Publications by authors named "Michael Hoffmann"

507 Publications

Testing a global standard for quantifying species recovery and assessing conservation impact.

Conserv Biol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India.

Recognizing the imperative to evaluate species recovery and conservation impact, in 2012 the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) called for development of a "Green List of Species" (now the IUCN Green Status of Species). A draft Green Status framework for assessing species' progress toward recovery, published in 2018, proposed 2 separate but interlinked components: a standardized method (i.e., measurement against benchmarks of species' viability, functionality, and preimpact distribution) to determine current species recovery status (herein species recovery score) and application of that method to estimate past and potential future impacts of conservation based on 4 metrics (conservation legacy, conservation dependence, conservation gain, and recovery potential). We tested the framework with 181 species representing diverse taxa, life histories, biomes, and IUCN Red List categories (extinction risk). Based on the observed distribution of species' recovery scores, we propose the following species recovery categories: fully recovered, slightly depleted, moderately depleted, largely depleted, critically depleted, extinct in the wild, and indeterminate. Fifty-nine percent of tested species were considered largely or critically depleted. Although there was a negative relationship between extinction risk and species recovery score, variation was considerable. Some species in lower risk categories were assessed as farther from recovery than those at higher risk. This emphasizes that species recovery is conceptually different from extinction risk and reinforces the utility of the IUCN Green Status of Species to more fully understand species conservation status. Although extinction risk did not predict conservation legacy, conservation dependence, or conservation gain, it was positively correlated with recovery potential. Only 1.7% of tested species were categorized as zero across all 4 of these conservation impact metrics, indicating that conservation has, or will, play a role in improving or maintaining species status for the vast majority of these species. Based on our results, we devised an updated assessment framework that introduces the option of using a dynamic baseline to assess future impacts of conservation over the short term to avoid misleading results which were generated in a small number of cases, and redefines short term as 10 years to better align with conservation planning. These changes are reflected in the IUCN Green Status of Species Standard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13756DOI Listing
July 2021

Role of Ferryl Ion Intermediates in Fast Fenton Chemistry on Aqueous Microdroplets.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Linde Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States.

In the aqueous environment, Fe ions enhance the oxidative potential of ozone and hydrogen peroxide by generating the reactive oxoiron species (ferryl ion, FeO) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) via Fenton chemistry. Herein, we investigate factors that control the pathways of these reactive intermediates in the oxidation of dimethyl sulfoxide (MeSO) in Fe solutions reacting with O in both bulk-phase water and on the surfaces of aqueous microdroplets. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is used to quantify the formation of dimethyl sulfone (MeSO, from FeO + MeSO) and methanesulfonate (MeSO, from ·OH + MeSO) over a wide range of Fe and O concentrations and pH. In addition, the role of environmentally relevant organic ligands on the reaction kinetics was also explored. The experimental results show that Fenton chemistry proceeds at a rate ∼10 times faster on microdroplets than that in bulk-phase water. Since the production of MeSO is initiated by ·OH radicals at diffusion-controlled rates, experimental ratios of MeSO/MeSO > 10 suggest that FeO is the dominant intermediate under all conditions. MeSO yields in the presence of ligands, L, vary as volcano-plot functions of E(LFeO+ O/LFe + O) reduction potentials calculated by DFT with a maximum achieved in the case of L≡oxalate. Our findings underscore the key role of ferryl FeO intermediates in Fenton chemistry taking place on aqueous microdroplets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c01962DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of Pelvic Circular Compression Devices in Severely Injured Trauma Patients with Pelvic Fractures.

Prehosp Emerg Care 2021 Jul 20:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Received April 3, 2021 from Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, University Medical Center, Hamburg, Germany (JB-G, JMR, K-HF, MH); Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany (PC); Institute for Research in Operative Medicine (IFOM), University of Witten/Herdecke, Cologne-Merheim Medical Center (CMMC), Cologne, Germany (RL); Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Asklepios St. Georg, Hamburg, Germany (MH). Revised received June 11, 2021; accepted for publication June 15, 2021.

The role of pelvic circumferential compression devices (PCCD) is to temporarily stabilize the pelvic ring, reduce its volume and to tamponade bleeding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of PCCDs on mortality and bleeding in severely injured trauma patients, using a large registry database. We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients registered in the Trauma Register DGU® between 2015 and 2016. The study was limited to directly admitted patients who were alive on admission, with an injury severity score (ISS) of 9 or higher, with an Abbreviated Injury Scale AIS of 3-5, aged at least 16, and with complete status documentation on pelvic circular compression devices (PCCD) and mortality. A cohort analysis was undertaken of patients suffering from relevant pelvic fractures. Data were collected on mortality and requirements for blood transfusion. The observed outcome was compared with the expected outcome as derived from version II of the Revised Injury Severity Classification (RISC II) and adjusted accordingly. A Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) was also calculated. A total of 9,910 patients were included. 1,103 of 9,910 patients suffered from a relevant pelvic trauma (AIS = 3-5). Only 41% (454 cases) of these received a PCCD. PCCD application had no significant effect on mortality and did not decrease the need for blood transfusion in the multivariate regression analysis. However, in this cohort, the application of a PCCD is a general indicator for a critical patient with increased mortality (12.0% no PCCD applied vs. 23.2% PCCD applied prehospital vs. 27.1% PCCD applied in the emergency department). The ISS was higher in patients with PCCD (34.12 ± 16.4 vs. 27.9 ± 13.8; p < 0.001). PCCD was applied more often in patients with severe pelvic trauma according to ISS and AIS as well with deterioration in circulatory status. PCCDs did not reduce mortality or reduce the need for blood transfusion. TR-DGU ID 2017-003, March 2017; German clinical trial register DRKS00024948.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10903127.2021.1945717DOI Listing
July 2021

