Publications by authors named "Michael Kofoed-Branzk"

5 Publications

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Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells Program a Distinct Subset of IL-22BP-Producing Dendritic Cells Demarcating Solitary Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues.

Immunity 2020 11;53(5):1015-1032.e8

Laboratory of Innate Immunity, Department of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Anna-Louisa-Karsch Strasse 2, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Mucosal and Developmental Immunology, Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum (DRFZ), an institute of the Leibniz Association, 10117 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues such as cryptopatches (CPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) constitute steady-state activation hubs containing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) that continuously produce interleukin (IL)-22. The outer surface of CPs and ILFs is demarcated by a poorly characterized population of CD11c cells. Using genome-wide single-cell transcriptional profiling of intestinal mononuclear phagocytes and multidimensional flow cytometry, we found that CP- and ILF-associated CD11c cells were a transcriptionally distinct subset of intestinal cDCs, which we term CIA-DCs. CIA-DCs required programming by CP- and ILF-resident CCR6 ILC3 via lymphotoxin-β receptor signaling in cDCs. CIA-DCs differentially expressed genes associated with immunoregulation and were the major cellular source of IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) at steady state. Mice lacking CIA-DC-derived IL-22BP exhibited diminished expression of epithelial lipid transporters, reduced lipid resorption, and changes in body fat homeostasis. Our findings provide insight into the design principles of an immunoregulatory checkpoint controlling nutrient absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.012DOI Listing
November 2020

Microbiota-Induced Type I Interferons Instruct a Poised Basal State of Dendritic Cells.

Cell 2020 05 6;181(5):1080-1096.e19. Epub 2020 May 6.

Immunopathology Unit, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, University Hospital Bonn, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany.

Environmental signals shape host physiology and fitness. Microbiota-derived cues are required to program conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) during the steady state so that they can promptly respond and initiate adaptive immune responses when encountering pathogens. However, the molecular underpinnings of microbiota-guided instructive programs are not well understood. Here, we report that the indigenous microbiota controls constitutive production of type I interferons (IFN-I) by plasmacytoid DCs. Using genome-wide analysis of transcriptional and epigenetic regulomes of cDCs from germ-free and IFN-I receptor (IFNAR)-deficient mice, we found that tonic IFNAR signaling instructs a specific epigenomic and metabolic basal state that poises cDCs for future pathogen combat. However, such beneficial biological function comes with a trade-off. Instructed cDCs can prime T cell responses against harmless peripheral antigens when removing roadblocks of peripheral tolerance. Our data provide fresh insights into the evolutionary trade-offs that come with successful adaptation of vertebrates to their microbial environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.022DOI Listing
May 2020

c-Maf restrains T-bet-driven programming of CCR6-negative group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

Elife 2020 02 10;9. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Laboratory of Innate Immunity, Department of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

RORγt group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) maintain intestinal homeostasis through secretion of type 3 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22. However, CCR6 ILC3s additionally co-express T-bet allowing for the acquisition of type 1 effector functions. While T-bet controls the type 1 programming of ILC3s, the molecular mechanisms governing T-bet are undefined. Here, we identify c-Maf as a crucial negative regulator of murine T-bet CCR6 ILC3s. Phenotypic and transcriptomic profiling of c-Maf-deficient CCR6 ILC3s revealed a hyper type 1 differentiation status, characterized by overexpression of ILC1/NK cell-related genes and downregulation of type 3 signature genes. On the molecular level, c-Maf directly restrained T-bet expression. Conversely, c-Maf expression was dependent on T-bet and regulated by IL-1β, IL-18 and Notch signals. Thus, we define c-Maf as a crucial cell-intrinsic brake in the type 1 effector acquisition which forms a negative feedback loop with T-bet to preserve the identity of CCR6 ILC3s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.52549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7025824PMC
February 2020

Interleukin-22 protects intestinal stem cells against genotoxic stress.

Nature 2019 02 30;566(7743):249-253. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Laboratory of Innate Immunity, Department of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Environmental genotoxic factors pose a challenge to the genomic integrity of epithelial cells at barrier surfaces that separate host organisms from the environment. They can induce mutations that, if they occur in epithelial stem cells, contribute to malignant transformation and cancer development. Genome integrity in epithelial stem cells is maintained by an evolutionarily conserved cellular response pathway, the DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR culminates in either transient cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair or elimination of damaged cells by apoptosis. Here we show that the cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22), produced by group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) and γδ T cells, is an important regulator of the DDR machinery in intestinal epithelial stem cells. Using a new mouse model that enables sporadic inactivation of the IL-22 receptor in colon epithelial stem cells, we demonstrate that IL-22 is required for effective initiation of the DDR following DNA damage. Stem cells deprived of IL-22 signals and exposed to carcinogens escaped DDR-controlled apoptosis, contained more mutations and were more likely to give rise to colon cancer. We identified metabolites of glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals contained in cruciferous vegetables, to be a widespread source of genotoxic stress in intestinal epithelial cells. These metabolites are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and AhR-mediated signalling in ILC3 and γδ T cells controlled their production of IL-22. Mice fed with diets depleted of glucosinolates produced only very low levels of IL-22 and, consequently, the DDR in epithelial cells of mice on a glucosinolate-free diet was impaired. This work identifies a homeostatic network protecting stem cells against challenge to their genome integrity by AhR-mediated 'sensing' of genotoxic compounds from the diet. AhR signalling, in turn, ensures on-demand production of IL-22 by innate lymphocytes directly regulating components of the DDR in epithelial stem cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-0899-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420091PMC
February 2019