Publications by authors named "Michael J Tisza"

9 Publications

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Cenote-Taker 2 democratizes virus discovery and sequence annotation.

Virus Evol 2021 Jan 30;7(1):veaa100. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Lab of Cellular Oncology, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-4263, USA.

Viruses, despite their great abundance and significance in biological systems, remain largely mysterious. Indeed, the vast majority of the perhaps hundreds of millions of viral species on the planet remain undiscovered. Additionally, many viruses deposited in central databases like GenBank and RefSeq are littered with genes annotated as 'hypothetical protein' or the equivalent. Cenote-Taker 2, a virus discovery and annotation tool available on command line and with a graphical user interface with free high-performance computation access, utilizes highly sensitive models of hallmark virus genes to discover familiar or divergent viral sequences from user-input contigs. Additionally, Cenote-Taker 2 uses a flexible set of modules to automatically annotate the sequence features of contigs, providing more gene information than comparable tools. The outputs include readable and interactive genome maps, virome summary tables, and files that can be directly submitted to GenBank. We expect Cenote-Taker 2 to facilitate virus discovery, annotation, and expansion of the known virome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/veaa100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816666PMC
January 2021

NCBI's Virus Discovery Codeathon: Building "FIVE" -The Federated Index of Viral Experiments API Index.

Viruses 2020 12 10;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA.

Viruses represent important test cases for data federation due to their genome size and the rapid increase in sequence data in publicly available databases. However, some consequences of previously decentralized (unfederated) data are lack of consensus or comparisons between feature annotations. Unifying or displaying alternative annotations should be a priority both for communities with robust entry representation and for nascent communities with burgeoning data sources. To this end, during this three-day continuation of the Virus Hunting Toolkit codeathon series (VHT-2), a new integrated and federated viral index was elaborated. This Federated Index of Viral Experiments (FIVE) integrates pre-existing and novel functional and taxonomy annotations and virus-host pairings. Variability in the context of viral genomic diversity is often overlooked in virus databases. As a proof-of-concept, FIVE was the first attempt to include viral genome variation for HIV, the most well-studied human pathogen, through viral genome diversity graphs. As per the publication of this manuscript, FIVE is the first implementation of a virus-specific federated index of such scope. FIVE is coded in BigQuery for optimal access of large quantities of data and is publicly accessible. Many projects of database or index federation fail to provide easier alternatives to access or query information. To this end, a Python API query system was developed to enhance the accessibility of FIVE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12121424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764237PMC
December 2020

Cellular life from the three domains and viruses are transcriptionally active in a hypersaline desert community.

Environ Microbiol 2020 Apr 19. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA.

Microbial communities play essential roles in the biosphere and understanding the mechanisms underlying their functional adaptations to environmental conditions is critical for predicting their behaviour. This aspect of microbiome function has not been well characterized in natural high-salt environments. To address this knowledge gap, and to build a general framework relating the genomic and transcriptomic components in a microbiome, we performed a meta-omic survey of extremophile communities inhabiting halite (salt) nodules in the Atacama Desert. We found that the major phyla of this halophilic community have different levels of total transcriptional activity, at the selected time-points, and that different metabolic pathways were activated in their transcriptomes. We report that a novel Dolichomastix alga-the only eukaryote found in this system-was the most active community member. It produced the vast majority of the community's photosynthetic transcripts despite being outnumbered by Cyanobacteria. The divergence in the transcriptional landscapes of these segregated communities, compared with the relatively stable metagenomic functional potential, suggests that microbiomes in each salt nodule undergo unique transcriptional adjustments to adapt to local conditions. We also report the characterization of several previously unknown halophilic viruses, many of which exhibit transcriptional activity indicative of host infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15023DOI Listing
April 2020

Prokaryotic and Viral Community Composition of Freshwater Springs in Florida, USA.

mBio 2020 04 7;11(2). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, Saint Petersburg, Florida, USA

Aquifers, which are essential underground freshwater reservoirs worldwide, are understudied ecosystems that harbor diverse forms of microbial life. This study investigated the abundance and composition of prokaryotic and viral communities in the outflow of five springs across northern Florida, USA, as a proxy of microbial communities found in one of the most productive aquifers in the world, the Floridan aquifer. The average abundances of virus-like particles and prokaryotic cells were slightly lower than those reported from other groundwater systems, ranging from 9.6 × 10 ml to 1.1 × 10 ml and 2.2 × 10 ml to 3.4 × 10 ml, respectively. Despite all of the springs being fed by the Floridan aquifer, sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and viral metagenomes (viromes) revealed unique communities in each spring, suggesting that groundwater microbial communities are influenced by land usage in recharge zones. The prokaryotic communities were dominated by , and though the most abundant phyla (, , and ) were found in relatively high abundance across springs, variation was seen at finer taxonomic resolution. The viral sequences were most similar to those described from other aquatic environments. Sequencing resulted in the completion of 58 novel viral genomes representing members of the order as well as prokaryotic and eukaryotic single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses. Sequences similar to those of ssDNA viruses were detected at all spring sites and dominated the identifiable sequences at one spring site, showing that these small viruses merit further investigation in groundwater systems. Aquifer systems may hold up to 40% of the total microbial biomass on Earth. However, little is known about the composition of microbial communities within these critical freshwater ecosystems. Here, we took advantage of Florida's first-magnitude springs (the highest spring classification based on water discharge), each discharging at least 246 million liters of water each day from the Floridan aquifer system (FAS), to investigate prokaryotic and viral communities from the aquifer. The FAS serves as a major source of potable water in the Southeastern United States, providing water for large cities and citizens in three states. Unfortunately, the health of the FAS and its associated springs has declined in the past few decades due to nutrient loading, increased urbanization and agricultural activity in aquifer recharge zones, and saltwater intrusion. This is the first study to describe the prokaryotic and viral communities in Florida's first-magnitude springs, providing a baseline against which to compare future ecosystem change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00436-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157768PMC
April 2020

Discovery of several thousand highly diverse circular DNA viruses.

