Publications by authors named "Michael Goggins"

319 Publications

COVID-19 related pancreatic cancer surveillance disruptions amongst high-risk individuals.

Pancreatology 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 pandemic-related disruptions to EUS-based pancreatic cancer surveillance in high-risk individuals remain uncertain.

Methods: Analysis of enrolled participants in the CAPS5 Study, a prospective multicenter study of pancreatic cancer surveillance in high-risk individuals.

Results: Amongst 693 enrolled high-risk individuals under active surveillance, 108 (16%) had an EUS scheduled during the COVID-19 pandemic-related shutdown (median length of 78 days) in the spring of 2020, with 97% of these procedures being canceled. Of these canceled surveillance EUSs, 83% were rescheduled in a median of 4.1 months, however 17% were not rescheduled after 6 months follow-up. Prior history of cancer was associated with increased likelihood of rescheduling. To date no pancreatic cancer has been diagnosed among those whose surveillance was delayed.

Conclusions: COVID-19 delayed pancreatic cancer surveillance with no adverse outcomes in efficiently rescheduled individuals. However, 1 in 6 high-risk individuals had not rescheduled surveillance, indicating the need for vigilance to ensure timely surveillance rescheduling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055495PMC
April 2021

Downregulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is an early event in pancreatic tumorigenesis.

J Pathol 2021 Jul 21;254(3):279-288. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Pathology, Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Epigenetic alterations are increasingly recognized as important contributors to the development and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is an epigenetic DNA mark generated through the ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzyme-mediated pathway and is closely linked to gene activation. However, the timing of alterations in epigenetic regulation in the progression of pancreatic neoplasia is not well understood. In this study, we hypothesized that aberrant expression of ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) and subsequent global 5hmC alteration are linked to early tumorigenesis in the pancreas. Therefore, we evaluated alterations of 5hmC and TET1 levels using immunohistochemistry in pancreatic neoplasms (n = 380) and normal ducts (n = 118). The study cohort included representation of the full spectrum of precancerous lesions from low- and high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 95), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (all subtypes, n = 129), intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (n = 12), and mucinous cystic neoplasms (n = 144). 5hmC and TET1 were significantly downregulated in all types of precancerous lesion and associated invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas compared with normal ductal epithelium (all p < 0.001), and expression of 5hmC positively correlated with expression of TET1. Importantly, downregulation of both 5hmC and TET1 was observed in most low-grade precancerous lesions. There were no clear associations between 5hmC levels and clinicopathological factors, thereby suggesting a common epigenetic abnormality across precancerous lesions. We conclude that downregulation of 5hmC and TET1 is an early event in pancreatic tumorigenesis. © 2021 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.5682DOI Listing
July 2021

Examination of ATM, BRCA1, and BRCA2 promoter methylation in patients with pancreatic cancer.

Pancreatology 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease with a poor 5-year survival rate. Pathogenic germline variants in the coding regions of ATM, BRCA1, and BRCA2 are found in up to 4.8% of pancreatic cancer patients. Germline promoter methylation and gene silencing arising from a germline variant or through other mechanisms have been described as a cause of tumor suppressor gene inactivation.

Methods: We measured the level of promoter methylation of the ATM, BRCA1, and BRCA2 genes in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 655 patients with pancreatic cancer using real-time PCR.

Results: No evidence of germline promoter methylation of any of these genes was found. Promoter methylation levels were minimal with no patient having promoter methylation greater than 3.4%, 3.3%, and 7.6% for ATM, BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively, well below levels found in patients who have inherited promoter methylation (∼50%).

Conclusions: We found no evidence of germline promoter methylation for the pancreatic susceptibility genes ATM, BRCA1 and BRCA2 in patients with pancreatic cancer. This study reveals that constitutive germline methylation of promoter CpG islands is rare in pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.03.015DOI Listing
March 2021

Guidelines on management of pancreatic cysts detected in high-risk individuals: An evaluation of the 2017 Fukuoka guidelines and the 2020 International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) consortium statements.

