 0.609 and 0.739 respectively.

Conclusion: The performance of the three mRDTs is a proof that any of the three is suitable for use in the diagnosis of malaria in the southwest of Nigeria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/njcp.njcp_491_20DOI Listing
April 2021

MEASUREMENTS OF SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF RADIOACTIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN RIVERINE SOIL SEDIMENT OF ADO-ODO OTA, SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA: PROBABILISTIC APPROACH USING MONTE CARLO.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2021 Jan;193(2):76-89

Department of Physics, Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Lahore-Pakistan.

The radioactivity levels were measured using a hand-held gamma-ray survey meter and NaI (Tl) based gamma spectroscopy to evaluate the seasonal variation of radioactivity levels in the riverine area of Ado-Odo Ota. The measured iso-dose map reported higher gamma dose rate of 79 nGy/h, approximately 34% higher than the world average of 59 nGy/h. The values for U-238, Th-232 and K-40 activity levels ranged between 29.9 and 21.6; 103.2 and 31.2; 802.2 and 233.5 with mean values of 26.1, 55.6 and 499.3 Bq/kg, respectively. According to the mean, 5th and 95th percentiles of the probabilities using the Monte Carlo simulation, the Radium equivalent activities and the absorbed dose rates are within their respective recommended limits of 370 Bq/kg and 84 nGy/h. This study could be used to monitor dose rates and radiological risks for the areas covering the small area (Ado-Odo Ota) to the larger area (West African Region) as baseline data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncab027DOI Listing
January 2021

Acetate ameliorates nephrotoxicity in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats: Involvement of xanthine oxidase activity.

Cytokine 2021 Jun 26;142:155501. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Cardiometabolic Research Unit, Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria.

Impaired renal function is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that often degenerates to cardiovascular disease, contributing to high morbidity and reduced survival worldwide. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetate has shown potential benefits in glycemic or metabolic regulation but its effect on diabetes-associated renal toxicity/impairment is not clear. Herein, we investigated the hypothesis that acetate would ameliorate renal toxicity, accompanying DM, possibly by suppression of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. Adult male Wistar rats (230-260 g) were allotted into groups (n = 6/group) namely: control (vehicle; po), sodium acetate (NaAc)-treated (200 mg/kg), diabetic with or without NaAc groups. DM was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 65 mg/kg after a dose of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg). Diabetic animals showed increased fasting glucose and insulin, renal triglyceride, total cholesterol, atherogenic lipid, malondialdehyde, XO, tissue necrosis factor-α, uric acid, interleukin-6, aspartate transaminase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, gamma-glutamyl transferase and decreased glutathione and nitric oxide concentration. The renal tissue was characterized with disrupted tissue architecture, enlarged Bowman's space, congested glomeruli and adherence of abnormal segments of tuft to Bowman's capsule with consequent elevated serum creatinine and urea concentration. However, these alterations were attenuated by NaAc. The study demonstrates that acetate ameliorates diabetes-induced nephrotoxicity, which is associated with suppressed XO and its accompanied pro-inflammatory mediators. Therefore, SCFAs, acetate would be a promising dietary-derived therapeutic agent for the prevention and management of diabetes-associated renal disturbances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155501DOI Listing
June 2021

Sodium acetate ameliorated systemic and renal oxidative stress in high-fructose insulin-resistant pregnant Wistar rats.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 Jul 27;394(7):1425-1435. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, 240001, Nigeria.

Pregnancy is an insulin-resistant condition especially at near term predisposing maternal kidneys to hyperinsulinemia-induced oxidative stress. The impact of fructose on renal metabolic dysregulation and oxidative stress in pregnancy requires elucidation. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are known for protective roles in oxidative stress conditions. Therefore, the study aimed at investigating fructose-induced glucose dysregulation and renal oxidative stress in pregnant and non-pregnant rats and the possible preventive role of SCFA, acetate. Thirty female Wistar rats were grouped (n = 5/group). Three groups were made pregnant (P); the other three remained non-pregnant (NP). Both pregnant and non-pregnant rats received drinking water (control), 10% fructose (w/v) (NP+F or P+F), and 10% (w/v) fructose plus sodium acetate (200 mg/kg) (NP+F+A or P+F+A) for 3 weeks. Renal and plasma glutathione antioxidant index (GSH/GSSG), G6PDH, and adenosine were significantly lower in NP+F and P+F groups compared with control while renal and plasma adenosine deaminase (ADA), xanthine oxidase (XO), uric acid (UA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and malonaldehyde (MDA) were significantly elevated in NP+F and P+F groups compared with controls. HOMA-IR showed marked impairment in both NP+F and P+F groups. The P+F group revealed greater suppression in plasma and renal G6PDH-dependent antioxidant index, adenosine, and aggravation of LDH, MDA compared with the NP+F group (p < 0.05). Sodium acetate reduces plasma and renal surrogate oxidative stress markers, improved G6PD-dependent antioxidant index, and HOMA-IR in NP+F and P+F groups. Pregnancy exacerbates fructose-induced insulin resistance and renal oxidative stress whereas acetate ameliorated fructose-induced redox and glucose dysregulation in pregnant and non-pregnant rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02058-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Exposure to Agrochemicals and Markers of Kidney Damage among Farmers in Rural Communities in Southwestern Nigeria.