Elife 2020 Feb 4;9. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Lab of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States.

Although millions of distinct virus species likely exist, only approximately 9000 are catalogued in GenBank's RefSeq database. We selectively enriched for the genomes of circular DNA viruses in over 70 animal samples, ranging from nematodes to human tissue specimens. A bioinformatics pipeline, Cenote-Taker, was developed to automatically annotate over 2500 complete genomes in a GenBank-compliant format. The new genomes belong to dozens of established and emerging viral families. Some appear to be the result of previously undescribed recombination events between ssDNA and ssRNA viruses. In addition, hundreds of circular DNA elements that do not encode any discernable similarities to previously characterized sequences were identified. To characterize these 'dark matter' sequences, we used an artificial neural network to identify candidate viral capsid proteins, several of which formed virus-like particles when expressed in culture. These data further the understanding of viral sequence diversity and allow for high throughput documentation of the virosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.51971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000223PMC
February 2020

Genomic Sequence of Canine Papillomavirus 19.

Genome Announc 2016 Dec 8;4(6). Epub 2016 Dec 8.

Tumor Virus Molecular Biology Section, Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

It is generally assumed that individual papillomas (warts) are caused by infection with individual papillomavirus types. Deep sequencing of virions extracted from a canine oral papilloma revealed the presence of canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1), CPV2, and a novel canine papillomavirus, CPV19. This suggests that papillomas sometimes harbor multiple viral species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01380-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5146455PMC
December 2016

Motility and stem cell properties induced by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition require destabilization of lipid rafts.

Oncotarget 2016 Aug;7(32):51553-51568

Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a developmental program that provides cancer cells with the characteristics necessary for metastasis, including increased motility and stem cell properties. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not yet fully understood, hampering efforts to develop therapeutics. In recent years, it has become apparent that EMT is accompanied by wholesale changes in diverse signaling pathways that are initiated by proteins at the plasma membrane (PM). The PM contains thousands of lipid and protein species that are dynamically and spatially organized into lateral membrane domains, an example of which are lipid rafts. Since one of the major functions of rafts is modulation of signaling originating at the PM, we hypothesized that the signaling changes occurring during an EMT are associated with alterations in PM organization. To test this hypothesis, we used Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles (GPMVs) to study the organization of intact plasma membranes isolated from live cells. We observed that induction of EMT significantly destabilized lipid raft domains. Further, this reduction in stability was crucial for the maintenance of the stem cell phenotype and EMT-induced remodeling of PM-orchestrated pathways. Exogenously increasing raft stability by feeding cells with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) repressed these phenotypes without altering EMT markers, and inhibited the metastatic capacity of breast cancer cells. Hence, modulating raft properties regulates cell phenotype, suggesting a novel approach for targeting the impact of EMT in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5239496PMC
August 2016

The Ancient Evolutionary History of Polyomaviruses.

PLoS Pathog 2016 Apr 19;12(4):e1005574. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Polyomaviruses are a family of DNA tumor viruses that are known to infect mammals and birds. To investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the family, we used a combination of viral metagenomics, bioinformatics, and structural modeling approaches to identify and characterize polyomavirus sequences associated with fish and arthropods. Analyses drawing upon the divergent new sequences indicate that polyomaviruses have been gradually co-evolving with their animal hosts for at least half a billion years. Phylogenetic analyses of individual polyomavirus genes suggest that some modern polyomavirus species arose after ancient recombination events involving distantly related polyomavirus lineages. The improved evolutionary model provides a useful platform for developing a more accurate taxonomic classification system for the viral family Polyomaviridae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4836724PMC
April 2016

Candidate Antimetastasis Drugs Suppress the Metastatic Capacity of Breast Cancer Cells by Reducing Membrane Fluidity.

Cancer Res 2016 04 29;76(7):2037-49. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

Department of Integrative Biology & Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas. Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas. School of Biomedical Informatics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas. Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas. Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Despite the high mortality from metastatic cancer, therapeutic targets to prevent metastasis are limited. Efforts to identify genetic aberrations that predispose tumors to metastasis have been mostly unsuccessful. To understand the nature of candidate targets for metastatic disease, we performed an in silico screen to identify drugs that can inhibit a gene expression signature associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Compounds discovered through this method, including those previously identified, appeared to restrict metastatic capacity through a common mechanism, the ability to modulate the fluidity of cell membranes. Treatment of breast cancer cell lines with the putative antimetastasis agents reduced membrane fluidity, resulting in decreased cell motility, stem cell-like properties, and EMT in vitro, and the drugs also inhibited spontaneous metastasis in vivo When fluidity was unchanged, the antimetastasis compounds could no longer restrict metastasis, indicating a causal association between fluidity and metastasis. We further demonstrate that fluidity can be regulated by cellular cholesterol flux, as the cholesterol efflux channel ABCA1 potentiated metastatic behaviors in vitro and in vivo The requirement for fluidity was further supported by the finding in breast cancer patients that ABCA1 was overexpressed in 41% of metastatic tumors, reducing time to metastasis by 9 years. Collectively, our findings reveal increased membrane fluidity as a necessary cellular feature of metastatic potential that can be controlled by many currently available drugs, offering a viable therapeutic opportunity to prevent cancer metastasis. Cancer Res; 76(7); 2037-49. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-1970DOI Listing
April 2016