Pancreatology 2021 Apr 2;21(3):613-621. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Medicine, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Objectives: Pancreatic cysts are frequently detected in high-risk individuals (HRI) undergoing surveillance for pancreatic cancer. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) Consortium developed consensus recommendations for surgical resection of pancreatic cysts in HRI that are similar to the Fukuoka guidelines used for the management of sporadic cysts. We compared the performance characteristics of CAPS criteria for pancreatic cyst management in HRI with the Fukuoka guidelines originally designed for the management of cysts in non-HRI.

Methods: Using prospectively collected data from CAPS studies, we determined for each patient with resected screen-detected cyst(s) whether Fukuoka guidelines or CAPS consensus statements would have recommended surgery. We compared sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves of these guidelines at predicting the presence of high-grade dysplasia or invasive cancer in pancreatic cysts.

Results: 356/732 HRI had ≥ one pancreatic cyst detected; 24 had surgery for concerning cystic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the Fukuoka criteria were 40%, 85%, 40%, and 85%, while those of the CAPS criteria were 60%, 85%, 50%, 89%, respectively. ROC curve analyses showed no significant difference between the Fukuoka and CAPS criteria.

Conclusions: In HRI, the CAPS and Fukuoka criteria are moderately specific, but not sufficiently sensitive for detecting advanced neoplasia in cystic lesions. New approaches are needed to guide the surgical management of cystic lesions in HRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.01.017DOI Listing
April 2021

Smoking Modifies Pancreatic Cancer Risk Loci on 2q21.3.

Cancer Res 2021 Jun 11;81(11):3134-3143. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine whether there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and < 5 × 10 was considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region that included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 [per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95% CI, 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.40, = 3.08 × 10). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs1818613 ( = 0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings. SIGNIFICANCE: This large genome-wide interaction study identifies a susceptibility locus on 2q21.3 that significantly modified PDAC risk by smoking status, providing insight into smoking-associated PDAC, with implications for prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-3267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178175PMC
June 2021

Pancreatic cancer pathology viewed in the light of evolution.

Cancer Metastasis Rev 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Carnegie 415, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

One way to understand ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (pancreatic cancer) is to view it as unimaginably large numbers of evolving living organisms interacting with their environment. This "evolutionary view" creates both expected and surprising perspectives in all stages of neoplastic progression. Advances in the field will require greater attention to this critical evolutionary prospective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10555-020-09953-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic, Version 2.2021, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 01 6;19(1):77-102. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute.

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic focus primarily on assessment of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants associated with increased risk of breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer and recommended approaches to genetic testing/counseling and management strategies in individuals with these pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. This manuscript focuses on cancer risk and risk management for BRCA-related breast/ovarian cancer syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Carriers of a BRCA1/2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant have an excessive risk for both breast and ovarian cancer that warrants consideration of more intensive screening and preventive strategies. There is also evidence that risks of prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer are elevated in these carriers. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a highly penetrant cancer syndrome associated with a high lifetime risk for cancer, including soft tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas, premenopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, adrenocortical carcinoma, and brain tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.0001DOI Listing
January 2021

Alterations in the Duodenal Fluid Microbiome of Patients With Pancreatic Cancer.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Nov 5. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Oncology, the Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The tumor microbiome of patients with pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) includes bacteria normally present in the upper gastrointestinal tract. If the predominant source of intratumoral bacteria in patients with PDAC is retrograde migration from the duodenum, duodenal fluid could be a representative biospecimen for determining microbiome profiles of patients with PDAC or at risk of developing PDAC.

Methods: We performed a case-control study comparing bacterial and fungal (16S and 18S rRNA) profiles of secretin-stimulated duodenal fluid collections from 308 patients undergoing duodenal endoscopy including 134 normal pancreas control subjects, 98 patients with pancreatic cyst(s) and 74 patients with PDAC.

