Publications by authors named "Michael Herzau"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Preferred transport of O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-D-tyrosine (D-FET) into the porcine brain.

Brain Res 2007 May 9;1147:25-33. Epub 2007 Feb 9.

Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Amino acids are valuable tracers for brain tumor imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). In this study the transport of O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-D-tyrosine (D-FET) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was studied with PET in anesthetized piglets and patients after subtotal resection of brain tumors and compared with O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (L-FET) and 3-O-methyl-6-[(18)F]fluoro-L-DOPA (L-OMFD). In piglets, compartmental modeling of PET data was used to calculate the rate constants for the blood-brain (K(1)) and the brain-blood (k(2)) transfer of D-FET, L-FET and L-OMFD. In patients standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated in brain cortex and lesions. Additionally, affinity determinations on various amino acid transporters (LAT1, LAT2, PAT1, XPCT) were performed in vitro using unlabeled D-FET, L-FET and L-OMFD. The initial brain uptake of D-FET in piglets was more than two-fold higher than that of l-FET, whereas the initial brain uptake of D-FET in patients was similar to that of L-FET. Calculation of K(1) and k(2) from the brain uptake curves and the plasma input data in piglets revealed about 4- and 2-fold higher values for D-FET compared to L-FET and L-OMFD, respectively. The distribution volume of D-FET in the piglet brain was slightly higher than that of L-FET as it was also found for most other organs. In brain tumor patients, initial D-FET uptake in the brain was similar to that of L-FET but showed faster tracer washout. L-FET uptake remained rather constant and provided a better delineation of residual tumor than D-FET. In conclusion, our data indicate considerable differences of stereoselective amino acid transport at the BBB in different species. Therefore, the results from animal experiments concerning BBB amino acid transport may not be transferable to humans.
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May 2007

Treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for mobilization of bone marrow cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Am Heart J 2005 Jul;150(1):115

Klinik fuer Innere Medizin I, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Jena, Germany.

Background: This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypothesis that treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize bone marrow cells (BMCs) is feasible and safe and promotes neovascularization and myocardial function in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Methods: Fourteen patients in the treatment group and 9 patients in the control group were enrolled in this prospective, nonrandomized, open-label study. Forty-eight hours after successful recanalization and stent implantation, the patients of the treatment group received 10 microg/kg body weight per day G-CSF subcutaneously for mean treatment duration of 7.0 +/- 1.0 days. Nine patients fulfilled the entry criteria but refused participation and served therefore as control group. In both groups, regional wall motion and perfusion was evaluated with electrocardiogram-gated sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography imaging and ejection fraction with radionuclidventriculography before discharge and after 3 months.

Results: No severe side effects of G-CSF treatment were observed. There was a significant improvement of the regional wall motion and perfusion within the treatment group (P < .0001) and between the treatment and control group (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). Ejection fraction in the treatment group increased from 0.40 +/- 0.11 to 0.48 +/- 0.13 (P < .01), whereas in the control group, ejection fraction increased from 0.40 +/- 0.13 to 0.43 +/- 0.13 (P = .049). A control angiography of the treatment group after 12.4 +/- 6.6 months showed an in-stent restenosis in 1 patient.

Conclusion: In patients with acute myocardial infarction, treatment with G-CSF to mobilize BMCs is feasible and safe and seems to be effective under clinical conditions. The therapeutic effect might be attributed to BMC-associated promotion of myocardial regeneration and neovascularization.
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July 2005

The influx of neutral amino acids into the porcine brain during development: a positron emission tomography study.