West Afr J Med 2021 01;38(1):48-53

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Background: Chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) is assuming an epidemic proportion, especially in farming communities worldwide. We explored the relationship between CKD markers and agrochemical exposure among rural farmers in South Western Nigeria.

Methods: We studied selected farming communities in Southwestern Nigeria where the use of agrochemicals was widespread. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to participants. Anthropometric data, information on use of agro-chemicals; urine and blood samples were obtained. Informed consent was obtained from participants. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics committee and complied with 1975 Helsinki declaration, as revised in 2000.

Results: A total of 438 farmers made up of 202 males (46.1%) and 236 females (53.9%) were studied. The mean microalbuminuria was 30.2 ±11.7 mg/dl. Majority of the farmers had CKD stage 2(42.0%) and CKD stage 3 (37.7%). The type of farming engaged in had a positive, but not significant, correlation with eGFR (r=0.012, p=0.832). There was positive correlation between type of farming and GFR category (r=0.24, p=0.000). Frequency of use of hexachlorocyclohexane had a positive and significant correlation with eGFR (r=0.111, p=0.045). Annual crop farming had a correlation with UACR (r=0.149, p=0.024).

Conclusion: Annual crop farming had a positive correlation with UACR, eGFR and GFR category. The prolonged use of agrochemicals on an annual basis can cause kidney damage.
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January 2021

A two kilograms euthyroid goiter in Singida Regional Referral Hospital, Central Tanzania: Case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 4;77:430-433. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Singida Regional Referral Hospital, Tanzania; Surgery Department, Tanzania; Radiology Department, Tanzania.

Introduction: Multinodular goiter (MNG) is a clinic pathological entity characterized by an increased volume of the thyroid gland with formation of nodules. Goiter is defined as a thyroid gland weighing over 20-25 g or with a volume of over 19 ml in women and 25 ml in men. In developed countries where iodination of food is common and health services are available and accessible, hardly will you see a goiter of up to 0.2 kg while in areas where poverty is high and health services not available, there identification of goiter of up to 4 kg. Therefore each member of theatre team must be competent and experienced to anticipate any complications which may occur during thyroidectomy of such huge goiter. Awareness on the operation of such huge multinodular goiter is the sincere aim of this work due to the fact that these are rare findings in today's surgical clinics.

Presentation Of Case: A 35 M.O.S years old female presented with complain of swelling of the anterior neck for 10 years. Laboratory and radiological investigations reveals nontoxic multinodular goiter with no suspicion of malignance. After successful thyroidectomy, a 2 kg multinodular goiter was removed and taken for histological diagnosis. Post-operative care was uneventful and patient discharged day five post-operative. No complication observed during follow up.

Discussion: The case report presented a patient with huge goiter of 2 kg, which was not compressing the trachea. After physical examination, radiological imaging and laboratory investigation of thyroid hormones confirm as nontoxic goiter. The subtotal thyroidectomy was successful and after follow up of 60 days there was no complication reported.

Conclusions: Currently, hardly will you find goiter weighing a kg and thus skills for thyroidectomy in such case is hardly available. Special complications like trachealmalacia and difficult intubation which need one to be aware of fiber optic intubation and be prepared for tracheostomy require experienced operating team.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.11.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691674PMC
November 2020

Sodium butyrate arrests pancreato-hepatic synchronous uric acid and lipid dysmetabolism in high fat diet fed Wistar rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 13;133:110994. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Cardiometabolic Research Unit, Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria.

High fat diet (HFD) is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome which is characterized by overt glucose dysmetabolism and tissue derangement. The liver and pancreas are important metabolic tissues with anatomical proximity sharing splanchnic and mesenteric circulation but it is unclear whether, there is an associated metabolic status between the two organs in health and disease. Uric acid (UA) hypersecretion and ectopic lipid accumulation are characteristic pathophysiology of an array of non-communicable diseases. Sodium butyrate (BUT) is reputed for therapeutic roles in metabolic derangement. Therefore, the present study investigated synchrony in hepatic and pancreatic UA and lipid metabolic status in HFD-induced glucose dysregulation and probed the beneficial effects of BUT. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were treated with normal rat chow and distilled water (po) or sodium butyrate (200 mg/kg; po) or high fat diet and distilled water (po) or high fat diet and sodium butyrate. Results showed that HFD increased plasma, pancreatic and hepatic triglyceride, triglyceride-glucose index, malondialdehyde, uric acid (UA), lactate dehydrogenase but reduced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Histological analysis revealed hepatic and pancreatic architectural derangement and cellular degeneration in HFD-fed animals. However, BUT reversed the HFD-induced systemic, pancreatic and hepatic synchronous dysmetabolism with evidence of improved histology. HFD-induced lipid and UA alterations were synchronous in the pancreas and liver. BUT elicits beneficial effects on systemic and tissue HFD-induced deleterious metabolic changes which were synchronized in pancreas and liver of rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110994DOI Listing
January 2021

Frequent exposure to varied home cage sizes alters pain sensitivity and some key inflammation-related biomarkers.