Results: Alterations in duodenal fluid microbiomes with diminished alpha diversity were significantly associated with age >70 and proton pump inhibitor use. Patients with PDAC had significantly decreased duodenal microbial alpha diversity compared with age-matched control subjects with normal pancreata and those with pancreatic cyst(s). There was evidence of enrichment of Bifidobacterium genera in the duodenal fluid of patients with PDAC compared with control subjects and those with pancreatic cyst(s). There were also enrichment of duodenal fluid Fusobacteria and Rothia bacteria among patients with PDAC with short-term survival. Duodenal fluid microbiome profiles were not significantly different between control subjects and patients with pancreatic cyst(s).

Conclusion: Patients with PDAC have alterations in their duodenal fluid microbiome profiles compared with patients with pancreatic cysts and those with normal pancreata. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT02000089.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120597PMC
November 2020

Brain metabolites in cholinergic and glutamatergic pathways are altered by pancreatic cancer cachexia.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2020 12 2;11(6):1487-1500. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Division of Cancer Imaging Research, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Cachexia is a major cause of morbidity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Our purpose was to understand the impact of PDAC-induced cachexia on brain metabolism in PDAC xenograft studies, to gain new insights into the causes of cachexia-induced morbidity. Changes in mouse and human plasma metabolites were characterized to identify underlying causes of brain metabolic changes.

Methods: We quantified metabolites, detected with high-resolution H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in the brain and plasma of normal mice (n = 10) and mice bearing cachexia (n = 10) or non-cachexia (n = 9) inducing PDAC xenografts as well as in human plasma obtained from normal individuals (n = 24) and from individuals with benign pancreatic disease (n = 20) and PDAC (n = 20). Statistical significance was defined as a P value ≤0.05.

Results: The brain metabolic signature of cachexia-inducing PDAC was characterized by a significant depletion of choline of -27% and -21% as well as increases of glutamine of 13% and 9% and formate of 21% and 14%, relative to normal controls and non-cachectic tumour-bearing mice, respectively. Good to moderate correlations with percent weight change were found for choline (r = 0.70), glutamine (r = -0.58), and formate (r = -0.43). Significant choline depletion of -38% and -30%, relative to normal controls and non-cachectic tumour-bearing mice, respectively, detected in the plasma of cachectic mice likely contributed to decreased brain choline in cachectic mice. Similarly, relative to normal controls and patients with benign disease, choline levels in human plasma samples of PDAC patients were significantly lower by -12% and -20% respectively. A comparison of plasma metabolites from PDAC patients with and without weight loss identified significant changes in glutamine metabolism.

Conclusions: Disturbances in metabolites of the choline/cholinergic and glutamine/glutamate/glutamatergic neurotransmitter pathways may contribute to morbidity. Metabolic normalization may provide strategies to reduce morbidity. The human plasma metabolite changes observed may lead to the development of companion diagnostic markers to detect PDAC and PDAC-induced cachexia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749557PMC
December 2020

Mendelian Randomization Analysis of n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Pancreatic Cancer Risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 12 23;29(12):2735-2739. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome.

Methods: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data.

Results: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

Impact: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710600PMC
December 2020

Pancreatic circulating tumor cell detection by targeted single-cell next-generation sequencing.

Cancer Lett 2020 11 5;493:245-253. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Departments of Surgery, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Departments of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Departments of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Single-cell next-generation sequencing (scNGS) technology has been widely used in genomic profiling, which relies on whole-genome amplification (WGA). However, WGA introduces errors and is especially less accurate when applied to single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis. Targeted scNGS for SNV without WGA has not been described. We aimed to develop a method to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with DNA SNVs.

Methods: We tested this targeted scNGS method with three driver mutant genes (KRAS/TP53/SMAD4) on one pancreatic cancer cell line AsPC-1 and then applied it to patients with metastatic PDAC for the validation.

