Publications by authors named "Michael L Nieder"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Gonadal-sparing total body irradiation with the use of helical tomotherapy for nonmalignant indications.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2021 25;26(1):153-158. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffit Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, United States.

Background: The aim was to demonstrate the feasibility and technique of gonadal sparing total body irradiation (TBI) with helical tomotherapy. Total body irradiation is a common part of the conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Shielding or dose-reduction to the gonads is often desired to preserve fertility, particularly in young patients undergoing transplant for non-malignant indications. Helical tomotherapy (HT) has been shown to be superior to traditional TBI delivery for organ at risk (OA R) doses and dose homogeneity.

Materials And Methods: We present two representative cases (one male and one female) to illustrate the feasibility of this technique, each of whom received 3Gy in a single fraction prior to allogeneic stem cell transplant for benign indications. The planning target volume (PTV) included the whole body with a subtraction of OA Rs including the lungs, heart, and brain (each contracted by 1cm) as well as the gonads (testicles expanded by 5 cm and ovaries expanded by 0.5 cm).

Results: For the male patient we achieved a homogeneity index of 1.35 with a maximum and median planned dose to the testes of 0.53 Gy and 0.35 Gy, respectively. In-vivo dosimetry demonstrated an actual received dose of 0.48 Gy. For the female patient we achieved a homogeneity index of 1.13 with a maximum and median planned dose to the ovaries of 1.66 Gy and 0.86 Gy, respectively.

Conclusion: Gonadal sparing TBI is feasible and deliverable using HT in patients with non-malignant diseases requiring TBI as part of a pre-stem cell transplant conditioning regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/RPOR.a2021.0006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149136PMC
February 2021

ELN 2017 Genetic Risk Stratification Predicts Survival of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 2;27(3):256.e1-256.e7. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Immunotherapy, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida. Electronic address:

European LeukemiaNet (ELN) 2017 risk stratification by genetics is prognostic of outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the prognostic impact of the 2017 ELN genetic risk stratification after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is not well established. We examined the effect of 2017 ELN genetic risk stratification on alloHCT outcomes of AML. We included 500 adult (≥18 years) AML patients in first (n = 370) or second (n = 130) complete remission receiving alloHCT from 2005 to 2016. Patients were classified into favorable (12%), intermediate (57%), and adverse (32%) 2017 ELN risk groups. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to conduct the multivariable analyses of leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS). Relapse and nonrelapse mortality were analyzed by the Fine-Gray regression model. OS at 2 years was 72% in the favorable versus 60% in the intermediate versus 45% in the adverse risk groups (P < .001). In multivariable analyses, the 2017 ELN classifier was an independent predictor of OS after alloHCT with significantly higher overall mortality in the intermediate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.68; P = .03) and adverse (HR = 2.50, 95% CI, 1.54-4.06; P < .001) risk groups compared to the favorable risk group. Similarly, LFS was worse in the intermediate (HR = 1.63, 95%, CI 1.06-2.53; P = .03) and adverse (HR 2.23, 95% CI, 1.41-3.54; P < .001) risk groups while relapse was higher in the adverse risk group (HR = 2.36, 95% CI, 1.28-4.35; P = .006) as compared to the favorable risk group. These data highlight the prognostic impact of the 2017 ELN genetic risk stratification on the survival of AML patients after alloHCT. Patients in the adverse risk group had the highest risk of relapse and worst survival. Thus the 2017 ELN prognostic system can help identify AML patients who may benefit from clinical trials offering relapse mitigation strategies to improve transplant outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.021DOI Listing
March 2021

Pacritinib Combined with Sirolimus and Low-Dose Tacrolimus for GVHD Prevention after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Preclinical and Phase I Trial Results.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 22;27(10):2712-2722. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, Department of Medicine, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Purpose: In this first-in-human, phase I, GVHD prevention trial (NCT02891603), we combine pacritinib (PAC), a JAK2 inhibitor, with sirolimus to concurrently reduce T-cell costimulation via mTOR and IL6 activity. We evaluate the safety of pacritinib when administered with sirolimus plus low-dose tacrolimus (PAC/SIR/TAC) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Patients And Methods: The preclinical efficacy and immune modulation of PAC/SIR were investigated in xenogeneic GVHD. Our phase I trial followed a 3+3 dose-escalation design, including dose level 1 (pacritinib 100 mg daily), level 2 (pacritinib 100 mg twice daily), and level 3 (pacritinib 200 mg twice daily). The primary endpoint was to identify the lowest biologically active and safe dose of pacritinib with SIR/TAC ( = 12). Acute GVHD was scored through day +100. Allografts included 8/8 HLA-matched related or unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cells.