Classification of acute appendicitis (CAA): treatment directed new classification based on imaging (ultrasound, computed tomography) and pathology.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Abteilung für Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brüder Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

Purpose: Acute appendicitis (AA) is amongst the most common causes of acute abdominal pain. In spite of progress based on risk stratifications, "negative" appendectomies are performed in up to 30% of patients whilst the appendix perforates in others. Preoperative classification of AA based on imaging is therefore recommended. The aim was to classify AA based on imaging (ultrasound/US, computed tomography/CT), surgical pathology, and/or histopathology in order to differentiate between complicated and uncomplicated AA. A new classification of acute appendicitis (CAA) shall be illustrated by typical US and CT images and be employed in a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm.

Methods: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched. Any study after 1970, which investigated clinical scores, pathology, US, CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and treatment of AA, was included. Typical images were taken from the author's image database.

Results: Five main types of AA are defined, normal appendix (type 0), nonvisualised appendix (type X), uncomplicated AA (type 1), complicated AA without perforation (type 2), and complicated AA with perforation (type 3). The imaging modality is indicated by an additional letter, e.g., type p3b for free perforation on pathology. Standardised reporting of the appendix evaluation by US and CT is presented, as well as algorithms for AA management. Imaging features indicating imminent perforation, as well as likely recurrence, were both classified as complicated AA.

Conclusion: Imaging is mandatory in suspected AA. The CAA clearly separates uncomplicated from complicated forms of AA allowing nonoperative management in selected patients with uncomplicated forms of AA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-021-03940-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Development of a Mechanically Flexible 2D-MXene Membrane Cathode for Selective Electrochemical Reduction of Nitrate to N: Mechanisms and Implications.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China.

The contamination of water resources by nitrate is a major problem. Herein, we report a mechanically flexible 2D-MXene (TiCT) membrane with multilayered nanofluidic channels for a selective electrochemical reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas (N). At a low applied potential of -0.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl), the MXene electrochemical membrane was found to exhibit high selectivity for NO reduction to N (82.8%) due to a relatively low desorption energy barrier for the release of adsorbed N (*N) compared to that for the adsorbed NH (*NH) based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Long-term use of the MXene membrane for treating 10 mg-NO-N L in water was found to have a high faradic efficiency of 72.6% for NO reduction to N at a very low electrical cost of 0.28 kWh m. Results of theoretical calculations and experimental results showed that defects on the MXene nanosheet surfaces played an important role in achieving high activity, primarily at the low-coordinated Ti sites. Water flowing through the MXene nanosheets facilitated the mass transfer of nitrate onto the low-coordinated Ti sites with this enhancement of particular importance under cathodic polarization of the MXene membrane. This study provides insight into the tailoring of nanoengineered materials for practical application in water treatment and environmental remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00264DOI Listing
June 2021

Non-invasive electrophysiology in glaucoma, structure and function-a review.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Medicine, Eye Center, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

Glaucoma, its early diagnosis, and monitoring of interventions remain an ongoing challenge. We here review developments in functional assessment and its relation to morphology, evaluating recent insights in electrophysiology in glaucoma and highlighting how glaucoma research and diagnostics benefit from combined approaches of OCT and electrophysiological investigations. After concise overviews of OCT and non-invasive electrophysiology in glaucoma, we evaluate commonalities and complementarities of OCT and electrophysiology for our understanding of glaucoma. As a specific topic, the dynamic range (floor effects) of the various techniques is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41433-021-01603-0DOI Listing
June 2021

US FDA best practices for initiating early feasibility studies for neurological devices in the United States.

J Neurosurg 2021 Jun 4:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

1Office of Health Technology 5, Office of Product Evaluation and Quality, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration.

This article describes the efforts of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Office of Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices to facilitate early clinical testing of potentially beneficial neurological devices in the US. Over the past 5 years, the FDA has made significant advances to this aim by developing early feasibility study best practices and encouraging developers and innovators to initiate their clinical studies in the US. The FDA uses several regulatory approaches to help start neurological device clinical studies, such as early engagement with sponsors and developers, in-depth interaction during the FDA review phase of a regulatory submission, and provision of an FDA toolkit that reviewers can apply to the most challenging submissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.11.JNS203653DOI Listing
June 2021

[Neuro-computational approaches for objective assessment of visual function].

