Publications by authors named "Michael McKay"

142 Publications

A meta-analysis of the relationship between parental death in childhood and subsequent psychiatric disorder.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Psychology, and Department of Psychiatry, Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland.

Objective: To systematically review evidence for an association between parental death in childhood, and the subsequent development of an anxiety, affective, or psychotic disorder.

Methods: Electronic databases (Scopus, Medline (for Ovid), EMBASE, and PsychINFO) were searched for peer-reviewed, cohort studies in the English language. Meta-analyses were performed for studies reporting hazard ratios, incidence rate ratios, and odds ratios. Two studies reported risk ratios, and these were included in an overall pool of odds, risk, and incidence rate ratios. Sensitivity analyses were performed (removal of one study at a time) for all meta-analyses, and study quality assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.

Results: Fifteen studies were retained, and where required, data were averaged in advance of pooling. Significant results were observed in studies reporting hazard ratios (k=4, 1.48 [95% CI = 1.32-1.66]), incidence rate ratios (k=3, 1.37 [95% CI = 1.01-1.85]), but not odds ratios (k=4, 0.87 [95% CI = 0.72, 1.05]). However, the overall pooled effect (using odds, incidence rate, and risk ratios) was statistically significant (k=9, 1.22 [95% CI = 1.03-1.44]).

Conclusion: Overall, the evidence suggests that there is a positive association between the death of a parent before age 18, and the subsequent development of an anxiety, affective, or psychotic disorder. The lack of a significant pooled effect in studies reporting results as odds ratios is likely an artefact of study design.

Limitations: Data were clustered in four countries making generalizability uncertain. Studies adjusted for a variety of possible confounders, and follow-up after death varied considerably.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acps.13289DOI Listing
February 2021

An Examination of the Longer-Term Impact of a Combined Classroom and Parental Intervention on Alcohol-Related Harms and Heavy Episodic Drinking.

Prev Sci 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Psychology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaux Lane House, Mercer Street, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Although fewer adolescents are consuming alcohol than was the case in previous decades, those who are consuming alcohol are still exposed to alcohol-related harms. While the evidence for the effectiveness of universal, school-based interventions is limited, a recent cluster randomised controlled trial (The STAMPP Trial) reported a significant effect at 10 months post-intervention of a combined classroom/parental intervention on heavy episodic drinking (HED) in the previous 30 days, but no significant effect on the number of self-reported alcohol-related harms (ARH) experienced in the previous 6 months. This follow-up study sought to examine intervention effects 24 months after delivery of the intervention (+ 57 months from baseline, or + 34 months post-intervention). Participants were 5029 high school students in STAMPP (38% of 12,738 pupils originally randomised into the trial), from 87 schools (82.3% of schools recruited in the original STAMPP trial). Outcomes were assessed using two-level random intercepts models (logistic regression for HED and negative binomial for number of ARH). Results of the present study show that the intervention effect for HED deteriorated over the following 2 years (OR declined from 0.60 to 0.97), and there was still no difference in ARH. This was due to an increase in the prevalence of intervention students' HED rather than a reduction in prevalence in control students. Results are discussed in the context of prevention initiatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-020-01193-5DOI Listing
January 2021

Searching for Something Positive in Future Negative: The Adolescent and Adult Time Inventory-Time Attitudes Scale.

Eval Health Prof 2020 Dec 30:163278720985597. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.

The Adolescent and Adult Time Inventory-Time Attitudes Scale (AATI-TA) measures emotional engagement with the past, present, and future, and scores have been shown to relate meaningfully to health outcomes. For past, present, and future, five items are used to assess both positive and negative attitudes. Although evidence for the hypothesized six-factor solution has been widely reported, some studies have indicated problems with the Future Negative items. Given that a large and growing literature has emerged on the six-factor AATI-TA, and that AATI-TA scores have shown much better and more consistent fit than other temporal psychology measures, we sought to investigate the future negative factor in detail. Secondary analyses were performed on two datasets. The first was a University convenience sample ( = 410) and the second was an adolescent sample ( = 1,612). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the fit for the five Future Negative items was poor. Modification indices suggested that a correlated error term between Items 4 and 10 would result in good fit, and this was indeed the case. Models without Item 4 or Item 10 also yielded acceptable fit. Analyses using all four operationalizations of Future Negative (original scale, without Item 4 or Item 10, or with the correlated error between Items 4 and 10) to predict symptoms of anxiety and depression, and emotional self-efficacy revealed minor differences in the predictive validity coefficients. Potential ways forward, including a correlated error term or the dropping or replacement of Item 10, are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163278720985597DOI Listing
December 2020

Childhood trauma and adult mental disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort studies.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2021 Mar 18;143(3):189-205. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Psychology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Objective: To systematically review evidence for the association between trauma experienced in childhood or adolescence, and the subsequent experience of affective or psychotic mental disorders in adulthood.