Results: In mice, we show that dual JAK2/mTOR inhibition significantly reduces xenogeneic GVHD and increases peripheral regulatory T cell (Treg) potency as well as Treg induction from conventional CD4 T cells. Pacritinib 100 mg twice a day was identified as the minimum biologically active and safe dose for further study. JAK2/mTOR inhibition suppresses pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells, spares Tregs and antileukemia effector cells, and exhibits preliminary activity in preventing GVHD. PAC/SIR/TAC preserves donor cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunity and permits timely engraftment without cytopenias.

Conclusions: We demonstrate that PAC/SIR/TAC is safe and preliminarily limits acute GVHD, preserves donor CMV immunity, and permits timely engraftment. The efficacy of PAC/SIR/TAC will be tested in our ongoing phase II GVHD prevention trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127396PMC
May 2021

A phase 2 trial of GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy, sirolimus, and MMF after peripheral blood haploidentical transplantation.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(5):1154-1163

Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, and.

The introduction of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) made performing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA haplotype-incompatible donors possible. In a setting of PTCy and tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, a peripheral blood (PB) graft source as compared with bone marrow reduces the relapse rate but increases acute GVHD (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). This phase 2 trial assessed sirolimus and MMF efficacy following PTCy as a GVHD prophylaxis after PB haploidentical HCT (haplo-HCT). With 32 evaluable patients (≥18 years) enrolled, this study had 90% power to demonstrate a reduction in 100-day grade II-IV aGVHD to 20% from the historical benchmark of 40% after haplo-HCT using PTCy/tacrolimus/MMF. At a median follow-up of 16.1 months, the primary end point of the trial was met with a day-100 grade II-IV aGVHD cumulative incidence of 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5% to 34.0%). There were no graft-failure events and the 1-year probability of National Institutes of Health (NIH) moderate/severe cGVHD was 18.8% (95% CI, 7.4% to 34.0%), nonrelapse mortality was 18.8% (95% CI, 7.4% to 34.0%), relapse was 22.2% (95% CI, 9.6% to 38.2%), disease-free survival was 59.0% (95% CI, 44.1% to 79.0%), GVHD-free relapse-free survival was 49.6% (95% CI, 34.9% to 70.5%), and overall survival was 71.7% (95% CI, 57.7% to 89.2%) for the entire cohort. These data demonstrate that GVHD prophylaxis with sirolimus/MMF following PTCy effectively prevents grade II-IV aGVHD after PB haplo-HCT, warranting prospective comparison of sirolimus vs tacrolimus in combination with MMF following PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis after PB HCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03018223.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948297PMC
March 2021

Pediatric HCT in Florida (2014 -2016): A report from the FPBCC.

Pediatr Transplant 2020 Nov 27:e13931. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

FPBCC was formed in 2018 by five pediatric transplant programs in Florida. One of the key objectives of the consortium is to provide outcome analyses by combining HCT data from all the participating centers in order to identify areas for improvement. In this first FPBCC landscape report we describe the patient and transplant characteristics of pediatric patients undergoing first allo and auto HCT between 2014 and 2016 in Florida. The source of data was eDBtC of the CIBMTR. Over the span of 3 years, a total of 230 pediatric patients underwent allo-HCT and 104 underwent auto-HCT at the participating centers. The most significant predictor of survival in allo-HCT recipients with malignant disorders was the degree of HLA- match, while in the recipients of allo-HCT with non-malignant disorders the predictors of survival included age, donor relationship and degree of HLA match. Our analyses identified the need to improve reporting of primary cause of death and improve on donor selection process given that the degree of HLA match remains the most important predictor of survival. This first FPBCC-wide review describes the trends in pediatric HCT activity between 2014 and 2016 among the participating centers in Florida and confirms feasibility of using eDBtC data platform and collaborative approach in order to identify areas for improvement in outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13931DOI Listing
November 2020

A Randomized Trial of Caspofungin vs Triazoles Prophylaxis for Invasive Fungal Disease in Pediatric Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2021 Apr;10(4):417-425

Division of Haematology Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Children and adolescents undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at high risk for invasive fungal disease (IFD).