J Neurosci Methods 2020 11 5;345:108890. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Bioresearch Hub Laboratory, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Background: Nature and size of rodent cages vary from one laboratory or country to another. Little is however known about the physiological implications of exposure to diverse cage sizes in animal-based experiments.

Method: Here, two groups of male Swiss mice (Control group - Cage stationed, and Test group - Cage migrated) were used for this study. The cage-migrated mice were exposed daily to various cage sizes used across laboratories in Nigeria while the cage-stationed mice exposed daily to different but the same cage size and shape. At the end of the 30 days exposure, top-rated paradigms were used to profile changes in physiological behaviours, and this was followed by evaluation of histological and biochemical metrics.

Results: The study showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in blood glucose levels (at 60 and 120 min of oral glucose tolerance test) in the cage-migrated mice compared to cage-stationed mice. Strikingly, peripheral oxidative stress (plasma malondialdehyde) and pain sensitivity (formalin test, hot-and-cold plate test, and von Frey test) decreased significantly in cage-migrated mice compared to cage-stationed animals. Also, the pro-inflammation mediators (IL-6 and NF-κB) increased significantly in cage-migrated mice compared to cage-stationed mice. However, emotion-linked behaviours, neurotransmitters (serotonin, noradrenaline and GABA), brain and plasma electrolytes were not significantly difference in cage-migrated animals compared to cage-stationed mice.

Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that varied size cage-to-cage exposure of experimental mice could affect targeted behavioural and biomolecular parameters of pain and inflammation, thus diminishing research reproducibility, precipitating false negative/positive results and leading to poor translational outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.108890DOI Listing
November 2020

Sodium acetate prevents nicotine-induced cardiorenal dysmetabolism through uric acid/creatine kinase-dependent pathway.

Life Sci 2020 Sep 22;257:118127. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Cardiometabolic Research Unit, Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria; HOPE Cardiometabolic Research Team, Department of Physiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Background: Cigarette smoking or nicotine replacement therapy has been associated with cardiometabolic disorders (CMD). Hyperuricemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CMD and cardiorenal dysfunction. Gut microbiota-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been reported to have beneficial glucoregulatory and cardiorenal protective effects. This study aimed at investigating the effect of acetate, a gut-derived SCFA, on nicotine-induced CMD and associated cardiorenal dysmetabolism.

Materials And Method: Twenty-four male Wistar rats (n = 6/group) were grouped as: vehicle (p.o.), nicotine-exposed (1.0 mg/kg; p.o.), and sodium acetate-treated (200 mg/kg; p.o.) with or without nicotine exposure daily for 6 weeks. Glucose regulation was evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Cardiac and renal triacylglycerol (TG), lactate, nitric oxide (NO), uric acid (UA) levels, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), adenosine deaminase (ADA), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities were measured.

Results: The CMD were confirmed in the nicotine-exposed rats that exhibited lower body weight, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, glucose intolerance, increased cardiac and renal TG, TG/HDL-cholesterol, UA, lactate, lipid peroxidation, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, LDH, CK, ADA and XO activities. Concurrent treatment with acetate prevented nicotine-induced glucometabolic and cardiorenal alterations.

Conclusion: In summary, these results implied that nicotine exposure caused glucometabolic dysregulation and surplus lipid deposit in the heart and kidney through increased UA production and CK activity. Therefore, oral acetate administration prevents cardiorenal lipotoxicity and glucometabolic dysregulation via suppression of UA production and CK activity in nicotine-exposed rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118127DOI Listing
September 2020

Estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive and nicotine exposure synergistically confers cardio-renoprotection in female Wistar rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Sep 12;129:110387. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

HOPE Cardiometabolic Research Team, Department of Physiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Approximately fifty percent of premenopausal women who smoke cigarettes or on nicotine replacement therapy are also on hormonal contraceptives, especially oral estrogen-progestin. Oral estrogen-progestin therapy has been reported to promote insulin resistance (IR) which causes lipid influx into non-adipose tissue and impairs Na/K -ATPase activity, especially in the heart and kidney. However, the effects of nicotine on excess lipid and altered Na/K -ATPase activity associated with the use of estrogen-progestin therapy have not been fully elucidated. This study therefore aimed at investigating the effect of nicotine on cardiac and renal lipid influx and Na/K -ATPase activity during estrogen-progestin therapy. Twenty-four female Wistar rats grouped into 4 (n = 6/group) received (p.o.) vehicle, nicotine (1.0 mg/kg) with or without estrogen-progestin steroids (1.0 μg ethinyl estradiol and 5.0 μg levonorgestrel) and estrogen-progestin only daily for 6 weeks. Data showed that estrogen-progestin treatment or nicotine exposure caused IR, hyperinsulinemia, increased cardiac and renal uric acid, malondialdehyde, triglyceride, glycogen synthase kinase-3, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, reduced bilirubin and circulating estradiol. Estrogen-progestin treatment led to decreased cardiac Na/K-ATPase activity while nicotine did not alter Na/K-ATPase activity but increased plasma and tissue cotinine. Renal Na/K-ATPase activity was not altered by the treatments. However, all these alterations were reversed following combined administration of oral estrogen-progestin therapy and nicotine. The present study therefore demonstrates that oral estrogen-progestin therapy and nicotine exposure synergistically prevents IR-linked cardio-renotoxicity with corresponding improvement in cardiac and renal lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and Na/K-ATPase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110387DOI Listing
September 2020

A comparison of consumer-grade electronic radon monitors.