Ophthalmologe 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Universitäts-Augenklinik, Otto-von-Guericke Universität, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120, Magdeburg, Deutschland.

Background: Retinal pathologies affect the structure and function of post-retinal visual pathways. These post-retinal alterations bear the potential to obstruct the aim of innovative retinal treatment to restore visual function.

Objective: Current developments in the field of neuroimaging and the associated neurocomputational approaches enable a detailed assessment of this interrelationship. As a consequence, they open up the possibility to anticipate the success of treatment.

Methods: This review article demonstrates how innovations particularly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based anatomical, functional, and diffusion imaging can guide visual pathway assessments that are relevant for ophthalmological applications.

Results: Specific examples of retinal and visual pathway pathologies in the context of a detailed analysis of the visual pathway are described.

Conclusion: A concept is introduced of how to translate the meaningful but technically and computationally challenging neuroimaging procedures into a clinical setting in order to effectively connect these procedures to innovative treatment approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00347-021-01404-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Porous carbon monoliths for electrochemical removal of aqueous herbicides by "one-stop" catalysis of oxygen reduction and HO activation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 07 5;414:125592. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

College of Environmental and Resource Science Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

The overuse of herbicides has posed a threat to human health and the aquatic environment via DNA mutations and antibiotic gene resistance. Carbon-based cathodic electrochemical advanced oxidation has evolved as a promising technology for herbicide degradation by generating hydroxyl radicals (•OH). However, conventional electro-Fenton process relies on interaction of multiple species that adds to the system complexity and cost and narrows the working pH range. Herein, a series of porous carbon monoliths (PCMs) were developed as a "one-stop" platform for catalysis of the 2-electron ORR coupled with further catalytic reductive cleavage of HO to produce •OH. A PCM prepared using 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (denoted as PCM-HDA) produced HO at a level that was 374% higher than that obtained using commercially available carbon black at circum-neutral pH. Meanwhile, the generated HO was catalytically decomposed to produce •OH. Based on these results, the PCM-HDA electrode achieved an 80 ± 2% degradation of napropamide in 60 min over the pH range of 4-10 at a mildly reducing potential, with a 69 ± 2% TOC reduction at circum-neutral condition in 2 h. This simplified system overcomes the system complexity and pH limitation of the conventional electron-Fenton processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125592DOI Listing
July 2021

The policy consequences of defining rewilding.

Ambio 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Conservation and Policy, Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, London, NW1 4RY, UK.

More than 30 years after it was first proposed as a biodiversity conservation strategy, rewilding remains a controversial concept. There is currently little agreement about what the goals of rewilding are, and how these are best achieved, limiting the utility of rewilding in mainstream conservation. Achieving consensus about rewilding requires agreeing about what "wild" means, but many different definitions exist, reflecting the diversity of values in conservation. There are three key debates that must be addressed to find a consensual definition of "wild": (1) to which extent can people and "wild" nature co-exist?; (2) how much space does "wild" nature need? and (3) what kinds of "wild" nature do we value? Depending on the kinds of "wild" nature rewilding aims to create, rewilding policy will be faced with managing different opportunities and risks for biodiversity and people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-021-01560-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Implanted Microsensor Continuous IOP Telemetry Suggests Gaze and Eyelid Closure Effects on IOP-A Preliminary Study.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 May;62(6)

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Magdeburg, Germany.

Purpose: To explore the effect of gaze direction and eyelid closure on intraocular pressure (IOP).

Methods: Eleven patients with primary open-angle glaucoma previously implanted with a telemetric IOP sensor were instructed to view eight equally-spaced fixation targets each at three eccentricities (10°, 20°, and 25°). Nine patients also performed eyelid closure. IOP was recorded via an external antenna placed around the study eye. Differences of mean IOP between consecutive gaze positions were calculated. Furthermore, the effect of eyelid closure on gaze-dependent IOP was assessed.

Results: The maximum IOP increase was observed at 25° superior gaze (mean ± SD: 4.4 ± 4.9 mm Hg) and maximum decrease at 25° inferonasal gaze (-1.6 ± 0.8 mm Hg). There was a significant interaction between gaze direction and eccentricity (P = 0.003). Post-hoc tests confirmed significant decreases inferonasally for all eccentricities (mean ± SEM: 10°: -0.7 ± 0.2, P = 0.007; 20°: -1.1 ± 0.2, P = 0.006; and 25°: -1.6 ± 0.2, P = 0.006). Eight of 11 eyes showed significant IOP differences between superior and inferonasal gaze at 25°. IOP decreased during eyelid closure, which was significantly lower than downgaze at 25° (mean ± SEM: -2.1 ± 0.3 mm Hg vs. -0.7 ± 0.2 mm Hg, P = 0.014).

