Publications by authors named "Michael Landram"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Continuous moderate intensity versus discontinuous high intensity treadmill running on anterior cruciate ligament laxity and hamstrings flexibility in eumenorrheic women.

J Can Chiropr Assoc 2020 Dec;64(3):227-236

Department of Physical Therapy, The University of Scranton.

Objective: To differentiate running intensity and menstrual phase effects on knee stability before and after exercise.

Methods: Ten eumenorrheic aerobically trained females were recruited to determine effects of a randomized crossover design of exercise intensity (85%HRR vs 42.5%HRR) on anterior cruciate ligament laxity (AP) and hamstrings flexibility (HF). A KT-2000 arthrometer measured AP and a 90-90 supine knee extension (MKE) and sit-and-reach test (SRD) measured HF in follicular (FP) and luteal (LP) menstrual cycle phases.

Results: Significant difference pre-exercise was observed for both 90N and 120N AP in LP compared to FP. Exercise increased AP at 90N and 120N in both FP and LP with LP exhibiting larger changes than FP. MKE and SRD increased significantly following exercise but were not different across menstrual phases or between exercise intensities.

Conclusion: AP taken together with increased HF post-exercise demonstrates a less stable knee joint in the LP before and following exercise.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815175PMC
December 2020

A Comparison of Methods Used to Determine Percent Body Fat, Minimum Wrestling Weight, and Lowest Allowable Weight Class.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 03;35(3):633-637

Department of Health Science, Lock Haven University, Lock Haven, Pennsylvania.

Abstract: Cutrufello, PT, Landram, MJ, Venezia, AC, and Dixon, CB. A comparison of methods used to determine percent body fat, minimum wrestling weight, and lowest allowable weight class. J Strength Cond Res 35(3): 633-637, 2021-The National Collegiate Athletic Association's weight management program allows for the use of skinfold measurements (SF), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and hydrostatic weighing in the assessment of percent body fat (%BF) and determination of a wrestler's minimum wrestling weight (MWW). Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ultrasound (US) may offer alternative assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to examine %BF, MWW, and the lowest allowable weight class as determined by SF, ADP, DXA, and US. Thirty-three college-aged men (20.8 ± 1.1 years) participated. Urine specific gravity (Usg) was assessed to ensure proper hydration (1.006 ± 0.006). Percent body fat and MWW were then determined using the 4 assessment methods. Each method was significantly different from one another (p < 0.05) with the exception of ADP compared with SF (17.6 ± 7.1% vs. 17.4 ± 6.3%, p = 1.000) and DXA compared with US (20.5 ± 6.2% vs. 19.2 ± 7.5%, p = 0.124). DXA (68.6 ± 7.1 kg) and US (69.3 ± 6.0 kg) determined the lowest MWW, whereas those determined by SF (70.8 ± 6.8 kg) and ADP (70.9 ± 6.6 kg) were significantly greater (p< 0.05). The SEEs for MWW when compared with SF were 3.2, 3.4, and 2.4 kg for ADP, DXA, and US, respectively. Compared with SF, DXA and US would allow wrestlers to certify at a lower weight class 64 and 33% of the time, respectively. When comparing the approved methods (SF and ADP), approximately 50% of subjects would certify at a different weight class depending on the method used. The use of different methods in assessing %BF offer a wide variability in the determination of MWW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003929DOI Listing
March 2021

The effect of music on anaerobic exercise performance and muscular endurance.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Mar 5;60(3):486-492. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Exercise Science and Sport, The University of Scranton, Scranton, PA, USA.

Background: Music has been shown to improve aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance; however, music's effect on resistance training exercise, gender differences, and heart rate (HR) is less understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of self-selected music on anaerobic exercise performance using a bench press (BP) protocol and the Wingate anaerobic test (WAT).

Methods: Fifteen (8 men; 7 women) healthy, college-aged students between 18-25 years old (20.1±1.79 yrs) participated in this study. Testing consisted of two trials (music [M]; no music [NM]] completed in a randomized order. Each participant performed the BP for a maximum number of repetitions using 70% one-repetition maximum for five sets. After a 10 min rest period, a 30 s Wingate anaerobic Test (WAT) was completed.

