Publications by authors named "Michael I Whang"

8 Publications

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Non-catalytic ubiquitin binding by A20 prevents psoriatic arthritis-like disease and inflammation.

Nat Immunol 2020 04 16;21(4):422-433. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

A20 is an anti-inflammatory protein that is strongly linked to human disease. Here, we find that mice expressing three distinct targeted mutations of A20's zinc finger 7 (ZF7) ubiquitin-binding motif uniformly developed digit arthritis with features common to psoriatic arthritis, while mice expressing point mutations in A20's OTU or ZF4 motifs did not exhibit this phenotype. Arthritis in A20 mice required T cells and MyD88, was exquisitely sensitive to tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-17A, and persisted in germ-free conditions. A20 cells exhibited prolonged IκB kinase activity that drove exaggerated transcription of late-phase nuclear factor-κB response genes in vitro and in prediseased mouse paws in vivo. In addition, mice expressing double-mutant A20 proteins in A20's ZF4 and ZF7 motifs died perinatally with multi-organ inflammation. Therefore, A20's ZF4 and ZF7 motifs synergistically prevent inflammatory disease in a non-catalytic manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-0634-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195210PMC
April 2020

Correction: Anti-TNF and thiopurine therapy in pregnant IBD patients does not significantly alter a panel of B-cell and T-cell subsets in 1-year-old infants.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2018 07 31;9(7):172. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

The original version of this article contained an error in Fig. 2, in which part of the text in the legend was omitted. This has now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the paper.Furthermore, the figure legends were missing for the Supplementary figure files. The HTML has now been updated to include a corrected version of the Supplementary Information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41424-018-0040-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6068199PMC
July 2018

A20 and ABIN-1 synergistically preserve intestinal epithelial cell survival.

J Exp Med 2018 07 21;215(7):1839-1852. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

A20 () and ABIN-1 () are candidate susceptibility genes for inflammatory bowel disease and other autoimmune or inflammatory diseases, but it is unclear how these proteins interact in vivo to prevent disease. Here we show that intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of either A20 or ABIN-1 alone leads to negligible IEC loss, whereas simultaneous deletion of both A20 and ABIN-1 leads to rapid IEC death and mouse lethality. Deletion of both A20 and ABIN-1 from enteroids causes spontaneous cell death in the absence of microbes or hematopoietic cells. Studies with enteroids reveal that A20 and ABIN-1 synergistically restrict death by inhibiting TNF-induced caspase 8 activation and RIPK1 kinase activity. Inhibition of RIPK1 kinase activity alone, or caspase inhibition combined with RIPK3 deletion, abrogates IEC death by blocking both apoptosis and necroptosis in A20 and ABIN-1 double-deficient cells. These data show that the disease susceptibility proteins A20 and ABIN-1 synergistically prevent intestinal inflammation by restricting IEC death and preserving tissue integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20180198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6028510PMC
July 2018

Anti-TNF and thiopurine therapy in pregnant IBD patients does not significantly alter a panel of B-cell and T-cell subsets in 1-year-old infants.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2018 04 3;9(4):143. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Objectives: Infants exposed to combination therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents and thiopurines may exhibit increased infections at 1 year of age compared to unexposed infants. We hypothesized that this increased risk of infection is due to abnormal development of the newborn immune system.

Methods: We immunophenotyped B-cell and T-cell subsets using multiparameter flow cytometry in 1-year-old infants whose mothers were exposed to therapeutic agents for IBD. We analyzed samples from infants exposed to infliximab (IFX) or adalimumab (ADA) monotherapy (IFX/ADA, n = 11), certolizumab pegol (CZP) monotherapy (CZP, n = 4), IFX or ADA plus thiopurine combination therapy (IFX/ADA + IM, n = 4), and CZP plus thiopurine combination therapy (CZP + IM, n = 2).