Results: All single-cell of AsPC-1 and spiked-in AsPC-1 cells in healthy donor blood, which were isolated by the filtration with size or by flow cytometry, were detected by targeted scNGS method. All blood samples from six patients with metastatic PDAC, for the validation of target scNGS method, showed CTCs with SNVs of KRAS/TP53/SMAD4 and the positive confirmation of immunofluorescent stainings with Pan-CK/Vimentin/CD45. Four patients with early stage disease, one patient with benign pancreatic cyst and a healthy control sample all showed concordant results between targeted scNGS and CTC enumeration.

Conclusions: The novel technique of targeted scNGS for SNV analysis, without pre-amplification, is a promising method for identifying and characterizing circulating tumor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.08.043DOI Listing
November 2020

Bayesian copy number detection and association in large-scale studies.

BMC Cancer 2020 Sep 7;20(1):856. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Germline copy number variants (CNVs) increase risk for many diseases, yet detection of CNVs and quantifying their contribution to disease risk in large-scale studies is challenging due to biological and technical sources of heterogeneity that vary across the genome within and between samples.

Methods: We developed an approach called CNPBayes to identify latent batch effects in genome-wide association studies involving copy number, to provide probabilistic estimates of integer copy number across the estimated batches, and to fully integrate the copy number uncertainty in the association model for disease.

Results: Applying a hidden Markov model (HMM) to identify CNVs in a large multi-site Pancreatic Cancer Case Control study (PanC4) of 7598 participants, we found CNV inference was highly sensitive to technical noise that varied appreciably among participants. Applying CNPBayes to this dataset, we found that the major sources of technical variation were linked to sample processing by the centralized laboratory and not the individual study sites. Modeling the latent batch effects at each CNV region hierarchically, we developed probabilistic estimates of copy number that were directly incorporated in a Bayesian regression model for pancreatic cancer risk. Candidate associations aided by this approach include deletions of 8q24 near regulatory elements of the tumor oncogene MYC and of Tumor Suppressor Candidate 3 (TUSC3).

Conclusions: Laboratory effects may not account for the major sources of technical variation in genome-wide association studies. This study provides a robust Bayesian inferential framework for identifying latent batch effects, estimating copy number, and evaluating the role of copy number in heritable diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07304-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487704PMC
September 2020

Pancreatic volume does not correlate with histologic fibrosis in adult patients with recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis.

Pancreatology 2020 Sep 1;20(6):1078-1084. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; Pancreatitis Center, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Reduced pancreatic volume, often referred to as atrophy, is a commonly reported imaging feature of chronic pancreatitis (CP). This study evaluated whether there is an association between pancreatic volume and fibrosis, the criterion standard of CP, in patients undergoing total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) for recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and CP.

Methods: All adult patients who underwent TPIAT between 2010 and 2019 were categorized into 3 groups: RAP, definite CP and indeterminate CP. Pancreatic volume was calculated by summing up the areas from each thin section of the pancreas on 3D CT imaging. Excisional biopsies of the pancreatic head as well as body/tail region were obtained at the time of TPIAT. Two different fibrosis scores were used for histologic assessment.

Results: A total of 16, 29 and 15 patients underwent TPIAT for RAP, definite CP and indeterminate CP, respectively. The mean pancreatic volumes for patients with RAP, definite CP and indeterminate CP were 65.7 ± 28.5 cc, 54.9 ± 22.9 cc and 61.8 ± 23.6 cc, respectively (p = 0.3). The mean fibrosis scores were significantly higher in patients with definite CP compared to RAP (p < 0.001) and indeterminate CP (p < 0.001). Pancreatic volume was not associated with either fibrosis score after adjusting for age, gender, duration of disease, BMI and diabetes in the multivariable analysis.

Conclusions: While the fibrosis scores were higher in definite CP compared to both RAP and indeterminate CP, there was no correlation between pancreatic volume and fibrosis. This suggests that atrophy alone cannot be used to diagnose CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.07.409DOI Listing
September 2020

The genetics of ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas in the year 2020: dramatic progress, but far to go.