Methods: Electronic databases (Scopus, Medline (for Ovid), EMBASE and PsychINFO) were searched for peer-reviewed, longitudinal cohort studies in the English language examining child or adolescent exposure to trauma, and adult-diagnosed depression, anxiety, psychotic disorder or bipolar disorder. A total of 23 manuscripts were retained.

Results: Results revealed a significant association between the following childhood exposures and adult mental disorder: bullying (victimhood, perpetration and frequency); emotional abuse; physical neglect; parental loss; and general maltreatment (unspecified and/or multiple trauma exposure). There was some evidence of a dose-response relationship with those exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment having more than three times the odds of developing a mental disorder (Odds ratio = 3.11, 95% CI = 1.36-7.14). There was no significant association found between physical or sexual abuse and adult mental disorder; however, this is likely an artefact of how these adversities were assessed.

Conclusion: There is strong evidence of an association between childhood trauma and later mental illness. This association is particularly evident for exposure to bullying, emotional abuse, maltreatment and parental loss. The evidence suggests that childhood and adolescence are an important time for risk for later mental illness, and an important period in which to focus intervention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acps.13268DOI Listing
March 2021

Isolation and Characterization of sp. (Chytridiomycota), Obligate Parasite of in a Laurentian Great Lakes Embayment.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 Dec 11. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Biological Sciences and Great Lakes Center for Fresh Waters and Human Health, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403 USA

dominates the cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom community in Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie (USA) from May through September. This filamentous cyanobacterium is host to a known obligate parasite; the chytrid sp. During the 2018 bloom season, by utilizing dilution and single filament isolation techniques, 7 chytrid and 12 strains were isolated from Sandusky Bay. These 7 chytrids and a selection of hosts were then characterized with respect to infection rates. Infections by the isolated chytrids were specific to planktonic species and were not found on other filamentous cyanobacterial taxa present in the bay ( sp. and sp.). Even among the potential host strains, individual chytrid isolates had different degrees of infectivity and showed preference for different host isolates, suggesting possible ecological partitioning even within the same sample population. Examining mechanisms of chytrid pathogenesis, the zoospores displayed a swarming pattern to attack and fracture the host filament and create new infection sites at the trichome termini. Infections by these parasitic chytrids also led to a release of intracellular microcystin toxins from the hosts. Additionally, infections were dependent on media type, highlighting the importance of media choice on experimental outcomes. Media in which chytrid swarming was observed closely matched the ionic strength of the natural environment. Understanding pathogenesis by fungal parasites will assist future efforts aimed at determining environmental factors favoring loss mechanisms for -dominated blooms. Whereas many studies have focused on the factors contributing to the establishment and persistence of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs), few studies have examined bloom pathogenesis. Chytrid fungi infect cyanobacteria and stimulate food web interactions through manipulation of previously hard to digest filaments and the release of nutrients to support heterotrophic microbes. Specifically, chytrids infective on filamentous exhibit a species-specific infection that fragments trichomes into shorter units that can be consumed more easily by grazers. Chytrid zoospores also serve as a high-quality food source for the lower food web. Understanding host-pathogen relationships and mechanisms of pathogenesis on cyanobacteria will be necessary to effectively model the ecology of cHABs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02308-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851699PMC
December 2020

The Adolescent and Adult Time Inventory-Time Attitudes Scale: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis of Psychometric Studies.

J Pers Assess 2020 Sep 29:1-12. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Psychology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland.

The exponential growth in studies demonstrating the utility of temporal psychology has been accompanied by many studies criticizing the psychometric properties of many of its assessment measures. The Adolescent (and Adult) Time Inventory-Time Attitudes Scale (AATI-TA) has been relatively immune to these criticisms. Given the increase in the use of this particular measure, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies assessing the psychometric validity and internal consistency of the AATI-TA. Computerized searches were conducted in Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases, with 19 manuscripts ultimately retained, and data from a total of 29 samples analyzed. Results revealed that at a broad level, these analyses supported both the psychometric validity, and internal consistency of AATI-TA scores, with some minor issues identified with the Future Negative dimension. Meta-regression analyses revealed some small-sized but significant effects for age, language, and location on RMSEA, alpha values, and mean scores. However, these did not survive the Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Observed heterogeneity among studies has implications for any future creation of scale norms. Future directions for research include an exploration of the readability and appropriateness of Future Negative items, temporal stability of scores, and more psychometric studies with adult samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2020.1818573DOI Listing
September 2020

The relationship between balanced and negative time perspectives, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.

Psychiatry Res 2020 11 18;293:113383. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool, UK.