Results: Percentages of B cells, CD4 T helper cells, T regulatory cells (T), and CD8 cytotoxic T cells, were similar among the groups. Infants exposed to combination therapy (IFX/ADA + IM) exhibited trends toward fewer CD27 B cells, switched memory B cells, plasmablasts, interferon gamma (IFNγ)-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells, and CCR5CD4 T cells, but these did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusions: Multiparameter immunophenotyping of major B-cell and T-cell subsets suggests that the adaptive newborn immune system develops largely unaltered after exposure to combination therapy as compared to anti-TNF monotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41424-018-0018-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5886978PMC
April 2018

The Ubiquitin Binding Protein TAX1BP1 Mediates Autophagasome Induction and the Metabolic Transition of Activated T Cells.

Immunity 2017 03 14;46(3):405-420. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-0358, USA. Electronic address:

During immune responses, naive T cells transition from small quiescent cells to rapidly cycling cells. We have found that T cells lacking TAX1BP1 exhibit delays in growth of cell size and cell cycling. TAX1BP1-deficient T cells exited G but stalled in S phase, due to both bioenergetic and biosynthetic defects. These defects were due to deficiencies in mTOR complex formation and activation. These mTOR defects in turn resulted from defective autophagy induction. TAX1BP1 binding of LC3 and GABARAP via its LC3-interacting region (LIR), but not its ubiquitin-binding domain, supported T cell proliferation. Supplementation of TAX1BP1-deficient T cells with metabolically active L-cysteine rescued mTOR activation and proliferation but not autophagy. These studies reveal that TAX1BP1 drives a specialized form of autophagy, providing critical amino acids that activate mTOR and enable the metabolic transition of activated T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2017.02.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5400745PMC
March 2017

The ubiquitin-modifying enzyme A20 restricts ubiquitination of the kinase RIPK3 and protects cells from necroptosis.

Nat Immunol 2015 Jun 4;16(6):618-27. Epub 2015 May 4.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

A20 is an anti-inflammatory protein linked to multiple human diseases; however, the mechanisms by which A20 prevents inflammatory disease are incompletely defined. We found that A20-deficient T cells and fibroblasts were susceptible to caspase-independent and kinase RIPK3-dependent necroptosis. Global deficiency in RIPK3 significantly restored the survival of A20-deficient mice. A20-deficient cells exhibited exaggerated formation of RIPK1-RIPK3 complexes. RIPK3 underwent physiological ubiquitination at Lys5 (K5), and this ubiquitination event supported the formation of RIPK1-RIPK3 complexes. Both the ubiquitination of RIPK3 and formation of the RIPK1-RIPK3 complex required the catalytic cysteine of A20's deubiquitinating motif. Our studies link A20 and the ubiquitination of RIPK3 to necroptotic cell death and suggest additional mechanisms by which A20 might prevent inflammatory disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.3172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4439357PMC
June 2015

Costimulation of dendritic epidermal gammadelta T cells by a new NKG2D ligand expressed specifically in the skin.

J Immunol 2009 Apr;182(8):4557-64

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Cancer Research Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs) are a highly specialized population of gammadelta T cells that resides in the murine skin and participates in wound healing and tumor surveillance. Despite the expression of other stimulatory receptors on these cells, mechanisms involving activation have focused primarily on the invariant Vgamma3-Vdelta1 TCR expressed by DETCs. All DETCs also express the activating NKG2D receptor, but the role of NKG2D in DETC activation remains unclear, as does the identity of NKG2D ligands that are functionally expressed in the skin. In this study, we document the cloning of an NKG2D ligand H60c that is expressed specifically in the skin and in cultured keratinocytes and demonstrate its role in the activation of DETCs and NK cells. The ligand is unique among NKG2D ligands in being up-regulated in cultured keratinocytes, and its interaction with NKG2D is essential for DETC activation. Importantly, it is shown that engagement of NKG2D is not sufficient to activate DETCs, but instead provides a costimulatory signal that is nevertheless essential for activating DETCs in response to stimulation with keratinocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0802439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3001286PMC
April 2009