Results: During the M condition, there was a significant increase in total work (M: 16121.8±4287.3 kJ; NM: 15021.7±4370.6 kJ; P=0.024), relative peak power (M: 44.6±8.4 W; NM: 41.4±8.4 W; P=0.014), and the total number of bench press repetitions (M: 41.7±8.7 reps; NM: 38.3±8.1 reps; P=0.001). HR recovery following the WAT protocol was significantly quicker after the WAT protocol during the M condition (M: 256.2±54.5 sec.; NM 293.3±22.3 sec.; P=0.022). There was no significant condition as for gender interaction for any of the variables assessed.

Conclusions: Listening to self-selected music improved exercise performance during the BP and the WAT. Music also hastened HR recovery following the WAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.19.10228-9DOI Listing
March 2020

Salivary stress hormone response and performance in full competition after linear or undulating periodization training in elite powerlifters.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Jan 24;60(1):152-159. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO, USA.

Background: The purposes of this study were to determine differences in training loads and stress hormones among national level powerlifting competitors and the effect on performance.

Methods: Thirteen experienced male powerlifters provided detailed training logs during the 8 weeks prior to a national competition. Participants were divided into linear (LP, N.=6) and undulating periodization (UP, N.=7) training groups. Following weigh-ins and after successfully completing the competition, participants provided saliva samples.

Results: LP resulted in lower levels of salivary cortisol (sC) (LP 4.27±0.71 nmols/L; UP 5.53±0.78 nmols/L) and higher testosterone-to-cortisol ratio (T:C) (LP 8.03±0.84 nmols/L; UP 5.23±1.41 nmols/L) compared to UP prior to competition. Following competition, both LP and UP groups had significant increases in salivary testosterone (sT) (LP 383.70±34.96 nmols/L; UP 376.62±38.17 nmols/L) and sC (LP 17.67±1.39 nmols/L; UP 18.17±1.46 nmols/L) and significant reductions in T:C (LP 8.03±0.80 to 6.67±0.83; UP 5.23±1.41 to 4.95±1.00). Finally, the UP group had a significantly higher Wilks coefficient following the competition compared to the LP group (LP 440.7±31.83 vs. UP 480.29±24.13).

Conclusions: It appears that the higher volume loads undertaken by UP have a larger perturbation on resting stress hormones; however, this does not seem to negatively influence powerlifting performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.19.09977-8DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of Continuous vs Discontinuous Aerobic Training on Cardiac Autonomic Remodeling.

Int J Sports Med 2019 Mar 10;40(3):180-185. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

HES, Appalachian State University, Boone, United States.

The aim of this study was to examine the cardiac autonomic nervous system differences following either continuous vs. discontinuous exercise in males and females. Forty-seven healthy male and female subjects (M=19, F=28; Age=36.95±13.79) underwent a baseline test for VO and tilt table testing. They were assigned to a one-month control period before returning to repeat the testing and then begin one month of either continuous aerobic treadmill work for 30 min at 70% peak heart rate (N=23) or 3 bouts of 10 min at 70% of peak heart rate with two 10-min break periods in between (N=24). Following exercise, both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in VO (p<0.001). Treatment differences were detected while tilted in continuous as a decreases in the percentage of instances within an hour that the normal sinus interval exceeds 50 ms (p=0.036) and in the high-frequency component (p=0.023). While supine, the discontinuous group saw reduction in heart rate (p=0.004), and an increase in high-frequency (p=0.018). These data suggest that for healthy people either continuous or discontinuous aerobic training is effective in improving measures of fitness; however discontinuous is better able to improve supine indices of vagal activity on heart rate variability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0044-100921DOI Listing
March 2019

Differential Effects of Continuous Versus Discontinuous Aerobic Training on Blood Pressure and Hemodynamics.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Jan;32(1):97-104

Department of Health and Exercise Science, Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, College of Health Sciences, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina.