Conclusions: Our data suggest that IOP varies reproducibly with gaze direction, albeit with patient variability. IOP generally increased in upgaze but decreased in inferonasal gaze and on eyelid closure. Future studies should investigate the patient variability and IOP dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.6.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107486PMC
May 2021

A metric for spatially explicit contributions to science-based species targets.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 06 8;5(6):836-844. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

IUCN, Cambridge, UK.

The Convention on Biological Diversity's post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework will probably include a goal to stabilize and restore the status of species. Its delivery would be facilitated by making the actions required to halt and reverse species loss spatially explicit. Here, we develop a species threat abatement and restoration (STAR) metric that is scalable across species, threats and geographies. STAR quantifies the contributions that abating threats and restoring habitats in specific places offer towards reducing extinction risk. While every nation can contribute towards halting biodiversity loss, Indonesia, Colombia, Mexico, Madagascar and Brazil combined have stewardship over 31% of total STAR values for terrestrial amphibians, birds and mammals. Among actions, sustainable crop production and forestry dominate, contributing 41% of total STAR values for these taxonomic groups. Key Biodiversity Areas cover 9% of the terrestrial surface but capture 47% of STAR values. STAR could support governmental and non-state actors in quantifying their contributions to meeting science-based species targets within the framework.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-021-01432-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Structure-Function Relationship of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Multiple Sclerosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 26;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Magdeburg, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

The retinal ganglion cells (RGC) may be considered an easily accessible pathophysiological site of degenerative processes in neurological diseases, such as the RGC damage detectable in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with (HON) and without a history of optic neuritis (NON). We aimed to assess and interrelate RGC functional and structural damage in different retinal layers and retinal sites. We included 12 NON patients, 11 HON patients and 14 healthy controls for cross-sectional multifocal pattern electroretinography (mfPERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements. Amplitude and peak times of the mfPERG were assessed. Macula and disc OCT scans were acquired to determine macular retinal layer and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness. In both HON and NON patients the foveal N2 amplitude of the mfPERG was reduced compared to controls. The parafoveal P1 peak time was significantly reduced in HON only. For OCT, parafoveal (pfGCL) and perifoveal (pGCL) ganglion cell layer thicknesses were decreased in HON vs. controls, while pRNFL in the papillomacular bundle sector (PMB) showed reductions in both NON and HON. As the mfPERG derived N2 originates from RGC axons, these findings suggest foveal axonal dysfunction not only in HON, but also in NON patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037992PMC
March 2021

Single-Cell Phenotypic Analysis and Digital Molecular Detection Linkable by a Hydrogel Bead-Based Platform.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2021 Mar 12;4(3):2664-2674. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Linde+Robinson Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States.

Cell heterogeneity, such as antibiotic heteroresistance and cancer cell heterogeneity, has been increasingly observed. To probe the underlying molecular mechanisms in the dynamically changing heterogeneous cells, a high throughput platform is urgently needed to establish single cell genotype-phenotype correlations. Herein, we report a platform combining single-cell viability phenotypic analysis with digital molecular detection for bacterial cells. The platform utilizes polyethylene glycol hydrogel that cross-links through a thiol-Michael addition, which is biocompatible, fast, and spontaneous. To generate uniform nanoliter-sized hydrogel beads (Gelbeads), we developed a convenient and disposable device made of needles and microcentrifuge tubes. Gelbead-based single cell viability and molecular detection assays were established. Enhanced thermal stability and uncompromised efficiency were achieved for digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digital loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) within the Gelbeads. Reagent exchange for in situ PCR following viability phenotypic analyses was demonstrated. The combined analyses may address the genotypic differences between cellular subpopulations exhibiting distinct phenotypes. The platform promises unique perspectives in mechanism elucidation of environment-evolution interaction that may be extended to other cell types for medical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.0c01615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976597PMC
March 2021

Stereotactic or conformal radiotherapy for adrenal metastases: Patient characteristics and outcomes in a multicenter analysis.

Int J Cancer 2021 Jul 25;149(2):358-370. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultät Mannheim, Universität Heidelberg, Klinik für Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim, Germany.

To report outcome (freedom from local progression [FFLP], overall survival [OS] and toxicity) after stereotactic, palliative or highly conformal fractionated (>12) radiotherapy (SBRT, Pall-RT, 3DCRT/IMRT) for adrenal metastases in a retrospective multicenter cohort within the framework of the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO). Adrenal metastases treated with SBRT (≤12 fractions, biologically effective dose [BED10] ≥ 50 Gy), 3DCRT/IMRT (>12 fractions, BED10 ≥ 50 Gy) or Pall-RT (BED10 < 50 Gy) were eligible for this analysis. In addition to unadjusted FFLP (Kaplan-Meier/log-rank), we calculated the competing-risk-adjusted local recurrence rate (CRA-LRR). Three hundred twenty-six patients with 366 metastases were included by 21 centers (median follow-up: 11.7 months). Treatment was SBRT, 3DCRT/IMRT and Pall-RT in 260, 27 and 79 cases, respectively. Most frequent primary tumors were non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; 52.5%), SCLC (16.3%) and melanoma (6.7%). Unadjusted FFLP was higher after SBRT vs Pall-RT (P = .026) while numerical differences in CRA-LRR between groups did not reach statistical significance (1-year CRA-LRR: 13.8%, 17.4% and 27.7%). OS was longer after SBRT vs other groups (P < .05) and increased in patients with locally controlled metastases in a landmark analysis (P < .0001). Toxicity was mostly mild; notably, four cases of adrenal insufficiency occurred, two of which were likely caused by immunotherapy or tumor progression. Radiotherapy for adrenal metastases was associated with a mild toxicity profile in all groups and a favorable 1-year CRA-LRR after SBRT or 3DCRT/IMRT. One-year FFLP was associated with longer OS. Dose-response analyses for the dataset are underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33546DOI Listing
July 2021