J Radiol Prot 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Radiation Safety Institute of Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CANADA.

Radon is a radioactive gas which is naturally occurring in soil and can accumulate to concentrated levels inside homes and buildings. Exposure to elevated levels of radon leads to an increased risk of developing lung cancer. In recent years there has been a rise in the popularity of consumer-grade electronic radon monitors. The monitors are appealing to homeowners due to the ease of use and the ability to keep track of radon levels during the process of conducting a radon test. However, there is currently no independent process to evaluate the relative performance of these monitors against known levels of radon. In this study, three sample units of six different models representing three different manufacturers of consumer-grade electronic radon monitors were exposed to three different levels of radon in a controlled environment to evaluate their precision and accuracy. Two separate tests were conducted at the Canadian guideline level to accommodate for "indoor winter" and "summer" conditions. The purpose of the study was to compare the performance of the different consumer-grade electronic radon monitors and determine which factors should be considered when using these monitors to inform mitigation decisions. The monitors had a range of uncertainty from 2-15% with a range of precision from 1-24%. The monitors performed better at higher radon levels than at levels near the Canadian guideline level of 200 Bq/m3, and slightly better during "summer" conditions than during "indoor winter" conditions. While the monitors provide homeowners with a very specific number indicating their radon level, it was noted that this number should be considered with respect to a 'confidence ratio' or 'range' which could be done through a publicly available online tool which could provide the radon level range for a given radon level and device grade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ab96d6DOI Listing
May 2020

Allopurinol and valproic acid improve cardiac triglyceride and Na-K-ATPase activity independent of circulating aldosterone in female rats with glucose intolerance.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 May 23:1-7. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Physiology, HOPE Cardiometabolic Research Team, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Studies have shown that cardiac triglyceride accumulation and impaired Na-K-ATPase activity are linked to diabetes- related cardiovascular disease, particularly in women. We hypothesised that allopurinol (ALL) and valproic acid (VPA) treatment would improve cardiac triglyceride and Na-K-ATPase activity independent of circulating aldosterone in Combined Oral Contraceptive (COC)-induced dysglycemia Rats received COC (1.0 μg ethinylestradiol and 5.0 μg levonorgestrel; ) with or without ALL (1 mg; ) and VPA (20 mg; ) for 6 weeks. COC-treatment led to impaired glucose tolerance, accumulated abdominal fat, dyslipidemia, elevated plasma MDA, PAI-1 and aldosterone levels and also reduced plasma nitric oxide bioavailability and cardiac Na-K-ATPase activity. However, either ALL or VPA treatment ameliorated these alterations comparably independent of elevated aldosterone level Our results suggest that either ALL or VPA would improve cardiac TG and Na-K-ATPase activity comparably in COC-treated rats, regardless of circulating aldosterone level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2020.1767148DOI Listing
May 2020

Antibiotics utilization and farmers' knowledge of its effects on soil ecosystem in the coastal drylands of Ghana.

PLoS One 2020 6;15(2):e0228777. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.

Background: There is paucity of information on antibiotics utilization amongst farmers, factors associated with administration of antibiotics and farmers' knowledge of the effects of antibiotics on the soil ecosystem in Ghana.

Methods: A cross sectional quantitative survey across three coastal regions of Ghana was undertaken amongst poultry and livestock farmers. Six hundred respondents were selected from five districts each across the three regions. Pretested and structured questionnaire were used to collect data through face to face interview. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Factors associated with antibiotic administration were determined using binary multiple logistic regression at p ≤ 0.05.

Results: Out of the 600 farmers, 95% administered antibiotics and 84% bought antibiotics over-the-counter without prescription. Approximately 9% of antibiotic administration was carried out by veterinary officers, and the remaining, 91% based on farmer's experience. Approximately 93% had access to antibiotics without any difficulty. Withdrawal period was always observed by only 16% of farmers. Majority (74%) of farmers never had education on antibiotics and none of the farmers screened manure for the antibiotic residuals. Years of farming, income status, level of education of farmers, type of animal kept, access to extension services, registration with farmers' association, employing veterinary services, location of farm, system of production, education on antibiotics and access to antibiotics positively and significantly predicted the administration of antibiotics by farmers. Majority of farmers had inadequate knowledge of the effects of antibiotics on soil ecosystem with mean score ranging between 2.87±0.60 and 2.98 ± 0.7 on a scale of 5.0.