Landram, MJ, Utter, AC, Baldari, C, Guidetti, L, McAnulty, SR, and Collier, SR. Differential effects of continuous versus discontinuous aerobic training on blood pressure and hemodynamics. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 97-104, 2018-The purpose of this study was to compare the hemodynamic, arterial stiffness, and blood flow changes after 4 weeks of either continuous or discontinuous aerobic exercise in adults. Forty-seven subjects between the ages of 18 and 57 were recruited for 1 month of either continuous aerobic treadmill work for 30 minutes at 70% max heart rate or 3 bouts of 10 minutes of exercise at 70% of max heart rate with two 10 minutes break periods in between, totaling 30 minutes of aerobic work. After exercise, both continuous (CON) and discontinuous (DIS) groups demonstrated a significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, CON 35.39 ± 1.99 to 38.19 ± 2.03; DIS 36.18 ± 1.82 to 39.33 ± 1.75), heart rate maximum (CON 183.5 ± 3.11 to 187.17 ± 3.06; DIS 179.06 ± 2.75 to 182 ± 2.61), decreases in systolic blood pressure (CON 119 ± 1.82 to 115.11 ± 1.50; DIS 117.44 ± 1.90 to 112.67 ± 1.66), diastolic blood pressure (CON 72.56 ± 1.65 to 70.56 ± 1.06; DIS 71.56 ± 1.59 to 69.56 ± 1.43), augmentation index (CON 17.17 ± 2.17 to 14.9 ± 1.92; DIS 19.71 ± 2.66 to 13.91 ± 2.46), central pulse wave velocity (CON 8.29 ± 0.32 to 6.92 ± 0.21; DIS 7.85 ± 0.30 to 6.83 ± 0.29), peripheral pulse wave velocity (CON 9.49 ± 0.35 to 7.72 ± 0.38; DIS 9.11 ± 0.37 to 7.58 ± 0.47), and significant increases in average forearm blood flow (CON 4.06 ± 0.12 to 4.34 ± 0.136; DIS 4.26 ± 0.18 to 4.53 ± 0.15), peak forearm blood flow (FBF) after reactive hyperemia (CON 28.45 ± 0.094 to 29.96 ± 0.45; DIS 29.29 ± 0.46 to 30.6 ± 0.38), area under the curve (AUC) of FBF (CON 28.65 ± 1.77 to 30.4 ± 1.08; DIS 30.52 ± 1.9 to 31.67 ± 1.44), and AUC peak FBF after reactive hyperemia (CON 222.3 ± 5.68 to 231.95 ± 4.42; DIS 230.81 ± 6.91 to 237.19 ± 5.39). These data suggest that for healthy people either 4 weeks of continuous or discontinuous aerobic training is effective in improving measures of fitness and vascular health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001661DOI Listing
January 2018

Six weeks daily ingestion of whole blueberry powder increases natural killer cell counts and reduces arterial stiffness in sedentary males and females.

Nutr Res 2014 Jul 8;34(7):577-84. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Dept. of Health and Exercise Science Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, 28608.

Evidence suggests that berries contain bioactive compounds, which reduce certain cancers and hypertension. Our hypothesis was that daily blueberry (BB) consumption would increase natural killer (NK) cells and plasma redox capacity and reduce blood pressure, augmentation index (AIx), central pulse wave velocity, and aortic systolic pressures (ASPs). Twenty-five men and postmenopausal women aged 18 to 50 years were recruited and randomized to BB (n, 13) or placebo groups (n, 12). Participants were provided with BB (equivalent to 250 g berries) or placebo powders each day for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, vascular performance testing, and blood samples were taken at baseline (presupplementation). Participants returned after 6 weeks and repeated all procedures. Presupplementation to postsupplementation comparisons for the main effects of treatment, time, and treatment-time interaction were made using a 2 (treatment) × 2 (times) repeated-measures analysis of variance for all vascular measures, redox status, and NK cell counts. Anthropometric measures were compared using t tests. Body mass, composition, and overall blood pressures were not affected in either group. Overall, AIx and ASPs were decreased in BB (treatment effect, P = .024 and P = .046, respectively). Plasma redox was not affected. Absolute NK cells were increased in BB (time, P = .001 and interaction, P = .012). Subjects (n, 9) with prehypertensive pressures (≥120/80 mm Hg, respectively) were examined as a subset using t tests and exhibited significant reductions in diastolic pressure (P = .038) from presupplementation to postsupplementation in BB. We conclude that BB ingestion for 6 weeks increases NK cells and reduces AIx, ASP, and diastolic pressures in sedentary males and females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2014.07.002DOI Listing
July 2014