Genetic rhabdomyolysis within the spectrum of the Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 responsive to pregabalin.

Cerebellum Ataxias 2021 Mar 5;8(1):10. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Neurology, Orlando VA Medical Center, 32827, Orlando, FL, USA.

Background: Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 is a slowly progressive adult onset ataxia with a broad clinical presentation.

Case Presentation: We describe a man with Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 with chronic, severe, and recurrent rhabdomyolysis, as part of the cerebellar ataxia genetic spectrum. Initially rhabdomyolysis was refractory to multiple medications, but entirely resolved and remained in chronic remission with pregabalin.

Conclusions: This is the first report of Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 associated with chronic, severe, recurrent rhabdomyolysis as part of its genetic phenotype responsive to pregabalin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40673-021-00131-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934527PMC
March 2021

Electromagnetic navigation reduces radiation exposure for retrograde drilling in osteochondrosis dissecans of the talus.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Feb 3;22(1):135. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Altonaer Children's Hospital, Bleickenallee 38, 22763, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Retrograde drilling in osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) is a widely used surgical intervention. A radiation-free electromagnetic navigation system (ENS)-based method was compared with the standard freehand fluoroscopic (SFF) method regarding clinical applicability.

Methods: We performed a clinical cohort study at a department of Orthopaedics in a Level 1 children's hospital with 40 patients (20 SFF and 20 ENS). Retrograde drilling of the talar dome was used in patients with unstable medial OCD (MRI stage 2 according to Hepple's revised classification; stage 2 according to the International Cartilage Repair Society). The outcome measurements were: (a) Intraoperative fluoroscopy exposure and length of surgery and (b) Postoperative serial follow-up MRIs every 6 months.

Results: 22 female and 18 male patients aged 13.8 ± 1.6 years (range: 11-17 years) were included. Using the ENS technique, length of surgery was significantly reduced to 20.2 ± 6.4 min compared to 36.1 ± 11.8 min (p < 0.01) for the SFF technique. The average x-ray radiation time for the SFF technique was 23.5 ± 13.5 sec and 1.9 ± 1.7 sec for the ENS technique (p < 0.01). Radiation exposure was significantly reduced from 44.6 ± 19.7 mSv (SFF technique) to 5.6 ± 2.8 mSv (ENS technique) (p < 0.01). Intraoperative perforation of cartilage occurred once in the SFF group. Correct placement of the drilling channel was verified in all patients on follow-up MRI after six months and a timely healing was seen after two years.

Conclusions: The ENS method provides for a significant reduction in length of surgery and radiation exposure. ENS was without intraoperative cartilage perforation. The clinical and radiological follow-up parameters are comparable for SFF- and ENS-guided retrograde drilling.

Trial Registration: WF - 085/20, 05/2020 "retrospectively registered" https://www.aerztekammer-hamburg.org/ethik_kommission.html .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04010-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860038PMC
February 2021

ISCEV standard for clinical multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) (2021 update).

Doc Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 25;142(1):5-16. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Electrophysiology, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK.

The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) is an electrophysiological test that allows the function of multiple discrete areas of the retina to be tested simultaneously. This document, from the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV), presents an updated and revised ISCEV standard for clinical mfERG and defines minimum protocols for basic clinical mfERG recording and reporting so that responses can be recognized and compared from different laboratories worldwide. The major changes compared with the previous mfERG standard relate to the minimum length of m-sequences used for recording, reporting of results and a change in document format, to be more consistent with other ISCEV standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10633-020-09812-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906932PMC
February 2021

Preserved Contextual Cueing in Realistic Scenes in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Brain Sci 2020 Dec 7;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences, Otto-von-Guericke-University, 39016 Magdeburg, Germany.

Foveal vision loss has been shown to reduce efficient visual search guidance due to contextual cueing by incidentally learned contexts. However, previous studies used artificial (T- among L-shape) search paradigms that prevent the memorization of a target in a semantically meaningful scene. Here, we investigated contextual cueing in real-life scenes that allow explicit memory of target locations in semantically rich scenes. In contrast to the contextual cueing deficits in artificial scenes, contextual cueing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) did not differ from age-matched normal-sighted controls. We discuss this in the context of visuospatial working-memory demands for which both eye movement control in the presence of central vision loss and memory-guided search may compete. Memory-guided search in semantically rich scenes may depend less on visuospatial working memory than search in abstract displays, potentially explaining intact contextual cueing in the former but not the latter. In a practical sense, our findings may indicate that patients with AMD are less deficient than expected after previous lab experiments. This shows the usefulness of realistic stimuli in experimental clinical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10120941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762266PMC
December 2020

Author Correction: Area-based conservation in the twenty-first century.