Conclusion: The study exposed the poor practices regarding antibiotic use and also inadequate knowledge on its effect on the soil ecosystem amongst farmers in Ghana. This calls for development of strategies to increase awareness on antibiotics because its misuse can negatively impact human, animals, environment and impact food security.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228777PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004350PMC
May 2020

Spironolactone reversed hepato-ovarian triglyceride accumulation caused by letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome: tissue uric acid-a familiar foe.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2020 06 10;393(6):1055-1066. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disease among women of reproductive age and is one of the main causes of infertility. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most prominent chronic liver disease in adults, is characterized by excess hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. PCOS women have increased risk of NAFLD and uric acid has been documented to have a positive correlation with subclinical tissue damage and might be the link in the cystic. Spironolactone (SPL) is a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blocker that has been in wide clinical use for some decades. In this research, we investigated the effects of SPL on ovarian and hepatic tissue damage in experimental PCOS rats induced by letrozole (LET). A total of eighteen adult female Wistar rats were used for this study and the animals divided into 3 groups are treated with vehicle, LET (1 mg/kg), and LET+SPL (SPL; 0.25 mg/kg), p.o. once daily respectively for 21 uninterrupted days. Results showed that LET treatment induced features of PCOS characterized by increased plasma testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone (LH) together with increased body weight. Abnormal ovarian and hepatic histomorphological changes were also observed with elevated uric acid (UA) and TG accumulation in both tissues respectively. Treatment with SPL however attenuated the elevated testosterone in the LET-induced PCOS model accompanied with a reversal in the observed ovarian and hepatic UA, TG accumulation, and altered histomorphological changes. Taken together, spironolactone reversed the PCOS-induced ovarian and hepatic tissue damage by suppressing tissue UA and TG accumulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-020-01809-1DOI Listing
June 2020

The relationship between measures of obesity and atherogenic lipids among Nigerians with hypertension.

Malawi Med J 2019 09;31(3):193-197

Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido Ekiti and College of Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the relationship between measures of obesity and serum lipid levels among hypertensive patients.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which participants newly diagnosed with hypertension formed the study population. A range of demographic and anthropometric data was obtained, including weight, height, and waist and hip circumference. Fasting serum lipids were also measured, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated using Friedewald formula. Statistical analysis was then carried out to determine the relationship between anthropometric indices and lipid profile levels.

Results: The study population consisted of 124 male and 290 female subjects with a mean age of 66±16.95 years (range, 30-100 years). The female subjects were older than the male subjects (p=0.020). Our analysis showed that 85%, 58.5% and 30.7% of the study population had abnormal waist circumference (WC), abnormal waist-hip ratio (WHR) and a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, respectively. Decreased HDL-C (70.1%) was the commonest lipid abnormality detected, followed by elevated LDL (6.0%). None of the anthropometric indices were independent predictors of abnormal lipid levels. However, advanced age and female sex were independent predictors for at least one serum lipid abnormality.

Conclusion: None of the measures of obesity could independently predict abnormal lipid levels in individuals newly diagnosed with hypertension. However, female sex, advanced age and systolic blood pressure were independently associated with abnormal serum lipids. Encouraging regular exercise, and the possible addition of statins, may be beneficial in addressing both obesity and dyslipidaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v31i3.5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6895384PMC
September 2019

Tender Nodules and Swollen Red Legs: Answer.

Am J Dermatopathol 2019 Nov;41(11):858-859

Anatomical Pathology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000001223DOI Listing
November 2019

Consequences of restricting antimalarial drugs to rapid diagnostic test-positive febrile children in south-west Nigeria.

Trop Med Int Health 2019 11 3;24(11):1291-1300. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, London, UK.

Objectives: To investigate the consequence of restricting antimalarial treatment to febrile children that test positive to a malaria rapid diagnostic test (MRDT) only in an area of intense malaria transmission.

Methods: Febrile children aged 3-59 months were screened with an MRDT at health facilities in south-west Nigeria. MRDT-positive children received artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), while MRDT-negative children were treated based on the clinical diagnosis of non-malaria febrile illness. The primary endpoint was the risk of developing microscopy-positive malaria within 28 days post-treatment.

Results: 309 (60.5%) of 511 children were MRDT-positive while 202 (39.5%) were MRDT-negative at enrolment. 18.5% (50/275) of MRDT-positive children and 7.6% (14/184) of MRDT-negative children developed microscopy-positive malaria by day 28 post-treatment (ρ = 0.001). The risk of developing clinical malaria by day 28 post-treatment was higher among the MRDT-positive group than the MRDT-negative group (adjusted OR 2.74; 95% CI, 1.4, 5.4). A higher proportion of children who were MRDT-positive at enrolment were anaemic on day 28 compared with the MRDT-negative group (12.6% vs. 3.1%; ρ = 0.001). Children in the MRDT-negative group made more unscheduled visits because of febrile illness than those in MRDT-positive group (23.2% vs. 12.0%; ρ = 0.001).

Conclusion: Restricting ACT treatment to MRDT-positive febrile children only did not result in significant adverse outcomes. However, the risk of re-infection within 28 days was significantly higher among MRDT-positive children despite ASAQ treatment. A longer-acting ACT may be needed as the first-line drug of choice for treating uncomplicated malaria in high-transmission settings to prevent frequent re-infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13304DOI Listing
November 2019

BURDEN OF CYTOPAENIAS AMONG HIV POSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN AT THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL, IBADAN.

Ann Ib Postgrad Med 2018 Dec;16(2):99-108

1. Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Introduction: Few studies have examined cytopaenia among HIV positive pregnant women.

Objectives: To assess burden of cytopaenia among HIV positive pregnant women.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study of women on HAART ≤6months, defined anemia as hematocrit <33%, leucopenia as total white blood cell count <3,000 cells/mm and thrombocytopenia as absolute platelet count <100,000 cells/mm. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed.