Previous research has demonstrated how time perspective, and in particular scores on the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), is significantly related to measures of Anxiety and Depression. However, ZTPI scores have been operationalized in multiple ways, including as composite scores, taking simultaneous account of mean values on all five dimensions. The present study examined if two of these composite approaches, Deviation from a Negative and/or a Balanced Time Perspective (DNTP/DBTP) scores, were significantly related to self-reported symptoms of Anxiety and Depression. Data were in two independent University samples (N = 530; N = 410), including ZTPI data, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale data. While path models revealed significant relationships between DBTP, DNTP and both HADS-A and HADS-D scores, these did not always survive the inclusion of direct paths between ZTPI dimensions and HADS score. In other words, some individual ZTPI dimensions, in particular past negative, appear to be more important than overall composite score. Scores were self-reported, and both samples were gathered in the same geography, making generalizability of findings difficult. On the basis of these results, further studies across different samples and age groups using DNTP and DBTP are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113383DOI Listing
November 2020

Dissolved Microcystin Release Coincident with Lysis of a Bloom Dominated by spp. in Western Lake Erie Attributed to a Novel Cyanophage.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 10 28;86(22). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Biological Sciences and Great Lakes Center for Fresh Waters and Human Health, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, USA

Western Lake Erie (Laurentian Great Lakes) is prone to annual cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs) dominated by spp. that often yield microcystin toxin concentrations exceeding the federal EPA recreational contact advisory of 8 μg liter In August 2014, microcystin levels were detected in finished drinking water above the World Health Organization 1.0 μg liter threshold for consumption, leading to a 2-day disruption in the supply of drinking water for >400,000 residents of Toledo, Ohio (USA). Subsequent metatranscriptomic analysis of the 2014 bloom event provided evidence that release of toxin into the water supply was likely caused by cyanophage lysis that transformed a portion of the intracellular microcystin pool into the dissolved fraction, rendering it more difficult to eliminate during treatment. In August 2019, a similar increase in dissolved microcystins at the Toledo water intake was coincident with a viral lytic event caused by a phage consortium different in composition from what was detected following the 2014 Toledo water crisis. The most abundant viral sequence in metagenomic data sets was a scaffold from a putative member of the , distinct from the Ma-LMM01-like that are typically documented to occur in western Lake Erie. This study provides further evidence that viral activity in western Lake Erie plays a significant role in transformation of microcystins from the particulate to the dissolved fraction and therefore requires monitoring efforts from local water treatment plants. Additionally, identification of multiple lytic cyanophages will enable the development of a quantitative PCR toolbox to assess viral activity during cHABs. Viral attack on cHABs may contribute to changes in community composition during blooms, as well as bloom decline, yet loss of bloom biomass does not eliminate the threat of cHAB toxicity. Rather, it may increase risks to the public by delivering a pool of dissolved toxin directly into water treatment utilities when the dominating spp. are capable of producing microcystins. Detecting, characterizing, and quantifying the major cyanophages involved in lytic events will assist water treatment plant operators in making rapid decisions regarding the pool of microcystins entering the plant and the corresponding best practices to neutralize the toxin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01397-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642080PMC
October 2020

Light and Primary Production Shape Bacterial Activity and Community Composition of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in a Microcosm Experiment.

mSphere 2020 07 1;5(4). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Center Algatech, Institute of Microbiology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Třeboň, Czechia.

Phytoplankton is a key component of aquatic microbial communities, and metabolic coupling between phytoplankton and bacteria determines the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Yet, the impact of primary production on bacterial activity and community composition remains largely unknown, as, for example, in the case of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria that utilize both phytoplankton-derived DOC and light as energy sources. Here, we studied how reduction of primary production in a natural freshwater community affects the bacterial community composition and its activity, focusing primarily on AAP bacteria. The bacterial respiration rate was the lowest when photosynthesis was reduced by direct inhibition of photosystem II and the highest in ambient light condition with no photosynthesis inhibition, suggesting that it was limited by carbon availability. However, bacterial assimilation rates of leucine and glucose were unaffected, indicating that increased bacterial growth efficiency (e.g., due to photoheterotrophy) can help to maintain overall bacterial production when low primary production limits DOC availability. Bacterial community composition was tightly linked to light intensity, mainly due to the increased relative abundance of light-dependent AAP bacteria. This notion shows that changes in bacterial community composition are not necessarily reflected by changes in bacterial production or growth and vice versa. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that light can directly affect bacterial community composition, a topic which has been neglected in studies of phytoplankton-bacteria interactions. Metabolic coupling between phytoplankton and bacteria determines the fate of dissolved organic carbon in aquatic environments, and yet how changes in the rate of primary production affect the bacterial activity and community composition remains understudied. Here, we experimentally limited the rate of primary production either by lowering light intensity or by adding a photosynthesis inhibitor. The induced decrease had a greater influence on bacterial respiration than on bacterial production and growth rate, especially at an optimal light intensity. This suggests that changes in primary production drive bacterial activity, but the effect on carbon flow may be mitigated by increased bacterial growth efficiencies, especially of light-dependent AAP bacteria. Bacterial activities were independent of changes in bacterial community composition, which were driven by light availability and AAP bacteria. This direct effect of light on composition of bacterial communities has not been documented previously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00354-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333569PMC
July 2020

The Complicated and Confusing Ecology of Blooms.

mBio 2020 06 30;11(3). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada.