Brain Res Dev Brain Res 2004 Sep;152(2):241-53

Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research Leipzig, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Pigs of three different age groups (newborns, 1 week old, 6 weeks old) were used to study the transport of the large neutral amino acids 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]FDOPA) and 3-O-methyl-6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]OMFD) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with positron emission tomography (PET). Compartmental modeling of PET data was used to calculate the blood-brain clearance (K1) and the rate constant for the brain-blood transfer (k2) of [18F]FDOPA and [18F]OMFD after i.v. injection. A 40-70% decrease of K1(OMFD), K1(FDOPA) and k2(OMFD) from newborns to juvenile pigs was found whereas k2(FDOPA) did not change. Generally, K1(OMFD) and k2(OMFD) are lower than K1(FDOPA) and k2(FDOPA) in all regions and age groups. The changes cannot be explained by differences in brain perfusion because the measured regional cerebral blood flow did not show major changes during the first 6 weeks after birth. In addition, alterations in plasma amino acids cannot account for the described transport changes. In newborn and juvenile pigs, HPLC measurements were performed. Despite significant changes of single amino acids (decrease: Met, Val, Leu; increase: Tyr), the sum of large neutral amino acids transported by LAT1 remained unchanged. Furthermore, treatment with a selective inhibitor of the LAT1 transporter (BCH) reduced the blood-brain transport of [18F]FDOPA and [18F]OMFD by 35% and 32%, respectively. Additional in-vitro studies using human LAT1 reveal a much lower affinity of FDOPA compared to OMFD or L-DOPA. The data indicate that the transport system(s) for neutral amino acids underlie(s) developmental changes after birth causing a decrease of the blood-brain barrier permeability for those amino acids during brain development. It is suggested that there is no tight coupling between brain amino acid supply and the demands of protein synthesis in the brain tissue.
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September 2004

Correlation of early dynamic CT perfusion imaging with whole-brain MR diffusion and perfusion imaging in acute hemispheric stroke.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2003 Oct;24(9):1869-75

Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Background And Purpose: Compared with MR imaging, dynamic CT perfusion imaging covers only a fraction of the whole brain. An important assumption is that CT perfusion abnormalities correlate with total ischemic volume. The purpose of our study was to measure the degree of correlation between abnormalities seen on CT perfusion scans and the volumes of abnormality seen on MR diffusion and perfusion images in patients with acute large-vessel stroke.

Methods: Fourteen patients with acute hemispheric stroke symptoms less than 12 hours in duration were studied with single-slice CT perfusion imaging and multislice MR diffusion and perfusion imaging. CT and MR perfusion studies were completed within 2.5 hours of one another (mean, 77 minutes) and were reviewed independently by two neuroradiologists. Hemodynamic parameters included cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT). Extents of abnormality on images were compared by using Kendall correlation.

Results: Statistically significant correlation was found between CT-CBF and MR-CBF abnormalities (tau = 0.60, P =.003) and CT-MTT and MR-MTT abnormalities (tau = 0.65, P =.001). Correlation of CT-CBV with MR-CBV approached significance (tau = 0.39, P =.06). Extent of initial hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted images correlated best with extent of MR-CBV abnormality (tau = 0.69, P =.001), extent of MR-MTT abnormality (tau = 0.67, P =.002), and extent of CT-CBV abnormality (tau = 0.47, P =.02).

Conclusion: Good correlation was seen between CT and MR for CBF and MTT abnormalities. It remains uncertain whether CT perfusion CBV abnormalities correspond well to whole-brain abnormalities.
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October 2003

CT perfusion scanning with deconvolution analysis: pilot study in patients with acute middle cerebral artery stroke.

Radiology 2002 Jan;222(1):227-36

Depts of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710-3808, USA.

Purpose: To measure mean cerebral blood flow (CBF) in ischemic and nonischemic territories and in low-attenuation regions in patients with acute stroke by using deconvolution-derived hemodynamic imaging.

Materials And Methods: Twelve patients with acute middle cerebral artery stroke and 12 control patients were examined by using single-section computed tomography (CT) perfusion scanning. Analysis was performed with a deconvolution-based algorithm. Comparisons of mean CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) were determined between hemispheres in all patients and between low- and normal-attenuation regions in patients with acute stroke. Two independent readers examined the images for extent of visually apparent regional perfusion abnormalities. The data were compared with extent of final infarct in seven patients with acute stroke who underwent follow-up CT or magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: Significant decreases in CBF (-50%, P =.001) were found in the affected hemispheres of patients with acute stroke. Significant changes in CBV (-26%, P =.03) and MTT (+111%, P =.004) were also seen. Significant alterations in perfusion were also seen in low- compared with normal-attenuation areas. Pearson correlation between readers for extent of CBF abnormality was 0.94 (P =.001). Intraobserver variation was 8.9% for CBF abnormalities.

Conclusion: Deconvolution analysis of CT perfusion data is a promising method for evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with acute stroke.
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January 2002