Nature 2020 Dec;588(7837):E14

Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Science, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2952-yDOI Listing
December 2020

Combined Multi-Modal Assessment of Glaucomatous Damage With Electroretinography and Optical Coherence Tomography/Angiography.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2020 11 2;9(12). Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.

Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance and to evaluate the interrelationship of electroretinographical and structural and vascular measures in glaucoma.

Methods: For 14 eyes of 14 healthy controls and 15 eyes of 12 patients with glaucoma ranging from preperimetric to advanced stages optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT-angiography (OCT-A), and electrophysiological measures (multifocal photopic negative response ratio [mfPhNR] and steady-state pattern electroretinography [ssPERG]) were applied to assess changes in retinal structure, microvasculature, and function, respectively. The diagnostic performance was assessed via area-under-curve (AUC) measures obtained from receiver operating characteristics analyses. The interrelation of the different measures was assessed with correlation analyses.

Results: The mfPhNR, ssPERG amplitude, parafoveal (pfVD) and peripapillary vessel density (pVD), macular ganglion cell inner plexiform layer thickness (mGCIPL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (pRNFL) were significantly reduced in glaucoma. The AUC for mfPhNR was highest among diagnostic modalities (AUC: 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.75-1.0, < 0.001), albeit not statistically different from that for macular (mGCIPL: 0.76, 0.58-0.94, < 0.05; pfVD: 0.81, 0.65-0.97, < 0.01) or peripapillary imaging (pRNFL: 0.85, 0.70-1.0, < 0.01; pVD: 0.82, 0.68-0.97, < 0.01). Combined functional/vascular measures yielded the highest AUC (mfPhNR-pfVD: 0.94, 0.85-1.0, < 0.001). The functional/structural measure correlation (mfPhNR-mGCIPL correlation coefficient [r]: 0.58, = 0.001; mfPhNR-pRNFL r: 0.66, < 0.001) was stronger than the functional-vascular correlation (mfPhNR-pfVD r: 0.29, = 0.13; mfPhNR-pVD r: 0.54, = 0.003).

Conclusions: The combination of ERG measures and OCT-A improved diagnostic performance and enhanced understanding of pathophysiology in glaucoma.

Translational Relevance: Multimodal assessment of glaucoma damage improves diagnostics and monitoring of disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.9.12.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645242PMC
November 2020

Intraoperative endoluminal pyloromyotomy as a novel approach to reduce delayed gastric emptying after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy-a retrospective study.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 Jun 14;406(4):1103-1110. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of General, Visceral and Transplant Surgery, University Hospital Augsburg, Stenglinstrasse 2, Augsburg, 86156, Germany.

Background: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is one of the most common complications after pylorus-preserving partial pancreaticoduodenectomy (ppPD). The aim of this retrospective study was to assess whether an intraoperative pyloromyotomy during ppPD prior to the creation of duodenojejunostomy reduces DGE.

Methods: Patients who underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy between January 2015 and December 2017 were divided into two groups on the basis of whether an intraoperative pyloromyotomy was performed (pyloromyotomy (PM) group) or not (no pyloromyotomy (NP) group). The primary endpoint was DGE according to the ISGPS definition. The confirmatory analysis of the primary endpoint was performed with multivariate analysis.

Results: One hundred and ten patients were included in the statistical analysis. Pyloromyotomy was performed in 44 of 110 (40%) cases. DGE of any grade was present in 62 patients (56.4%). The DGE rate was lower in the PM group (40.9%) compared with the NP group (66.7%), and pyloromyotomy was associated with a reduced risk for DGE in univariate (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.16-0.76; P = 0.008) and multivariate analyses (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.13-0.77; P = 0.011). The presence of an intra-abdominal complication was an independent risk factor for DGE in the multivariate analysis (OR 5.54, 95% CI 2.00-15.36; P = 0.001).

Conclusion: Intraoperative endoluminal pyloromyotomy during ppPD was associated with a reduced risk for DGE in this retrospective study. Pyloromyotomy should be considered a simple technique that can potentially reduce DGE rates after ppPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-020-02008-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208917PMC
June 2021

Enhanced chlorine evolution from dimensionally stable anode by heterojunction with Ti and Bi based mixed metal oxide layers prepared from nanoparticle slurry.

J Catal 2020 Sep;389:1-8

Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea.