Results: Over 8 years, of 1,197 women, the mean age was 29.02(±5.4) years and mean gestational age 25.9(±8.1) weeks. Prevalence of anaemia was 76.8%, leucopaenia 6.9% and thrombocytopenia 4.7%. The mean haematocrit was 28.5%(±4.5); median white blood count 5,500/mm ; median platelet count 200,000/mm and median CD4 323 cells/mm. Mean haematocrit was highest (29.7%±5.3) in women in the first trimester but lowest (28.4% ±4.6) in women in second trimester (p=0.04). Compared with earlier trimesters, women in the third trimester had higher median white blood count (5,600 cells/mm), higher neutrophil (61.0% ±11.2) but lower lymphocytes (28.3%± 9.2) (p=0.18; 0.00, 0.00). Median absolute platelet count was highest (206,000 cells/mm) in the first trimester but lowest (195,000 cells/mm) in third trimester (0.04). Women with lower CD4 had higher prevalence of cytopaenias.

Conclusion: Cytopaenias are not uncommon in this population especially with lower CD4.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6580407PMC
December 2018

Synthesis and biological function of Nickel and Copper nanoparticles.

Heliyon 2019 Jun 6;5(6):e01878. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Chemistry, Mewar University, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India.

Nickel and Copper nanoparticles were synthesized by simple chemical method and studied for antimicrobial activities. The size of synthesized Nickel and Copper nanoparticles was found to be 24.00 nm and 13.13 nm respectively. The XRD analysis reveals the crystal system of Nickel and Copper nanoparticles. Copper nanoparticles were found orthorhombic whereas the nickel nanoparticles were monoclinic. The antimicrobial activities of Nickel and Copper nanoparticles dispersed in DMSO was investigated. Comparative sensitivity test of these synthesized nanoparticles was carried out against three pathogenic micro-organisms (Gram negative bacteria), viz. and using agar diffusion cup plate method. Copper and Nickel nanoparticles have shown appreciable sensitivity at 100 μg/ml against all test micro-organisms. Comparatively, Copper nanoparticles were found to exhibit higher zone of inhibition (ZOI) than Nickel nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556830PMC
June 2019

Rapid HIV Antigen-Antibody Assays and Detection of Acute HIV Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 08;101(2):285-286

Division of Infectious Diseases, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

Detection of acute HIV infection is a unique problem that fourth-generation HIV assays were expected to alleviate. In this commentary, we draw attention to the limitations and challenges with use of currently available rapid antigen-antibody (Ag/Ab) combination tests for detection of acute HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Laboratory-based HIV-1 Ag/Ab immunoassays are complex, requiring specialized equipment and handling that are currently not affordable in many settings in Africa. The point-of-care Ag/Ab platform on the other hand is easier to deploy and potentially more accessible in resource-limited settings. However, available fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests have demonstrated poor performance characteristics in field studies where non-B subtypes of HIV-1 dominate. The potential for point-of-care HIV-1 Ag/Ab diagnostics to significantly improve detection of acute HIV infection remains yet to be realized in sub-Saharan Africa. Assay platforms need to be optimized to identify local circulating subtypes, and optimal algorithms need to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6685562PMC
August 2019

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition protects the liver of insulin-resistant female rats against triglyceride accumulation by suppressing uric acid.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Feb 14;110:869-877. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

HOPE Cardiometabolic Research Team, Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition has been shown to exert beneficial effects against insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Combined oral contraceptive (COC) treatment is associated with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism but the mechanisms are elusive. We therefore, hypothesized that DPP-4 inhibition ameliorates COC-induced glucose dysregulation and hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation through adenosine deaminase (ADA) /xanthine oxidase (XO) /uric acid-dependent pathway. Female Wistar rats received (po) vehicle and COC (1.0 μg ethinylestradiol plus 5.0 μg levonorgestrel; po) with or without DPP-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin; 100 mg/kg; po) for 8 weeks (n = 6/group). Glucose dysmetabolism was assessed by elevated fasting blood glucose, impaired oral glucose tolerance test and homeostatic model assessment of IR. Treatment with COC led to increased plasma fasting glucose, triglyceride-glucose index, 1-h postload glucose response, insulin, free fatty acid, IR and impaired glucose tolerance. COC treatment also resulted in increased plasma and hepatic TG, TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio, malondialdehyde, uric acid (plasma; 25.2 ± 0.6 mg/dl; hepatic 128.9 ± 8.0 mg/100 mg tissue), lactate dehydrogenase, DPP-4, ADA and XO (plasma;10.5 ± 1.1 U/L; hepatic 21.2 ± 1.4 U/g protein) activities. Likewise, COC led to reduction in nitric oxide level. However, DPP-4 inhibition significantly ameliorated these alterations induced by COC treatment through suppression of uric acid (plasma; 15.1 ± 1.0 mg/dl, hepatic; 75.6 ± 5.0 mg/100 mg tissue), XO (plasma; 4.1 ± 0.9 U/L, hepatic; 8.7 ± 0.4 U/g protein), ADA and DPP-4 activities suggesting their involvement in glucose dysregulation and hepatic TG accumulation induced by COC treatment. Therefore, DPP-4 inhibition would impact positively on cardiometabolic disorders, at least in part, through XO, ADA and uric acid suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.036DOI Listing
February 2019