Methods: This multicenter, randomized, open-label trial planned to enroll 560 children and adolescents (3 months to <21 years) undergoing allogeneic HCT between April 2013 and September 2016. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to antifungal prophylaxis with caspofungin or a center-specific comparator triazole (fluconazole or voriconazole). Prophylaxis was administered from day 0 of HCT to day 42 or discharge. The primary outcome was proven or probable IFD at day 42 as adjudicated by blinded central review. Exploratory analysis stratified this evaluation by comparator triazole.

Results: A planned futility analysis demonstrated a low rate of IFD in the comparator triazole arm, so the trial was closed early. A total of 290 eligible patients, with a median age of 9.5 years (range 0.3-20.7), were randomized to caspofungin (n = 144) or a triazole (n = 146; fluconazole, n = 100; voriconazole, n = 46). The day 42 cumulative incidence of proven or probable IFD was 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3%-5.4%) in the caspofungin group vs 1.4% (95% CI, 0.4%-5.5%) in the triazole group (P = .99, log-rank test). When stratified by specific triazole, there was no significant difference in proven or probable IFD at day 42 between caspofungin vs fluconazole (1.0%, 95% CI, 0.1%-6.9%, P = .78) or caspofungin vs voriconazole (2.3%, 95% CI, 0.3%-15.1%, P = .69).

Conclusions: In pediatric HCT patients, prophylaxis with caspofungin did not significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of early proven or probable IFD compared with triazoles. Future efforts to decrease IFD-related morbidity and mortality should focus on later periods of risk.

Trial Registration: NCT01503515.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087143PMC
April 2021

Identifying clinical practice guidelines for the supportive care of children with cancer: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 01 26;66(1):e27471. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Providing evidence-based supportive care for children with cancer has the potential to optimize treatment outcomes and improve quality of life. The Children's Oncology Group (COG) Supportive Care Guidelines Subcommittee conducted a systematic review to identify current supportive care clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) relevant to childhood cancer or pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Only 22 papers met the 2011 Institute of Medicine criteria to be considered a CPG. The results highlight the paucity of CPGs available to pediatric oncology healthcare professionals and the pressing need to create CPGs using current methodological standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249051PMC
January 2019

Effect of Levofloxacin Prophylaxis on Bacteremia in Children With Acute Leukemia or Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2018 09;320(10):995-1004

The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Bacteremia causes considerable morbidity among children with acute leukemia and those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There are limited data on the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis in children.

Objective: To determine the efficacy and risks of levofloxacin prophylaxis in children receiving intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia or undergoing HSCT.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this multicenter, open-label, randomized trial, patients (6 months-21 years) receiving intensive chemotherapy were enrolled (September 2011-April 2016) in 2 separate groups-acute leukemia, consisting of acute myeloid leukemia or relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and HSCT recipients-at 76 centers in the United States and Canada, with follow-up completed September 2017.

Interventions: Patients with acute leukemia were randomized to receive levofloxacin prophylaxis for 2 consecutive cycles of chemotherapy (n = 100) or no prophylaxis (n = 100). Those undergoing HSCT were randomized to receive levofloxacin prophylaxis during 1 HSCT procedure (n = 210) or no prophylaxis (n = 214).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was the occurrence of bacteremia during 2 chemotherapy cycles (acute leukemia) or 1 transplant procedure (HSCT). Secondary outcomes included fever and neutropenia, severe infection, invasive fungal disease, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, and musculoskeletal toxic effects.