This study reports enhanced current (CE) and energy efficiency (EE) of reactive chlorine species (RCS) generation on IrTaO anode by Ti/Bi mixed metal oxide heterojunction layers despite reductions in pseudo-capacitance and film conductivity. In potentiostatic electrolysis of 50 mM NaCl solutions, dramatic improvement (0.61 mmol cm hr at 2.5 V NHE) was noted by simple coating of thin (~2 μm) TiO layer from ball-milled TiO nanoparticle (80-100 nm) suspension, even with moderate elevation in voltammetric wave. Decoration of BiO particles (1 - 2 μm) showed limited or adverse effects for RCS generation and stability. However, Bi-doped TiO layers prepared from polyol-mediated or co-precipitation methods marked the highest CE (~100%) and EE (8.16 mmol Wh at 2.5 V NHE) by increased mixing level and effective shift in surface charge. Surface ·OH exclusively mediated the RCS generation whose further transformation to higher oxide could be restrained by the heterojunction layer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2020.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539370PMC
September 2020

Proton-assisted electron transfer and hydrogen-atom diffusion in a model system for photocatalytic hydrogen production.

Commun Mater 2020 21;1(1):66. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Division of Engineering and Applied Science, Linde-Robinson Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA.

Solar energy can be converted into chemical energy by photocatalytic water splitting to produce molecular hydrogen. Details of the photo-induced reaction mechanism occurring on the surface of a semiconductor are not fully understood, however. Herein, we employ a model photocatalytic system consisting of single atoms deposited on quantum dots that are anchored on to a primary photocatalyst to explore fundamental aspects of photolytic hydrogen generation. Single platinum atoms (Pt) are anchored onto carbon nitride quantum dots (CNQDs), which are loaded onto graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (CNS), forming a [email protected]/CNS composite. [email protected]/CNS provides a well-defined photocatalytic system in which the electron and proton transfer processes that lead to the formation of hydrogen gas can be investigated. Results suggest that hydrogen bonding between hydrophilic surface groups of the CNQDs and interfacial water molecules facilitates both proton-assisted electron transfer and sorption/desorption pathways. Surface bound hydrogen atoms appear to diffuse from CNQDs surface sites to the deposited Pt catalytic sites leading to higher hydrogen-atom fugacity surrounding each isolated Pt site. We identify a pathway that allows for hydrogen-atom recombination into molecular hydrogen and eventually to hydrogen bubble evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s43246-020-00068-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7505813PMC
September 2020

Area-based conservation in the twenty-first century.

Nature 2020 10 7;586(7828):217-227. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Science, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Humanity will soon define a new era for nature-one that seeks to transform decades of underwhelming responses to the global biodiversity crisis. Area-based conservation efforts, which include both protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, are likely to extend and diversify. However, persistent shortfalls in ecological representation and management effectiveness diminish the potential role of area-based conservation in stemming biodiversity loss. Here we show how the expansion of protected areas by national governments since 2010 has had limited success in increasing the coverage across different elements of biodiversity (ecoregions, 12,056 threatened species, 'Key Biodiversity Areas' and wilderness areas) and ecosystem services (productive fisheries, and carbon services on land and sea). To be more successful after 2020, area-based conservation must contribute more effectively to meeting global biodiversity goals-ranging from preventing extinctions to retaining the most-intact ecosystems-and must better collaborate with the many Indigenous peoples, community groups and private initiatives that are central to the successful conservation of biodiversity. The long-term success of area-based conservation requires parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to secure adequate financing, plan for climate change and make biodiversity conservation a far stronger part of land, water and sea management policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2773-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Common APOC3 variants are associated with circulating ApoC-III and VLDL cholesterol but not with total apolipoprotein B and coronary artery disease.

Atherosclerosis 2020 10 5;311:84-90. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Mannheimer Institute for Public Health, Mannheim Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Background And Aims: Very rare loss-of-function mutations in the apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) gene have been associated with low circulating apoC-III, low triglycerides, and reduced cardiovascular risk. We aimed to analyze the impact of common APOC3 variants on key parameters of lipid metabolism and coronary artery disease in the largest sample so far.

Methods: Common variants in APOC3 were tested for associations with circulating apoC-III, lipids, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in 3041 participants of the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular health study (LURIC). These variants were then tested for associations with coronary artery disease in a meta-analysis comprising up to 332,389 participants of the CARDIOGRAMplusC4D consortium and the UK Biobank.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) apoC-III concentration was 14.6 (5.1) mg/dl. Seven common variants in APOC3 (rs734104, rs4520, rs5142, rs5141, rs5130, rs5128, and rs4225) were associated with circulating apoC-III (all p < 0.05). The alleles that modestly raised apoC-III were also associated with markedly higher total triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides and cholesterol (all p < 0.05), but not with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total apoB (all p > 0.05). These variants were not associated with coronary artery disease in the CARDIOGRAMplusC4D consortium and the UK Biobank (all p > 0.1).

Conclusions: Modest, genetically caused elevations of apoC-III are associated with a marked increase of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins but not with an increase of LDL cholesterol, total apoB, and coronary artery disease. Whether effective inhibition of apoC-III production with antisense oligomers will be instrumental to reduce cardiovascular risk remains to be demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2020.08.017DOI Listing
October 2020

Diagnostic performance of multifocal photopic negative response, pattern electroretinogram and optical coherence tomography in glaucoma.