Enhanced hepatic glycogen synthesis and suppressed adenosine deaminase activity by lithium attenuates hepatic triglyceride accumulation in nicotine-exposed rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 13;109:1417-1427. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

HOPE Cardiometabolic Research Team, Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Reduced liver glycogen synthesis might signify increased glucose flux towards fat synthesis and triggers hepatic triglyceride accumulation and dysmetabolism. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) reduces adenosine content which increases glycogenolysis. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of modulating glycogen synthesis and ADA by lithium chloride (LiCl) on nicotine-induced dysmetabolism. Twenty four male Wistar rats (n = 6/group) were allotted into four groups namely; vehicle-treated (po), nicotine-treated (1.0 mg/kg; po), LiCl-treated (5.0 mg/kg; po) and nicotine + LiCl-treated groups. The treatments lasted for 8 weeks. Nicotine exposure resulted in reduced body weight gain, liver weight, visceral adiposity, glycogen content and synthase. Along with increased insulin resistance (IR), fasting plasma glucose, lactate, plasma and hepatic ADA, XO, UA, and triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), free fatty acid, lipid peroxidation and liver injury markers. However, plasma and hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-dependent antioxidant defenses were not affected by nicotine exposure. Concurrent treatment with LiCl normalizes all alterations with exception of hepatic TC. This result shows that enhancement of hepatic glycogen synthesis and suppression of ADA/XO/uric acid pathway by lithium can salvage the liver from nicotine-induced TG accumulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.067DOI Listing
January 2019

Ameliorative effect of low-dose spironolactone on obesity and insulin resistance is through replenishment of estrogen in ovariectomized rats.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2019 Jan 13;97(1):65-74. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

a HOPE Cardiometabolic Research Team & Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Women have a lower incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than men at a similar age but the reverse is the case after menopause, indicating a possible protective effect of estrogen on cardiometabolic function. Although various hormonal therapies have been formulated to combat the CVD risks in postmenopausal state, the beneficial effects have not been consistent. Obesity with insulin resistance (IR) is closely linked to CVD risks while ovariectomized rodents have been shown to mimic a state of obesity and IR. We therefore hypothesized that low-dose spironolactone would ameliorate obesity and IR in estrogen-deprived rats by replenishing estrogen and suppressing elevated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated (SHM), spironolactone (SPL; 0.25 mg/kg), and ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with or without spironolactone daily for 8 weeks. Results showed that estrogen deprivation through ovariectomy caused increased body mass gain and visceral adiposity that are accompanied by increased HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, 1-hour postload glucose, glucose intolerance, platelet/lymphocyte ratio, plasma insulin, atherogenic dyslipidemia, uric acid, GSK-3, corticosterone, and aldosterone and depressed 17β-estradiol. However, treatment of OVX rats with spironolactone ameliorated all these effects. Taken together, the results demonstrate that treatment with low-dose spironolactone improves obesity and IR, which appears to involve replenishment of estrogen and suppression of GSK-3 along with circulating mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid. The findings imply a positive cardiometabolic effect of low-dose spironolactone usage in estrogen-deprived conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2018-0416DOI Listing
January 2019

Blockade of mineralocorticoid receptor ameliorates oral contraceptive-induced insulin resistance by suppressing elevated uric acid and glycogen synthase kinase-3 instead of circulating mineralocorticoid.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 Jul 13;126(3):225-234. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

HOPE Cardiometabolic Research Team, Department of Physiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Estrogen-progestin combined oral contraceptive (COC) has been connected to mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation and adverse cardiometabolic events. We consequently hypothesised that insulin resistance (IR), hyperuricemia, and elevated circulating GSK-3 induced by COC is through activation of MR via mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid pathways. Female Wistar rats aged 12 weeks received () vehicle and COC (1.0μg ethinylestradiol plus 5.0μg levonorgestrel) with or without MR blocker (0.25mg/kg spironolactone; Spl), daily for eightweeks. Data showed that COC treatment led to increased IR, 1-hour postload glucose level, insulinemia, triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio, total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio, uric acid, GSK-3, aldosterone, corticosterone values, impaired glucose tolerance and pancreatic β-cell function. However, MR blockade by Spl ameliorated all these alterations except that of aldosterone. The results demonstrate that COC induces IR, hyperuricemia and high GSK-3 levels through activation of MR via glucocorticoid dependent pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2018.1509220DOI Listing
July 2020

Sodium acetate improves disrupted glucoregulation and hepatic triglyceride content in insulin-resistant female rats: involvement of adenosine deaminase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activities.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2019 01 2;392(1):103-116. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

HOPE Cardiometabolic Research Team & Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, 240001, Nigeria.