Blooms of the toxin-producing cyanobacterium are increasing globally, leading to the loss of ecosystem services, threats to human health, as well as the deaths of pets and husbandry animals. While nutrient availability is a well-known driver of algal biomass, the factors controlling "who" is present in fresh waters are more complicated. possesses multiple strategies to adapt to temperature, light, changes in nutrient chemistry, herbivory, and parasitism that provide a selective advantage over its competitors. Moreover, its ability to alter ecosystem pH provides it a further advantage that helps exclude many of its planktonic competitors. While decades of nutrient monitoring have provided us with the tools to predict the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass, here, we point to factors on the horizon that may inform us why is presently the dominant bloom former in freshwaters around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00529-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327167PMC
June 2020

What's in a (tumor) cavity?

Authors:
Michael J McKay

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2020 Feb;9(1):8-9

School of Cancer Medicine, La Trobe University, Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute at Austin Campus, Heidelberg, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr.2019.10.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082293PMC
February 2020

Stress and subjective life expectancy: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in early adolescence.

Int J Psychol 2020 Dec 27;55(6):901-906. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK.

Using data from a longitudinal study, the present study employed a latent class mover-stayer analytical strategy to examine both the cross-sectional and longitudinal (+33 months) relationship between membership of stress classes, and subjective life expectancy. Participants were from 21 High schools in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Data were collected in the first year of High school (mean age = 12.5 years), and at +33 months (fourth year, or school year 11). Sample 1 consisted of 1171 adolescents (40.82% females, 2.56% unreported) in Northern Ireland. Sample 2 consisted of 1059 adolescents (52.79% females, 1.32% unreported) in Scotland. Adolescents with the lowest levels of stress projected the highest subjective life expectancy scores. Longitudinal analyses were jumbled and not in keeping with cross-sectional results. More research may be needed on the trajectory of subjective life expectancy over time before it can be depended upon as a reliable outcome variable in adolescent development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12660DOI Listing
December 2020

Socio-demographic predictors of well-being in United Kingdom adolescents, and the impact of well-being on a range of health-related outcomes.

Psychiatry Res 2020 03 4;285:112728. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Psychology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaux Lane House, Mercer Street, Dublin 1, Dublin, Ireland.

The deleterious impact of low mental well-being, and higher levels psychological symptoms (collectively well-being), on concurrent and prospective health outcomes has elsewhere been demonstrated. Further, variables such as conurbation and deprivation have been found to be related to mental and physical heath. This study used data from a longitudinal study to examine which demographic predicted well-being scores, and how scores on these constructs were related to six health-related outcomes. Participants were adolescents (N = 4,956; Male = 2376[48%]), from 72 High Schools in Northern Ireland. Three waves of data were gathered on mental well-being, psychological symptoms, subjective life expectancy (living to age 35 and age 75 years), self-rated health, frequency of physical exercise, and lifetime use of cigarettes and cannabis. Results showed that both well-being scores were significantly associated with gender cross-sectionally, but demographic variables did not predict changes in well-being longitudinally. Both well-being measures were significantly associated with health outcomes cross-sectionally, with mental well-being (over time) predicting life subjective life expectancy, self-rated health, and addictive behaviors, while psychological symptoms (over time) predicted the former two, but not addictive behaviors. Overall, the relationship between mental well-being, psychological symptoms, and the health outcomes assessed, was small in terms of effect size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112728DOI Listing
March 2020

Improving our understanding of breast cancer tumorigenesis across ethnicities.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Aug;7(16):364

School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University Clayton, Clayton, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.07.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736823PMC
August 2019

Cost-effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention: economic evaluation of data from the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme cluster randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2019 07 2;9(7):e027951. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Public Health Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP) compared with education as normal (EAN) in reducing self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) in adolescents.

Design: This is a cost-effectiveness analysis from a public sector perspective conducted as part of a cluster randomised trial.

Setting: This study was conducted in 105 high schools in Northern Ireland and in Scotland.

Participants: Students in school year 8/S1 (aged 11-12) at baseline were included in the study.

Interventions: This is a classroom-based alcohol education curricula, combined with a brief alcohol intervention for parents/carers.

Outcome Measures: The outcome of this study is the cost per young person experiencing HED avoided due to STAMPP at 33 months from baseline.

