Publications by authors named "Michael Mirsky"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preclinical Efficacy and Safety Comparison of CD3 Bispecific and ADC Modalities Targeting BCMA for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma.

Mol Cancer Ther 2019 11 21;18(11):2008-2020. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Allogene Therapeutics, Research, South San Francisco, California.

The restricted expression pattern of B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) makes it an ideal tumor-associated antigen (TAA) for the treatment of myeloma. BCMA has been targeted by both CD3 bispecific antibody and antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) modalities, but a true comparison of modalities has yet to be performed. Here we utilized a single BCMA antibody to develop and characterize both a CD3 bispecific and 2 ADC formats (cleavable and noncleavable) and compared activity both and with the aim of generating an optimal therapeutic. Antibody affinity, but not epitope was influential in drug activity and hence a high-affinity BCMA antibody was selected. Both the bispecific and ADCs were potent and , causing dose-dependent cell killing of myeloma cell lines and tumor regression in orthotopic myeloma xenograft models. Primary patient cells were effectively lysed by both CD3 bispecific and ADCs, with the bispecific demonstrating improved potency, maximal cell killing, and consistency across patients. Safety was evaluated in cynomolgus monkey toxicity studies and both modalities were active based on on-target elimination of B lineage cells. Distinct nonclinical toxicity profiles were seen for the bispecific and ADC modalities. When taken together, results from this comparison of BCMA CD3 bispecific and ADC modalities suggest better efficacy and an improved toxicity profile might be achieved with the bispecific modality. This led to the advancement of a bispecific candidate into phase I clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-19-0007DOI Listing
November 2019

Spontaneous Ectopic Choroid Plexus with Sclerosis in Adult Beagle Dogs.

Toxicol Pathol 2018 07 29;46(5):608-609. Epub 2018 May 29.

1 Department of Toxicologic Pathology, Pfizer Inc., Groton, Connecticut, USA.

Microscopic examination of the brain of adult Beagle dogs from four different general toxicity studies revealed the presence of ectopic choroid plexus tissue in six individual dogs (4 females and 2 males) with ages ranging from 12 to 18 months. In each dog, this finding was characterized by a well-circumscribed mass localized to a region above and along the corpus callosum without any apparent compression of adjacent brain tissue. Each mass was composed of columnar ependymal cells forming tubular structures surrounded by variable amounts of fibrovascular connective tissue and had the appearance of small rests of ependymal cells that had been penetrated by the leptomeninges during neural development. There were no associated clinical signs or macroscopic correlates. Based on morphologic appearance, a diagnosis of spontaneous ectopic choroid plexus with secondary sclerosis was made. To the authors' knowledge, ectopic choroid plexus has not been reported in Beagle dogs and is rare in humans and horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623318776885DOI Listing
July 2018

Utility of Orchidometric Parameters for Assessing Sexual Maturation in Male Cynomolgus Macaques ().

Comp Med 2016 12;66(6):480-488

Drug Safety Research and Development (DSRD) Study Management Group, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut.

Testicular volume is one of several parameters that have been used in preclinical toxicology to facilitate the identification of sexually mature male cynomolgus macaques when semen evaluation is unavailable. Furthermore, testicular volume provides additional information to pathologists to aid in the interpretation of microscopic findings. Orchidometry has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing testicular volume. To assess its utility for this purpose, we used orchidometry to measure testicular volume in untreated control male cynomolgus macaques during preclinical toxicology studies. Additional parameters including age, body weight, testicular weight, serum testosterone, and testicular histology were also evaluated. Serum inhibin B and the diameter of histologic testicular sections were assessed to determine whether they might provide any additional corroborative evidence for differentiating stages of sexual maturity in males. Orchidometry was easy to use in sedated or awake macaques and, in combination with testicular histology, enabled the establishment of cut-off values by which sexually mature male cynomolgus macaques can be identified with a high degree of confidence. The relative utility of the parameters examined for discriminating sexually mature and immature males was testicular volume ≥ serum testosterone > body weight > age; for differentiation of sexually mature and peripubertal males the order was testicular volume ≥ body weight > serum testosterone > age. Testicular weight and the diameter of histologic testicular sections provided corroborative information for discriminating stages of sexual maturity. Serum inhibin B was of little value in helping to differentiate the different stages of sexual maturation evaluated in this study.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5157964PMC
December 2016

Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Points to Consider Review: Inclusion of Reproductive and Pathology End Points for Assessment of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Pharmaceutical Drug Development.

Toxicol Pathol 2016 08 27;44(6):789-809. Epub 2016 May 27.

Pfizer, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Standard components of nonclinical toxicity testing for novel pharmaceuticals include clinical and anatomic pathology, as well as separate evaluation of effects on reproduction and development to inform clinical development and labeling. General study designs in regulatory guidances do not specifically mandate use of pathology or reproductive end points across all study types; thus, inclusion and use of these end points are variable. The Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) formed a Working Group to assess the current guidelines and practices on the use of reproductive, anatomic pathology, and clinical pathology end points in general, reproductive, and developmental toxicology studies. The Working Group constructed a survey sent to pathologists and reproductive toxicologists, and responses from participating organizations were collected through the STP for evaluation by the Working Group. The regulatory context, relevant survey results, and collective experience of the Working Group are discussed and provide the basis of each assessment by study type. Overall, the current practice of including specific end points on a case-by-case basis is considered appropriate. Points to consider are summarized for inclusion of reproductive end points in general toxicity studies and for the informed use of pathology end points in reproductive and developmental toxicity studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623316650052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4979743PMC
August 2016

Using Histopathologic Evidence to Differentiate Reproductive Senescence from Xenobiotic Effects in Middle-aged Female Sprague-Dawley Rats.