Treatment of prehypertension: lifestyle and/or medication.

Vasc Health Risk Manag 2012 15;8:613-9. Epub 2012 Nov 15.

Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA.

Prehypertension is a warning to individuals with resting blood pressures between 120/80 mmHg and 139/89 mmHg of an insidious progression of blood pressure towards hypertensive levels (≥ 140/90 mmHg). Prehypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and end organ damage compared with individuals who are normotensive. This review primarily focuses on internal and external factors associated with the prevalence of prehypertension. Elucidating all of the factors associated with a rise in resting blood pressure and comparing the effects of medication versus lifestyle changes may aid the clinician in developing a preventive and/or treatment strategy for each individual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S29138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3502030PMC
May 2013

Ischemia reperfusion injury, KATP channels, and exercise-induced cardioprotection against apoptosis.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2012 Aug 31;113(3):498-506. Epub 2012 May 31.

Cardioprotection Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36830, USA.

Exercise is a potent stimulus against cardiac ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, although the protective mechanisms are not completely understood. The study purpose was to examine whether the mitochondrial or sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mito K(ATP) or sarc K(ATP), respectively) mediates exercise-induced cardioprotection against post-IR cell death and apoptosis. Eighty-six, 4-mo-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to treadmill exercise (Ex; 30 m/min, 3 days, 60 min, ∼70 maximal oxygen uptake) and sedentary (Sed) treatments. Rats were exposed to regional cardiac ischemia (50 min) and reperfusion (120 min) or Sham (170 min; no ligation) surgeries. Exercise subgroups received placebo (saline), 5-hydroxydecanoate (5HD; 10 mg/kg ip), or HMR1098 (10 mg/kg ip) to inhibit mito K(ATP) or sarc K(ATP) channel. Comprehensive outcome assessments included post-IR ECG arrhythmias, cardiac tissue necrosis, redox perturbations, and autophagy biomarkers. No arrhythmia differences existed between exercised and sedentary hearts following extended-duration IR (P < 0.05). The sarc K(ATP) channel was confirmed essential (P = 0.002) for prevention of antinecrotic tissue death with exercise (percent infarct, Sed = 42%; Ex = 20%; Ex5HD = 16%; ExHMR = 42%), although neither the mito K(ATP) (P = 0.177) nor sarc K(ATP) (P = 0.274) channel provided post-IR protection against apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxy UTP-mediated nick-end labeling-positive nuclei/mm(2), Sham = 1.8 ± 0.5; Sed = 19.4 ± 6.7; Ex = 7.5 ± 4.6; Ex5HD = 14.0 ± 3.9; ExHMR = 11.1 ± 1.8). Exercise preconditioning also appears to preserve basal autophagy levels, as assessed by Beclin 1 (P ≤ 0.001), microtubule-associated protein-1 light-chain 3B ratios (P = 0.020), and P62 (P ≤ 0.001), in the hours immediately following IR. Further research is needed to better understand these findings and corresponding redox changes in exercised hearts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00957.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3426170PMC
August 2012

Evaluation of ultrasound velocity to assess the hydration status of wrestlers.