Results: The total cost of STAMPP was £85 900, equivalent to £818 per school and £15 per pupil. Due to very low uptake of the parental component, we calculated costs of £692 per school and £13 per pupil without this element. Costs per pupil were reduced further to £426 per school and £8 per pupil when it was assumed there were no additional costs of classroom delivery if STAMPP was delivered as part of activities such as personal, social, health and economic education. STAMPP was associated with a significantly greater proportion of pupils experiencing a heavy drinking episode avoided (0.08/8%) and slightly lower public sector costs (mean difference -£17.19). At a notional willingness-to-pay threshold of £15 (reflecting the cost of STAMPP), the probability of STAMPP being cost-effective was 56%. This level of uncertainty reflected the substantial variability in the cost differences between groups.

Conclusions: STAMPP was relatively low cost and reduced HED. STAMPP was not associated with any clear public sector cost savings, but neither did it increase them or lead to any cost-shifting within the public sector categories. Further research is required to establish if the cost-effectiveness of STAMPP is sustained in the long term.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN47028486; Results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6609141PMC
July 2019

The shortened version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ-S; Sweden): a validation study in United Kingdom adolescents.

Scand J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Psychol 2019 30;7:81-87. Epub 2019 May 30.

Mary Immaculate College, Limerick, Ireland.

Background: Stress is an important variable of consequence, particularly in adolescence, a period of intense physical and psychological change. The measurement of stress in adolescence has been widely discussed, and a number of versions of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) have been developed and validated. The present study sought to examine the psychometric properties (model fit, invariance, internal consistency, and construct validity) of the ASQ-S, which was recently developed in a Swedish context.

Objective: The study was a secondary analysis of data gathered on the full ASQ. The ASQ-S retained nine of the ten ASQ scales, and a study in Swedish adolescents suggested that the scale was psychometrically valid, gender invariant, and that scores were internally consistent. This is the first study to examine the properties of the ASQ-S in an English-speaking population. Participants were high school children in the UK (N = 610, 61.0% girls) from school year 8 through 12.

Results: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the nine factor solution fit the data well (χ(288) = 751.60, CFI = 0.958, TLI = 0.948, SRMR = 0.040, RMSEA = 0.051 [90% CI = 0.047, 0.056]), and that scores were gender, school type (academic versus comprehensive), and school stage (junior versus middle high school) invariant. The nine scales correlated negatively with academic, social, and emotional self-efficacy scores, and self-esteem scores, to varying degrees. Girls reported higher stress levels than boys in six of the nine scales. A regression analysis, adjusted for gender and year in school, suggested that only the stress of peer pressure (negatively) was significantly related to adolescent alcohol use.

Conclusions: Overall this study suggests that the ASQ-S could be a valid measure of adolescent stress, although concerns remain regarding the convergent validity of scale scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21307/sjcapp-2019-011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709939PMC
May 2019

Recanting of Previous Reports of Alcohol Consumption within a Large-Scale Clustered Randomised Control Trial.

Prev Sci 2019 08;20(6):844-851

Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

The aim of this study was to examine the extent of recanting (inconsistencies in reporting of lifetime alcohol use) and its impact on the assessment of primary outcomes within a large-scale alcohol prevention trial. One hundred and five post-primary schools in were randomised to receive either the intervention or education as normal. Participants (N = 12,738) were secondary school students in year 8/S1 (mean age 12.5) at baseline. Self-report questionnaires were administered at baseline (T0) and at T1 (+ 12 months post-baseline), T2 (+ 24 months) and T3 (+ 33 months). The primary outcomes were (i) heavy episodic drinking (consumption of ≥ 6 units in a single episode in the previous 30 days for males and ≥ 4.5 units for females) assessed at T3 and (ii) the number of alcohol-related harms experienced in the last 6 months assessed at T3. Recanting was defined as a negative report of lifetime alcohol consumption that contradicted a prior positive report. Between T1 and T3, 9.9% of students recanted earlier alcohol consumption. Recanting ranged from 4.5 to 5.3% across individual data sweeps. While recanting was significantly associated (negatively) with both primary outcomes, the difference in the rate of recanting across trial arms was small, and adjusting for recanting within the primary outcome models did not impact on the primary outcome effects. Males were observed to recant at a greater rate than females, with a borderline small-sized effect (V = .09). While differential rates of recanting have the potential to undermine the analysis of prevention trial outcomes, recanting is easy to identify and control for within trial primary outcome analyses. Adjusting for recanting should be considered as an additional sensitivity test within prevention trials.Trial Registration: ISRCTN47028486 ( http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN47028486 ). The date of trial registration was 23/09/2011, and school recruitment began 01/11/2011.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-019-0981-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6647483PMC
August 2019

The impact of stress latent class membership and transitions on statutory service and alcohol use in adolescents across 33 months.