Mod Pathol 2020 12 23;33(12):2544-2563. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The publication of the "Pan-Cancer Atlas" by the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes Consortium, a partnership formed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), provides a wonderful opportunity to reflect on where we stand in our understanding of the genetics of pancreatic cancer, as well as on the opportunities to translate this understanding to patient care. From germline variants that predispose to the development of pancreatic cancer, to somatic mutations that are therapeutically targetable, genetics is now providing hope, where there once was no hope, for those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-0629-6DOI Listing
December 2020

Molecular characterization of organoids derived from pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

J Pathol 2020 11 19;252(3):252-262. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are commonly identified non-invasive cyst-forming pancreatic neoplasms with the potential to progress into invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. There are few in vitro models with which to study the biology of IPMNs and their progression to invasive carcinoma. Therefore, we generated a living biobank of organoids from seven normal pancreatic ducts and ten IPMNs. We characterized eight IPMN organoid samples using whole genome sequencing and characterized five IPMN organoids and seven normal pancreatic duct organoids using transcriptome sequencing. We identified an average of 11,344 somatic mutations in the genomes of organoids derived from IPMNs, with one sample harboring 61,537 somatic mutations enriched for T→C transitions and T→A transversions. Recurrent coding somatic mutations were identified in 15 genes, including KRAS, GNAS, RNF43, PHF3, and RBM10. The most frequently mutated genes were KRAS, GNAS, and RNF43, with somatic mutations identified in six (75%), four (50%), and three (37.5%) IPMN organoid samples, respectively. On average, we identified 36 structural variants in IPMN derived organoids, and none had an unstable phenotype (> 200 structural variants). Transcriptome sequencing identified 28 genes differentially expressed between normal pancreatic duct organoid and IPMN organoid samples. The most significantly upregulated and downregulated genes were CLDN18 and FOXA1. Immunohistochemical analysis of FOXA1 expression in 112 IPMNs, 113 mucinous cystic neoplasms, and 145 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas demonstrated statistically significant loss of expression in low-grade IPMNs (p < 0.0016), mucinous cystic neoplasms (p < 0.0001), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma of any histologic grade (p < 0.0001) compared to normal pancreatic ducts. These data indicate that FOXA1 loss of expression occurs early in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Our study highlights the utility of organoid culture to study the genetics and biology of normal pancreatic duct and IPMNs. © 2020 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.5515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162794PMC
November 2020

Association of Germline Variants in Human DNA Damage Repair Genes and Response to Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Resected Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

J Am Coll Surg 2020 11 11;231(5):527-535.e14. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Surgery, Baltimore, MD; The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine The Pancreatic Cancer Precision Medicine Center of Excellence, Baltimore, MD; The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Background: The frequency and significance of the germline variants in DNA damage repair genes still need to be elucidated in patients with sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Our purpose was to determine whether germline variants in DNA damage repair genes were associated with survival of patients with sporadic PDAC.

Study Design: We retrospectively identified 854 patients with sporadic PDAC with germline DNA sequenced in targeted 22 DNA damage repair genes by next-generation sequencing. Outcomes were compared in terms of clinicopathologic features, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS).

Results: Nineteen patients had deleterious mutations; 103 had variant(s) of unknown significance (VUS). Germline DNA damage repair deleterious variant carriers had superior DFS (median, 19.1 months vs 11.9 months, p = 0.012) and OS (median, 29.7 months vs 20.2 months, p = 0.034), as compared with wild-type patients. Germline DNA damage repair VUS variant carriers also had superior DFS when compared with wild-type patients. In subgroup analysis, this improved survival was limited to patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, deleterious variant carriers vs wild-type patients DFS (median 36.3 months vs 13.1 months, p = 0.006) and OS (median 43.7 months vs 24.3 months, p = 0.045), VUS variant carriers vs wild-type patients DFS (16.5 months vs 13.1 months, p = 0.007).

Conclusions: Having a deleterious variant in a DNA damage repair gene is associated with improved survival after resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.06.019DOI Listing
November 2020

Genome-Wide Association Study Data Reveal Genetic Susceptibility to Chronic Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases and Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Risk.