J Strength Cond Res 2010 Jun;24(6):1451-7

Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, USA.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of ultrasound velocity (UV) to detect changes in the hydration status of wrestlers after undergoing acute dehydration and a 2-hour rehydration period. Forty-seven NCAA wrestlers (mean+/-SEM); age 19.1+/-0.2 years, height 1.73+/-0.1 m, body mass (BM) 79.4+/-2.4 kg were tested in euhydrated, dehydrated, and a 2-hours rehydrated conditions. Hydration status was quantified by measuring changes in plasma osmolarity (Posm), urine osmolarity (Uosm), urine specific gravity (Usg), and BM. Ultrasound velocity was measured at 1 MHz using 1.5-microsecond duration tone burst in the soleus muscle. Significant changes (p<0.001) in UV during periods of dehydration (BM change=-3.6+/-0.14%) (UV=+2.18 m.s) and rehydration (BM change=+2.8+/-0.12%) (UV=-2.89 m.s) were found. Significant main effects (p<0.001) were also found for Usg, Uosm, and Posm during dehydration. The change in Posm from the 1 to 2-hour rehydration time period significantly correlated to the change in UV during the same time period (r=0.27, p<0.001). This study demonstrates that changes in UV correspond to the changes of Posm, Usg, Uosm, and BM during acute dehydration and rehydration in collegiate wrestlers. The use of ultrasound measures may have potential application as an alternative field-based method to assess the hydration status of collegiate wrestlers although future research is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d82d26DOI Listing
June 2010

Effect of n-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on oxidative stress after exercise.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010 Sep;42(9):1704-11

Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA.

Purpose: n-3 fatty acids are known to exert multiple beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory actions that may diminish oxidative stress. Supplementation with antioxidant vitamins has been proposed to counteract oxidative stress and improve antioxidant status. Therefore, this project investigated the effects of daily supplementation in 48 trained cyclists over 6 wk and during 3 d of continuous exercise on F2-isoprostanes (oxidative stress), plasma n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidant status (oxygen radical absorption capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential).

Methods: Cyclists were randomized into n-3 fatty acids (N3) (n = 11) (2000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and 400 mg of docosahexaenoic acid), a vitamin-mineral (VM) complex (n = 12) emphasizing vitamins C (2000 mg), E (800 IU), A (3000 IU), and selenium (200 microg), a VM and n-3 fatty acid combination (VN3) (n = 13), or placebo (P) (n = 12). Blood was collected at baseline and preexercise and postexercise. A 4 x 3 repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to test main effects.

Results: After exercise, F2-isoprostanes were higher in N3 (treatment effect P = 0.014). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid plasma values were higher after supplementation (interaction effect P = 0.001 and 0.006, respectively) in both n-3 supplemented groups. Oxygen radical absorption capacity declined similarly among all groups after exercise. Ferric-reducing antioxidant potential exhibited significant interaction (P = 0.045) and significantly increased after exercise in VN3 and VM (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: This study indicates that supplementation with n-3 fatty acids alone significantly increases F2-isoprostanes after exhaustive exercise. Lastly, antioxidant supplementation augments plasma antioxidant status and modestly attenuates but does not prevent the significant n-3 fatty acid associated increase in F2-isoprostanes postexercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d85bd1DOI Listing
September 2010

Quercetin supplementation does not alter antioxidant status in humans.

Free Radic Res 2010 Feb;44(2):224-31

North Carolina Research Campus, Appalachian State University, Human Performance Laboratory, Plants for Human Health Building, 600 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA.

This study measured the influence of ingesting quercetin on plasma measures for oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. Male and female subjects (n = 1002) varying in age (18-85 years) and body mass index (BMI) (16.7-52.7 kg/m(2)) were studied. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups using double-blinded methods: placebo, 500 mg or 1000 mg quercetin/day with 125 mg or 250 mg vitamin C/day, respectively. Pre- and post-study fasting blood samples show that plasma quercetin increased in a dose-responsive manner. The pattern of change in plasma F(2)-isoprostanes, oxidized low density lipoprotein, reduced glutathione, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) did not differ between supplementation groups or after adjustment for gender, age, BMI and disease status. In summary, quercetin supplementation over 12 weeks in doses of 500 mg or 1000 mg/day significantly increased plasma quercetin levels, but had no influence on several measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10715760903407293DOI Listing
February 2010
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