J Adolesc 2019 01 5;70:53-61. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

University of Liverpool, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Adolescence is a period of intense physical, biological, and psychological change, and this can result in feelings of stress. We examined the development of stress in early adolescence, and further, how that development impacted on both alcohol-use behaviours and utilisation of government-provided services.

Methods: We used a shortened, 24-item version of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) to account for stress, and applied latent transition analysis to examine longitudinal change. Participants were 2230 school children (M = 12.5 years at time one) in Northern Irish and Scottish schools who completed a battery of questionnaires 33 months apart.

Results: We identified three stress profiles at baseline and 33 months: (a) High Stress, (b) Typical Stress, and (c) Low Stress. Stress profiles were shown to be associated with, and predict, a theoretically consistent set of outcomes, where adolescents who experienced high levels of stress also suffered from both problematic alcohol behaviours and harms, and utilised services.

Conclusions: Future studies are recommended to include more exploration into the usefulness of a multivariate conceptualising of ASQ-S scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.11.005DOI Listing
January 2019

Evaluating Response Time in Zanzibar's Malaria Elimination Case-Based Surveillance-Response System.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 02;100(2):256-263

RTI International, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

As countries transition toward malaria elimination, malaria programs rely on surveillance-response systems, which are often supported by web- and mobile phone-based reporting tools. Such surveillance-response systems are interventions for elimination, making it important to determine if they are operating optimally. A metric to measure this by is timeliness. This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the response time of Zanzibar's malaria elimination surveillance-response system, Malaria Case Notification (MCN). MCN conducts both passive and reactive case detection, supported by a mobile phone-based reporting tool called Coconut Surveillance. Using data obtained from RTI International and the Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Program (ZAMEP), analysis of summary statistics was conducted to investigate the association of response time with geography, and time series techniques were used to investigate trends in response time and its association with the number of reported cases. Results indicated that response time varied by the district in Zanzibar (0.6-6.05 days) and that it was not associated with calendar time or the number of reported cases. Survey responses and focus groups with a cadre of health workers, district malaria surveillance officers, shed light on operational challenges faced during case investigation, such as incomplete health records and transportation issues, which stem from deficiencies in aspects of ZAMEP's program management. These findings illustrate that timely response for malaria elimination depends on effective program management, despite the automation of web-based or mobile phone-based tools. For surveillance-response systems to work optimally, malaria programs should ensure that optimal management practices are in place.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367619PMC
February 2019

A Roberts Syndrome Individual With Differential Genotoxin Sensitivity and a DNA Damage Response Defect.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 04 30;103(5):1194-1202. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Cancer Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; College of Life Sciences, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen, Shanxi, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Roberts syndrome (RBS) is a rare, recessively transmitted developmental disorder characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial abnormalities, and truncation of limbs. All affected individuals to date have mutations in the ESCO2 (establishment of cohesion 2) gene, a key regulator of the cohesin complex, which is involved in sister chromatid cohesion and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here we characterize DNA damage responses (DDRs) for the first time in an RBS-affected family.

Methods And Materials: Lymphoblastoid cell lines were established from an RBS family, including the proband and parents carrying ESCO2 mutations. Various DDR assays were performed on these cells, including cell survival, chromosome break, and apoptosis assays; checkpoint activation indicators; and measures of DNA breakage and repair.

Results: Cells derived from the RBS-affected individual showed sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) and mitomycin C-induced DNA damage. In this ESCO2 compound heterozygote, other DDRs were also defective, including enhanced IR-induced clastogenicity and apoptosis; increased DNA DSB induction; and a reduced capacity for repairing IR-induced DNA DSBs, as measured by γ-H2AX foci and the comet assay.

Conclusions: In addition to its developmental features, RBS can be, like ataxia telangiectasia, considered a DDR-defective syndrome, which contributes to its cellular, molecular, and clinical phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.11.047DOI Listing
April 2019

Molecular Imaging Using PET/CT for Radiation Therapy Planning for Adult Cancers: Current Status and Expanding Applications.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 11 21;102(4):783-791. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia; School of Cancer Medicine, Latrobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Molecular Imaging and Therapy, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Accurate tumor delineation is a priority in radiation therapy (RT). Metabolic imaging has a key and evolving role in target volume selection and delineation. This is especially so for non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, and lymphoma, for which positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is complimentary to structural imaging modalities, not only in delineating primary tumors, but also often in revealing previously undiagnosed regional nodal disease. At some sites, PET/CT has been confirmed to enable target size reduction compared with structural imaging alone, with enhanced normal tissue sparing and potentially allowing for dose escalation. These contributions often dramatically affect RT strategies. However, some limitations exist to the use of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in RT planning, including its relatively poor spatial resolution and partial voluming effects for small tumors. A role is developing for contributions from metabolic imaging to RT planning at other tumor sites and exciting new applications for the use of non-fluorodeoxyglucose metabolic markers for RT planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.03.013DOI Listing
November 2018

Using Temporal Profiles and a Deviation from Balanced Approach to Understand Alcohol and Mental Health Problems.