Results: A total of 624 patients, 200 with acute leukemia (median [interquartile range {IQR}] age, 11 years [6-15 years]; 46% female) and 424 undergoing HSCT (median [IQR] age, 7 years [3-14]; 38% female), were enrolled. Among 195 patients with acute leukemia, the likelihood of bacteremia was significantly lower in the levofloxacin prophylaxis group than in the control group (21.9% vs 43.4%; risk difference, 21.6%; 95% CI, 8.8%-34.4%, P = .001), whereas among 418 patients undergoing HSCT, the risk of bacteremia was not significantly lower in the levofloxacin prophylaxis group (11.0% vs 17.3%; risk difference, 6.3%; 95% CI, 0.3%-13.0%; P = .06). Fever and neutropenia were less common in the levofloxacin group (71.2% vs 82.1%; risk difference, 10.8%; 95% CI, 4.2%-17.5%; P = .002). There were no significant differences in severe infection (3.6% vs 5.9%; risk difference, 2.3%; 95% CI, -1.1% to 5.6%; P = .20), invasive fungal disease (2.9% vs 2.0%; risk difference, -1.0%; 95% CI, -3.4% to 1.5%, P = .41), C difficile-associated diarrhea (2.3% vs 5.2%; risk difference, 2.9%; 95% CI, -0.1% to 5.9%; P = .07), or musculoskeletal toxic effects at 2 months (11.4% vs 16.3%; risk difference, 4.8%; 95% CI, -1.6% to 11.2%; P = .15) or at 12 months (10.1% vs 14.4%; risk difference, 4.3%; 95% CI, -3.4% to 12.0%; P = .28) between the levofloxacin and control groups.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among children with acute leukemia receiving intensive chemotherapy, receipt of levofloxacin prophylaxis compared with no prophylaxis resulted in a significant reduction in bacteremia. However, there was no significant reduction in bacteremia for levofloxacin prophylaxis among children undergoing HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.12512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143098PMC
September 2018

Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: stem cell transplantation.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013 06 19;60(6):1044-7. Epub 2012 Dec 19.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4318, USA.

The role of SCT in pediatric oncology has continued to evolve with the introduction of new therapeutic agents and immunological insights into cancer. COG has focused its efforts on the study of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of pediatric malignancies in several major multi-institutional Phase II and Phase III studies. These studies include addressing the impact of allogenicity in ALL (ASCT0431), and establishing autologous stem cell transplant as the standard of care in neuroblastoma. Reducing transplant-associated toxicity was addressed in the ASCT0521 study, where the TNFα inhibitor etanercept was tested for the treatment of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome. Impact of cell dose was explored in the single versus tandem umbilical cord blood study CTN-0501, in close collaboration with the BMT-CTN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.24437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4064788PMC
June 2013

A pilot study of low-dose anti-angiogenic chemotherapy in combination with standard multiagent chemotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed metastatic Ewing sarcoma family of tumors: A Children's Oncology Group (COG) Phase II study NCT00061893.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013 Mar 12;60(3):409-14. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center and Children's Hospital, Spokane, Washington 99202, USA.

Background: The aims of this study were to determine the feasibility of the combination of low dose, anti-angiogenic chemotherapy with standard therapy for patients with metastatic Ewing sarcoma (ES), and to obtain preliminary outcome data.

Procedures: Patients with metastatic ES were eligible. Therapy consisted of alternating cycles of ifosfamide-etoposide, and vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide. Vinblastine and celecoxib were concomitantly administered. Surgical, radiotherapeutic, or combination local control therapy was given per institutional preference.

Results: Thirty-five eligible patients were enrolled. Ninety percent received at least 75% of planned vinblastine/celecoxib doses. There was no excess of neurologic, infectious, hemorrhagic, or cardiovascular toxicities. However, 7 of 21 patients who received pulmonary irradiation prior to experiencing pulmonary toxicity did develop grade 2 or greater pulmonary toxicity, including two deaths of apparent radiation pneumonitis. Fourteen of 16 patients with pelvic disease received local irradiation. Hemorrhagic cystitis developed in six patients, five of whom had received pelvic irradiation. The overall 24-month event free survival was 35% (19-51%); 71% (26-92%) for the seven with isolated pulmonary metastases, 26% (10-45%) for all others.

Conclusion: The combination of vinblastine/celecoxib metronomic therapy with standard ES treatment was feasible according to the protocol definitions. However, excess toxicity in irradiated areas was noted and limits the usefulness of this protocol. The 24-month EFS for those with isolated pulmonary metastases is better than historical controls, although the number of patient number is small, follow up short and we are lacking contemporaneous controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.24328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4583823PMC
March 2013

National Cancer Institute, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation Consortium First International Consensus Conference on late effects after pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation: the need for pediatric-specific long-term follow-up guidelines.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2012 Mar 14;18(3):334-47. Epub 2012 Jan 14.

Primary Children's Medical Center, University of Utah School of Medicine/Huntsman Cancer Institute, Division of Hematology/BMT, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA.