Combined oral contraceptive (COC) treatment has been shown to be associated with glucose deregulation and increased triglyceride levels, but the mechanisms are elusive. Soluble dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (sDPP-4) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) are involved in the initiation and/or progression of cardiometabolic disorders. We therefore, hypothesized that increased DPP-4 and ADA activities are involved in glucose deregulation and hepatic triglyceride accumulation induced by COC treatment. This study also investigated whether short-chain fatty acid, acetate, would protect against COC-induced dysmetabolic effects. Female Wistar rats received (p.o.) vehicle and COC (1.0 μg ethinylestradiol plus 5.0 μg levonorgestrel) with or without sodium acetate (ACE; 200 mg) for 8 weeks. Treatment with COC led to increased plasma triglyceride-glucose index, 1-h postload glucose response, insulin, free fatty acid, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance. COC treatment also resulted in increased plasma and hepatic triglycerides (TG), TG/HDL-cholesterol ratio, malondialdehyde, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, DPP-4, ADA, and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. On the other hand, COC led to reduction in nitric oxide level. However, ACE significantly ameliorated the alterations induced by COC treatment, but XO activity remains elevated during COC treatment. This result also demonstrates that increased DPP-4 and ADA activities are at least in part involved in glucose deregulation and hepatic TG accumulation induced by COC treatment. Therefore, sodium acetate would impact positively on cardiometabolic disorders, at least in part, by inhibition of DPP-4 and ADA activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-018-1569-2DOI Listing
January 2019

Inhibition of adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase by valproic acid abates hepatic triglyceride accumulation independent of corticosteroids in female rats treated with estrogen-progestin.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2018 Nov 12;96(11):1092-1103. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

a HOPE Cardiometabolic Research Team, Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Elevated circulating uric acid has been postulated to play an important pathophysiological role in estrogen-progestin combined oral contraceptive (COC)-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that disruption of glucoregulation and liver triglyceride (TG) accumulation induced by COC use would be abated by valproic acid (VPA) treatment through suppression of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. Female Wistar rats aged 9-10 weeks were treated with a combination of estrogen-progestin COC steroids (1.0 μg ethinylestradiol and 5.0 μg levonorgestrel; p.o.) with or without VPA (100.0 mg/kg; p.o.) daily for 6 weeks. The result shows that the disrupted glucoregulation and associated elevated hepatic ADA activity, plasma and hepatic XO activity, uric acid (UA), TG/HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde induced by COC treatment were attenuated by VPA treatment. However, VPA did not have any effect on plasma aldosterone, corticosterone, ADA, circulating and hepatic free fatty acid. Our results demonstrate that suppression of plasma and hepatic XO activities, along with hepatic ADA activity and UA by VPA treatment, protects against disrupted glucoregulation and increased liver TG by COC independent of elevated corticosteroids. The findings imply that VPA would provide protection against the development of cardiometabolic disorder via inhibition of the ADA/XO/UA-mediated pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjpp-2018-0231DOI Listing
November 2018

Gestational glucocorticoid exposure disrupts glucose homeostasis that is accompanied by increased endoglin and DPP-4 activity instead of GSK-3 in rats.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Jun 13;60:66-75. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Department of Physiology & Hope Cardiometabolic Research Team, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Gestational glucocorticoid (GC) treatment has been associated with cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) in offspring's in later life. Elevated dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity, endoglin and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has also been implicated in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and/or vascular inflammation. We aimed to investigate the impact of GC exposure on glucose metabolism and the circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers, DPP-4 activity and GSK-3 in pregnant rats. Pregnant Wistar rats received either vehicle or dexamethasone (DEX; 0.2 mg/kg; po) between gestational days 14 and 19. Gestational GC exposure resulted in impaired glucose homeostasis that is accompanied with elevated circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers (endoglin, uric acid, and platelet/lymphocyte ratio), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), blood viscosity, reduced NO level and increased DPP-4 activity. However, these effects were associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia and reduced GSK-3.We conclude that plasma endoglin, a marker of vascular inflammation, and plasma DPP-4 activity are increased in pregnant rats treated with GC during late gestation. Therefore, glucose deregulation associated with gestational GC exposure is through endoglin-/DPP-4-dependent but GSK-3-independent pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2018.04.013DOI Listing
June 2018

Nicotine exposure suppresses hyperinsulinemia and improves endothelial dysfunction mediators independent of corticosteroids in insulin-resistant oral contraceptive-treated female rats.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2018 Jul 22;41(3):314-323. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

a Cardiovascular Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences , University of Ilorin , Ilorin , Nigeria.

Estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives (COC) or tobacco smoking has been associated with hypertension and endothelial dysfunction resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Contrasting effects of nicotine exposure on endothelial function have been reported. The effect of non-smoking nicotine exposure on endothelial dysfunction during COC treatment remains to be fully elucidated. We therefore, sought to determine the effects of nicotine exposure during COC treatment on endothelial dysfunction mediators and circulating corticosteroids. Female Wistar rats aged 10 weeks were given (po) vehicle, nicotine (1.0 mg/kg) with or without COC steroids (1.0 µg ethinylestradiol and 5.0 µg levonorgestrel) daily for 6 weeks. Nicotine exposure caused 113.3% increase in insulinemia whereas COC treatment led to 76.9% increased insulinemia compared with control. Furthermore, COC treatment or nicotine exposure led to glucose deregulation, insulin resistance, reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, uric acid, oxidative stress, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and corticosteroids. However, COC + NIC treatment led to 41.2% decrease in insulemina compared with COC-treated rats. Furthermore, all other alterations were alleviated by nicotine exposure in COC-treated female rats with the exception of corticosteroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2017.1413109DOI Listing
July 2018
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