J Psychol 2018 27;152(7):456-473. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

c University of California, Berkeley.

The present study examined how multiple operationalizations of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scores (raw scores; temporal profiles, based on cluster analysis; and the Deviation from a Balanced Time Perspective, or 'transformed' methodology) were related to both alcohol-related problems and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Participants were a large (N = 816) university sample in the United Kingdom. A total of four time perspective profiles were observed: Futures, Presents, Past Negative-Futures, and Fatalists. Having a Present profile was associated with the worst alcohol-related outcomes. With regard to psychopathology, individuals with a Future profile reported the least anxious and depressive symptoms, and individuals with a Fatalistic profile reported the highest levels of depression. The effect of transformed scores was less robust, though greater deviation from a balanced perspective was associated with somewhat higher symptoms of anxiety and depression. Further, models using raw ZTPI dimension scores explained a greater amount of variance than models using the transformed scores. This study suggests that operationalizing the ZTPI in different ways produces results, which differ both in magnitude and statistical significance. We recommend that future studies using the ZTPI employ these various operationalizations in order that consensus on the optimal approach can be reached.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2018.1478382DOI Listing
December 2018

Time attitudes profile stability and transitions: An exploratory study of adolescent health behaviours among high school students.

J Adolesc 2018 12 15;69:44-51. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

University of California, Berkeley, USA.

Purpose: Time attitudes refer to individuals' feelings about the past, present, and future, and an increasing number of cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that positive time attitudes are significantly related to better health and well-being. We investigated time attitude profile membership and associated transitions longitudinally in United Kingdom-based adolescents, and assessed the relationship between time attitude profile development on health behaviours at + 21 months after the data collection involving time attitudes.

Methods: Participants were high school students (N = 1306; 41.8% female, Mage 12.5-14.5 years [waves 1-3]). The Adolescent and Adult Time Inventory - Time Attitudes Scale was employed to identify profiles, and a mover-stayer latent transition analysis was employed to examine developmental changes. Data were also gathered on sensation seeking, and a range of health indicators were assessed: Past week frequency of physical exercise, self-rated health, subjective life expectancy, lifetime cannabis and smoking, and dental attendance.

Results: Staying in a positive time attitude profile was related to higher subjective life expectancy, and less frequent use of cannabis and cigarettes (1.00 ≤ d ≤ 4.00). Further, moving to a positive profile predicted healthier outcomes for most health measures used.

Conclusions: Notwithstanding the limitation that health outcomes in the present study were distal, the present study bolstered a developing cross-sectional literature supporting the association between positive time attitudes and better health and well-being outcomes. Future longitudinal studies which assess measures concurrently are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.09.002DOI Listing
December 2018

A balanced time perspective: Is it an exercise in empiricism, and does it relate meaningfully to health and well-being outcomes?

Int J Psychol 2019 Dec 11;54(6):775-785. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Psychology, Mary Immaculate College, Limerick, Ireland.

Time perspective research assesses the degree to which thoughts and feelings about the past, present and future influence behaviour, and a balanced time perspective profile has been posited as being ideal. Although this area of research has seen a move towards person-centred analyses, using either cluster analyses or a deviation from balanced time perspective (DBTP) approach, there are a number of theoretical and methodological issues that must be addressed. Using data from diverse samples in four countries, the present study used both cluster analyses and the DBTP approach to assess how cluster membership and DBTP scores related to a range of health and well-being outcomes. As in previous studies, a balanced profile only emerged once in cluster analyses, and positive-oriented profiles were associated with optimal outcomes. The study also found evidence of a relationship between DBTP scores and scores on well-being indicators. However, results gained after manipulating the DBTP equation in two different ways again indicated that higher than expected positive past and present or past and future scores were responsible for the positive outcomes. As such, these findings raise concerns regarding the use of the DBTP construct within clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12530DOI Listing
December 2019

Interplay Between Sensation Seeking and Parental Rules in the Emergence of Heavy Episodic Drinking.

J Res Adolesc 2019 12 16;29(4):814-821. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

University of Liverpool.

This study examined the parallel mediational processes between sensation seeking and parental rules on alcohol, in the emergence of heavy episodic drinking (HED) in adolescents. Data were drawn from a U.K. clustered randomized control trial (control arm only, N ≈ 6,300, M at baseline = 12.5). Using parallel process latent growth curve analysis, stricter parental rules at baseline were found to be associated with greater declines in sensation seeking over time and a lower risk of HED at follow-up (+33 months). Higher initial levels of sensation seeking predicted a faster relaxation of parental rules and a greater risk of HED. By maintaining strict rules about alcohol, parents may promote a positive reduction in sensation seeking and a lower risk of HED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12435DOI Listing
December 2019

Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP): a school-based and community-based cluster randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2018 03 9;8(3):e019722. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Public Health Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of a combined classroom curriculum and parental intervention (the Steps Towards Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programme (STAMPP)), compared with alcohol education as normal (EAN), in reducing self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related harms (ARHs) in adolescents.