Toxicol Pathol 2015 Dec 27;43(8):1158-61. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

Pfizer Inc., Groton, Connecticut, USA.

The female reproductive cycle is orchestrated by cyclical and coordinated hormonal changes under the direction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Any disruption of the HPG axis may lead to functional and structural alterations in the female reproductive system. Test article-related disturbances in the estrous cycle can be recognized in nonclinical toxicity studies by staging the cycle based on microscopic evaluation of female reproductive organs. In chronic rat toxicity studies, an additional complication is the development of reproductive senescence, which is associated with natural alterations in the reproductive cycle leading to changes in the female reproductive system that can potentially be confused with test article effects. The current article describes the features of persistent estrus, one stage of reproductive senescence, in middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats and discusses elements to help differentiate senescence from induced effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623315595137DOI Listing
December 2015

Nonproliferative and proliferative lesions of the rat and mouse female reproductive system.

J Toxicol Pathol 2014 ;27(3-4 Suppl):1S-107S

National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the female reproductive tract of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of some lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous and aging lesions as well as lesions induced by exposure to test materials. There is also a section on normal cyclical changes observed in the ovary, uterus, cervix and vagina to compare normal physiological changes with pathological lesions. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for female reproductive tract lesions in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1293/tox.27.1SDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253081PMC
December 2014

Histologic and cytologic detection of endocrine and reproductive tract effects of exemestane in female rats treated for up to twenty-eight days.

Toxicol Pathol 2011 Jun 2;39(4):589-605. Epub 2011 May 2.

Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA.

The objective of this study was to determine the shortest period of time necessary to detect histologic evidence of estrous cycle disruption in Sprague-Dawley rats treated for up to 28 days with the aromatase inhibitor exemestane at 1,000 mg/kg. Rats were evaluated on day 5, 8, 15, or 29. Vaginal mucification, uterine and cervical epithelial atrophy, uterine luminal epithelial vacuolation, decreased uterine granulocytes, and hypertrophy/hyperplasia of mammary ducts and alveoli were noted by day 5 and persisted throughout the study. From day 8 to day 29, absence of recent basophilic corpora lutea, increased atresia of antral follicles, interstitial cell hyperplasia, and increased luteinized follicles were present in the ovaries of treated rats. Vaginal smears detected persistent diestrus, confirming estrous cycle disruption between days 5 and 8. Ovary and uterine weights were largely unaffected. Serum hormone levels were not useful due to the study design employed. Other effects of exemestane included decreased adrenal weights and decreased cell size in both the adrenal zona fasciculata and the pituitary pars distalis. While early histologic changes were evident on day 5, only after 8 days of treatment were findings considered sufficient to clearly identify exemestane-induced estrous cycle disruption using microscopy alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623311402220DOI Listing
June 2011

The relationship among microsomal enzyme induction, liver weight, and histological change in cynomolgus monkey toxicology studies.

Food Chem Toxicol 2006 Apr 7;44(4):528-37. Epub 2005 Nov 7.

World-wide Safety Sciences, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship among hepatic microsomal enzyme induction, liver weight, histological evidence of hepatic injury, and serum clinical chemistry markers of hepatic origin in the cynomolgus monkey. We report here the results from independent toxicology studies for 10 investigative drug candidates representing four therapeutic classes. Study conditions were selected to elicit target organ toxicity. We found that six of the 10 compounds altered cytochrome P450-associated activities in both male and female monkeys, two in females only, and one altered similar activities in males only. Frequently, significant treatment-related elevations in NADPH cytochrome c reductase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase were noted. When the results from all 10 studies were pooled, 14 cytochrome P450-associated activities were significantly increased and five were decreased in males compared to 15 significantly increased and three decreased in the females. Treatment-associated liver weight increases were noted in four studies. Except for hepatocellular hypertrophy in one study, no significant treatment-related microscopic changes in liver and no elevations of serum biomarkers commonly associated with liver toxicity were observed in any of the studies that demonstrated significant hepatic enzyme induction. Compared to parallel rat studies, one compound was an inducer only in monkeys and one was an inducer only in rats. Significant elevations of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in the cynomolgus monkey liver are not accompanied by substantial hepatic changes except for hepatomegaly. These alterations in the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme system were benign based the absence of histopathological lesions and serum biomarkers of hepatobiliary toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2005.08.027DOI Listing
April 2006

Identification of platform-independent gene expression markers of cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

Environ Health Perspect 2004 Mar;112(4):488-94

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Division of Applied Pharmacology Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Life Sciences Building 64, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA.

Within the International Life Sciences Institute Committee on Genomics, a working group was formed to focus on the application of microarray technology to preclinical assessments of drug-induced nephrotoxicity. As part of this effort, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the nephrotoxicant cisplatin at doses of 0.3-5 mg/kg over a 4- to 144-hr time course. RNA prepared from these animals was run on a variety of microarray formats at multiple sites. A set of 93 differentially expressed genes associated with cisplatin-induced renal injury was identified on the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) custom cDNA microarray platform using quadruplicate measurements of pooled animal RNA. The reproducibility of this profile of statistically significant gene changes on other platforms, in pooled and individual animal replicate samples, and in an independent study was investigated. A good correlation in response between platforms was found among the 48 genes in the NIEHS data set that could be matched to probes on the Affymetrix RGU34A array by UniGene identifier or sequence alignment. Similar results were obtained with genes that could be linked between the NIEHS and Incyte or PHASE-1 arrays. The degree of renal damage induced by cisplatin in individual animals was commensurate with the number of differentially expressed genes in this data set. These results suggest that gene profiles linked to specific types of tissue injury or mechanisms of toxicity and identified in well-performed replicated microarray experiments may be extrapolatable across platform technologies, laboratories, and in-life studies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241903PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.6676DOI Listing
March 2004
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