Existing standards for screening and management of late effects occurring in children who have undergone hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) include recommendations from pediatric cancer networks and consensus guidelines from adult-oriented transplantation societies applicable to all HCT recipients. Although these approaches have significant merit, they are not pediatric HCT-focused, and they do not address post-HCT challenges faced by children with complex nonmalignant disorders. In this article we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of current published recommendations and conclude that pediatric-specific guidelines for post-HCT screening and management would be beneficial to the long-term health of these patients and would promote late effects research in this field. Our panel of late effects experts also provides recommendations for follow-up and therapy of selected post-HCT organ and endocrine complications in pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281504PMC
March 2012

Role of cytotoxic therapy with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: update of the 2005 evidence-based review.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2012 Apr 29;18(4):505-22. Epub 2011 Dec 29.

Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA.

Clinical research published since the first evidence-based review on the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is presented and critically evaluated in this update. Treatment recommendations are provided by an expert panel. Allogeneic SCT is recommended for children who: are in second complete remission (CR2) after experiencing an early marrow relapse for precursor-B ALL; experienced primary induction failure, but subsequently achieved a CR1; have T-lineage ALL in CR2; or have ALL in third or greater remission. Although the 2005 pediatric ALL evidence-based review (EBR) recommended allogeneic SCT for children with Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) ALL in CR1, preliminary tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) data demonstrate that early outcomes are comparable for allogeneic SCT and chemotherapy + imatinib. Based on the evidence, autologous SCT is not recommended for ALL in CR1. Allogeneic SCT is not recommended for: T-lineage ALL in CR1; mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)+ ALL when it is the sole adverse risk factor; isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse in precursor-B ALL. Based on expert opinion, allogeneic SCT may be considered for hypodiploid ALL and persistent minimal residual disease [corrected] (MRD) positivity in ALL in CR1 or greater, although these are areas that need further study. Treatment recommendations pertaining to various transplantation techniques are also provided, as are areas of needed future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.12.585DOI Listing
April 2012

National Cancer Institute-National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium First International Consensus Conference on late effects after pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation: long-term organ damage and dysfunction.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2011 Nov 1;17(11):1573-84. Epub 2011 Oct 1.

Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, All Children's Hospital, St Petersburg, FL.

Long-term complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have been studied in detail. Although virtually every organ system can be adversely affected after HCT, the underlying pathophysiology of these late effects remain incompletely understood. This article describes our current understanding of the pathophysiology of late effects involving the gastrointestinal, renal, cardiac, and pulmonary systems, and discusses post-HCT metabolic syndrome studies. Underlying diseases, pretransplantation exposures, transplantation conditioning regimens, graft-versus-host disease, and other treatments contribute to these problems. Because organ systems are interdependent, long-term complications with similar pathophysiologic mechanisms often involve multiple organ systems. Current data suggest that post-HCT organ complications result from cellular damage that leads to a cascade of complex events. The interplay between inflammatory processes and dysregulated cellular repair likely contributes to end-organ fibrosis and dysfunction. Although many long-term problems cannot be prevented, appropriate monitoring can enable detection and organ-preserving medical management at earlier stages. Current management strategies are aimed at minimizing symptoms and optimizing function. There remain significant gaps in our knowledge of the pathophysiology of therapy-related organ toxicities disease after HCT. These gaps can be addressed by closely examining disease biology and identifying those patients at greatest risk for adverse outcomes. In addition, strategies are needed for targeted disease prevention and health promotion efforts for individuals deemed at high risk because of their genetic makeup or specific exposure profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.09.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3215762PMC
November 2011

Advancement of pediatric blood and marrow transplantation research in North America: priorities of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2010 Sep 14;16(9):1212-21. Epub 2010 Jan 14.

Primary Children's Medical Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA.

Advances in pediatric bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are slowed by the small number of patients with a given disease who undergo transplantation, a lack of sufficient infrastructure to run early-phase oncology protocols and studies of rare nonmalignant disorders, and challenges associated with funding multi-institutional trials. Leadership of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium (PBMTC), a large pediatric BMT clinical trials network representing 77 active and 45 affiliated centers worldwide, met in April 2009 to develop strategic plans to address these issues. Key barriers, including infrastructure development and funding, along with scientific initiatives in malignant and nonmalignant disorders, cellular therapeutics, graft-versus-host disease, and supportive care were discussed. The PBMTC's agenda for approaching these issues will result in infrastructure and trials specific to pediatrics that will run through the PBMTC or its partners, the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network and the Children's Oncology Group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2009.12.536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2891395PMC
September 2010

Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of intravenous busulfan in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010 Feb;54(2):291-8

Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital/Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose: To determine the safety, efficacy, and PK profile of intravenous busulfan (Bu) in the context of a Bu and cyclophosphamide (IVBuCy) preparative regimen in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Methods: Twenty-four children were enrolled in an open-label, multicenter trial of IVBuCy as the preparative regimen for HLA-matched sibling allogeneic HSCT. IVBu was administered q6 hr for 16 doses with a targeted area under the curve (AUC) of 900-1,350 microMol-min. The initial dose was 0.8 mg/kg for children >4 years of age and 1 mg/kg for those <4 years of age. PK of the first dose IVBu was determined to calculate a single dosage adjustment, and with the 9th and 13th doses to confirm steady-state PK.

Results: The targeted AUC was achieved with the first dose in 17/24 (71%) of the children using the age-adjusted dosing approach. Dosing was increased in five patients, and reduced in two patients to achieve target values. After dose adjustment based on PK, 91% of the children had an AUC within the target range at steady state (AUCss). Median final dosing and clearance (CL) of IVBu were 1.1 mg/kg and 4.1 ml/min/kg in patients < or =4 years, and 0.9 mg/kg and 2.9 ml/min/kg in patients >4 years. All children were engrafted with documented donor chimerism. No late rejections or graft failures occurred. Four patients had veno-occlusive disease, three of which resolved within 2 weeks of onset. Two children died from transplant-related causes unrelated to Bu.

Conclusion: IVBu is a safe and effective and offers the benefit of predictable and consistent systemic exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22227DOI Listing
February 2010

Addition of muramyl tripeptide to chemotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed metastatic osteosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Cancer 2009 Nov;115(22):5339-48

Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.

Background: The addition of liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE) to chemotherapy has been shown to improve overall survival in patients with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma (OS). The authors report the results of addition of liposomal MTP-PE to chemotherapy for patients with metastatic OS.

Methods: Intergroup-0133 was a prospective randomized phase 3 trial for the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with OS. The authors compared 3-drug chemotherapy with cisplatin, doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate (Regimen A) to the same 3 drugs with the addition of ifosfamide (Regimen B). The addition of liposomal MTP-PE to chemotherapy was evaluated.

Results: Five-year event-free survival (EFS) for patients who received liposomal MTP-PE (n = 46) was 42% versus 26% for those who did not (n = 45) (relative risk for liposomal MTP-PE, 0.72; P = .23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-1.2). The 5-year overall survival for patients who received MTP-PE versus no MTP-PE was 53% and 40%, respectively (relative risk for liposomal MTP-PE, 0.72; P = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.40-1.3). The comparison of Regimen A with Regimen B did not suggest a difference for EFS (35% vs 34%, respectively; relative risk for Regimen B, 1.07; P = .79; 95% CI, 0.62-1.8) or overall survival (52% vs 43%, respectively; relative risk for Regimen B, 1.1, P = .75; 95% CI, 0.61-2.0).

Conclusions: When the metastatic cohort was considered in isolation, the addition of liposomal MTP-PE to chemotherapy did not achieve a statistically significant improvement in outcome. However, the pattern of outcome is similar to the pattern in nonmetastatic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.24566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2783515PMC
November 2009

Are matched unrelated donor transplants justified for AML in CR1?

Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2006 ;19(2):321-8

University of South Florida; H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL 33612 USA.

There has been controversy about the optimal consolidation therapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first remission. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings has improved the survival of patients with unfavorable cytogenetics, but has not improved the survival of intermediate- or favorable-risk patients. If an HLA-identical sibling donor is not available, alternative sources of stem cells may be sought. HLA mismatched transplants are associated with an increased risk of graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease, and lower survival. Since large registries of HLA-typed volunteer donors have been established and the newer and more sensitive tissue typing technology can more clearly differentiate between matched and unmatched donors, some AML patients without an HLA-matched sibling have received transplants from an HLA-matched unrelated donor while in first remission. Data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research indicate that survival of patients with unfavorable cytogenetics appears at least as good with unrelated donor grafts as previously reported for matched sibling grafts, and better than consolidation chemotherapy. AML patients in first remission with unfavorable cytogenetics without a matched family donor should be offered an unrelated donor transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beha.2005.12.002DOI Listing
July 2006