Setting: 105 high schools in Northern Ireland (NI) and in Scotland.

Participants: Schools were stratified by free school meal provision. Schools in NI were also stratified by school type (male/female/coeducational). Eligible students were in school year 8/S1 (aged 11-12 years) at baseline (June 2012).

Intervention: A classroom-based alcohol education intervention, coupled with a brief alcohol intervention for parents/carers. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: (1) The prevalence of self-reported HED in the previous 30 days and (2) the number of self-reported ARHs in the previous 6 months. Outcomes were assessed using two-level random intercepts models (logistic regression for HED and negative binomial for number of ARHs).

Results: At 33 months, data were available for 5160 intervention and 5073 control students (HED outcome), and 5234 and 5146 students (ARH outcome), respectively. Of those who completed a questionnaire at either baseline or 12 months (n=12 738), 10 405 also completed the questionnaire at 33 months (81.7%). Fewer students in the intervention group reported HED compared with EAN (17%vs26%; OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.73), with no significant difference in the number of self-reported ARHs (incident rate ratio=0.92, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.05). Although the classroom component was largely delivered as intended, there was low uptake of the parental component. There were no reported adverse effects.

Conclusions: Results suggest that STAMPP could be an effective programme to reduce HED prevalence. While there was no significant reduction in ARH, it is plausible that effects on harms would manifest later.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN47028486; Post-results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5879538PMC
March 2018

Regional variation in the characteristics, incidence and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Australia and New Zealand: Results from the Aus-ROC Epistry.

Resuscitation 2018 05 2;126:49-57. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Victoria, Australia; Prehospital, Resuscitation and Emergency Care Research Unit (PRECRU), Curtin University, Western Australia, Australia; St John Ambulance Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate regional variation in the characteristics, incidence and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Australia and New Zealand.

Methods: This was a population-based cohort study of OHCA using data from the Aus-ROC Australian and New Zealand OHCA Epistry over the period of 01 January 2015-31 December 2015. Seven ambulance services contributed data to the Epistry with a capture population of 19.8 million people. All OHCA attended by ambulance, regardless of aetiology or patient age, were included.

Results: In 2015, there were 19,722 OHCA cases recorded in the Aus-ROC Epistry with an overall crude incidence of 102.5 cases per 100,000 population (range: 51.0-107.7 per 100,000 population). Of all OHCA cases attended by EMS (excluding EMS-witnessed cases), bystander CPR was performed in 41% of cases (range: 36%-50%). Resuscitation was attempted (by EMS) in 48% of cases (range: 40%-68%). The crude incidence for attempted resuscitation cases was 47.6 per 100,000 population (range: 34.7-54.1 per 100,000 population). Of cases with attempted resuscitation, 28% survived the event (range: 21%-36%) and 12% survived to hospital discharge or 30 days (range: 9%-17%; data provided by five ambulance services).

Conclusion: In the first results of the Aus-ROC Australian and New Zealand OHCA Epistry, significant regional variation in the incidence, characteristics and outcomes was observed. Understanding the system-level and public health drivers of this variation will assist in optimisation of the chain of survival provided to OHCA patients with the aim of improving outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.02.029DOI Listing
May 2018

The direct and indirect effect of loneliness on the development of adolescent alcohol use in the United Kingdom.

Addict Behav Rep 2017 Dec 1;6:65-70. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Alcohol use among adolescents in the United Kingdom (UK) remains relatively high compared to those in other European countries. The present study sought to examine both the direct and indirect effect of loneliness on drinking behavior. Participants were school children (mean age 13.5 years at Time 1) participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial in the UK, who completed a battery of questionnaires examining alcohol-use indicators, loneliness, self-efficacy and sensation seeking at Time 1 and at +12 months. Loneliness at Time 1 had a substantive, though largely indirect (i.e., via self-efficacy and sensation seeking covariates), impact on alcohol-related harm at +12 months. Furthermore, Loneliness interacted with gender in the prediction of context of alcohol use, where being female and experiencing loneliness put an individual at a greater risk of unsupervised drinking. Females experiencing loneliness were also 2.9 times as likely to have had a drink in the past 30 days, and around 2.5 times as likely to have ever consumed a full drink, when compared to their male peers. The current results indicate that loneliness is an important but complex factor in adolescent drinking. There are important implications for the development of interventions to prevent underage drinking, not least that it is not appropriate to consider all underage drinkers as socially marginalised. However, for those that are, the self-medication hypothesis is potentially relevant through emotional self-efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abrep.2017.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5800553PMC
December 2017