Exp Eye Res 2020 11 11;200:108242. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences, Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address:

The photopic negative response of the electroretinogram reflects retinal ganglion cell function and consequently aids diagnosis of optic nerve diseases including glaucoma. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of stimulation parameters for electroretinographic recordings of the multifocal photopic negative response (mfPhNR) for the detection of glaucoma and compared the diagnostic accuracy of electrophysiological, structural and functional measures of glaucoma. We compared the diagnostic performance of the mfPhNR for 6 different stimulation rates in a cohort of 24 controls, 10 glaucoma suspects (GLA ) and 16 glaucoma participants (GLA). A cross-modal comparison of the mfPhNR/b wave ratio was performed with the pattern electroretinogram (PERG), and the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness. These analyses were based on area under curves (AUC) obtained from receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC) and step-wise regression analyses. We found that compared to the other mfPhNR-conditions, the PhNR/b-wave ratio for the fastest stimulation condition had the highest AUC for GLA (0.84, P = 0.008, 95%CI: 0.71- 0.98), while the other modalities, i.e., PERG-amplitude and pRNFL had AUCs of 0.78 (P= 0.039), and 0.74 (P < 0.05), respectively. For GLA , the respective AUCs were 0.78 (P= 0.004), 0.85 (P< 0.001) and 0.87 (P< 0.001). pRNFL was the significant predictor for both mfPhNR/b-wave ratio [t (48) = 4, P = 0.0002] and for PERG amplitude [t (48) = 3.4, P = 0.001]. In conclusion, fast mfPhNR protocols outperform other multifocal PhNR protocols in the identification of glaucomatous damage especially for GLA and thus aid the early detection of glaucoma, indicating its value as a surrogate marker of early stage ganglion cell dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2020.108242DOI Listing
November 2020

Foveal pRF properties in the visual cortex depend on the extent of stimulated visual field.

Neuroimage 2020 11 14;222:117250. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; Center for Behavioural Brain Sciences, Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Previous studies demonstrated that alterations in functional MRI derived receptive field (pRF) properties in cortical projection zones of retinal lesions can erroneously be mistaken for cortical large-scale reorganization in response to visual system pathologies. We tested, whether such confounds are also evident in the normal cortical projection zone of the fovea for simulated peripheral visual field defects. We applied fMRI-based visual field mapping of the central visual field at 3 T in eight controls to compare the pRF properties of the central visual field of a reference condition (stimulus radius: 14°) and two conditions with simulated peripheral visual field defect, i.e., with a peripheral gray mask, stimulating only the central 7° or 4° radius. We quantified, for the cortical representation of the actually stimulated visual field, the changes in the position and size of the pRFs associated with reduced peripheral stimulation using conventional and advanced pRF modeling. We found foveal pRF-positions (≤3°) to be significantly shifted towards the periphery (p<0.05, corrected). These pRF-shifts were largest for the 4° condition [visual area (mean eccentricity shift): V1 (0.9°), V2 (0.9°), V3 (1.0°)], but also evident for the 7° condition [V1 (0.5°), V2 (0.5°), V3 (0.9°)]. Further, an overall enlargement of pRF-sizes was observed. These findings indicate the dependence of foveal pRF parameters on the spatial extent of the stimulated visual field and are likely associated with methodological biases and/or physiological mechanisms. Consequently, our results imply that, previously reported similar findings in patients with actual peripheral scotomas need to be interpreted with caution and indicate the need for adequate control conditions in investigations of visual cortex reorganization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117250DOI Listing
November 2020

3D-Printed Flow Cells for Aptamer-Based Impedimetric Detection of Crooks Strain.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Aug 7;20(16). Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Institute of Technical Chemistry, Leibniz University Hannover, Callinstraße 5, 30167 Hannover, Germany.

Electrochemical spectroscopy enables rapid, sensitive, and label-free analyte detection without the need of extensive and laborious labeling procedures and sample preparation. In addition, with the emergence of commercially available screen-printed electrodes (SPEs), a valuable, disposable alternative to costly bulk electrodes for electrochemical (bio-)sensor applications was established in recent years. However, applications with bare SPEs are limited and many applications demand additional/supporting structures or flow cells. Here, high-resolution 3D printing technology presents an ideal tool for the rapid and flexible fabrication of tailor-made, experiment-specific systems. In this work, flow cells for SPE-based electrochemical (bio-)sensor applications were designed and 3D printed. The successful implementation was demonstrated in an aptamer-based impedimetric biosensor approach for the detection of () Crooks strain as a proof of concept. Moreover, further developments towards a 3D-printed microfluidic flow cell with an integrated micromixer also illustrate the great potential of high-resolution 3D printing technology to enable homogeneous mixing of reagents or sample solutions in (bio-)sensor applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20164421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472219PMC
August 2020
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