Cancer Res 2020 09 8;80(18):4004-4013. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC ( = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease ( = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis ( = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861352PMC
September 2020

Genome-Wide Gene-Diabetes and Gene-Obesity Interaction Scan in 8,255 Cases and 11,900 Controls from PanScan and PanC4 Consortia.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 09 16;29(9):1784-1791. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level.

Methods: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics.

Results: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold < 1.25 × 10) was observed in the meta-analysis ( = 1.2 ×10, = 4.2 ×10).

Conclusions: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans.

Impact: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483330PMC
September 2020

Pattern of Invasion in Human Pancreatic Cancer Organoids Is Associated with Loss of SMAD4 and Clinical Outcome.

Cancer Res 2020 07 6;80(13):2804-2817. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy characterized by extensive local invasion and systemic spread. In this study, we employed a three-dimensional organoid model of human pancreatic cancer to characterize the molecular alterations critical for invasion. Time-lapse microscopy was used to observe invasion in organoids from 25 surgically resected human PDAC samples in collagen I. Subsequent lentiviral modification and small-molecule inhibitors were used to investigate the molecular programs underlying invasion in PDAC organoids. When cultured in collagen I, PDAC organoids exhibited two distinct, morphologically defined invasive phenotypes, mesenchymal and collective. Each individual PDAC gave rise to organoids with a predominant phenotype, and PDAC that generated organoids with predominantly mesenchymal invasion showed a worse prognosis. Collective invasion predominated in organoids from cancers with somatic mutations in the driver gene (or its signaling partner ). Reexpression of SMAD4 abrogated the collective invasion phenotype in -mutant PDAC organoids, indicating that SMAD4 loss is required for collective invasion in PDAC organoids. Surprisingly, invasion in passaged -mutant PDAC organoids required exogenous TGFβ, suggesting that invasion in -mutant organoids is mediated through noncanonical TGFβ signaling. The Rho-like GTPases RAC1 and CDC42 acted as potential mediators of TGFβ-stimulated invasion in -mutant PDAC organoids, as inhibition of these GTPases suppressed collective invasion in our model. These data suggest that PDAC utilizes different invasion programs depending on status, with collective invasion uniquely present in PDAC with SMAD4 loss. SIGNIFICANCE: Organoid models of PDAC highlight the importance of SMAD4 loss in invasion, demonstrating that invasion programs in -mutant and wild-type tumors are different in both morphology and molecular mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-1523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335355PMC
July 2020

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic, Version 1.2020.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2020 04;18(4):380-391

Mayo Clinic Cancer Center.

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic provide recommendations for genetic testing and counseling for hereditary cancer syndromes, and risk management recommendations for patients who are diagnosed with syndromes associated with an increased risk of these cancers. The NCCN panel meets at least annually to review comments, examine relevant new data, and reevaluate and update recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel's discussion and most recent recommendations regarding criteria for high-penetrance genes associated with breast and ovarian cancer beyond BRCA1/2, pancreas screening and genes associated with pancreatic cancer, genetic testing for the purpose of systemic therapy decision-making, and testing for people with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.0017DOI Listing
April 2020

Detection of Circulating Tumor DNA in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer Using Digital Next-Generation Sequencing.

J Mol Diagn 2020 06 20;22(6):748-756. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Medicine, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) measurements can be used to estimate tumor burden, but avoiding false-positive results is challenging. Herein, digital next-generation sequencing (NGS) is evaluated as a ctDNA detection method. Plasma KRAS and GNAS hotspot mutation levels were measured in 140 subjects, including 67 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and 73 healthy and disease controls. To limit chemical modifications of DNA that yield false-positive mutation calls, plasma DNA was enzymatically pretreated, after which DNA was aliquoted for digital detection of mutations (up to 384 aliquots/sample) by PCR and NGS. A digital NGS score of two SDs above the mean in controls was considered positive. Thirty-seven percent of patients with pancreatic cancer, including 31% of patients with stages I/II disease, had positive KRAS codon 12 ctDNA scores; only one patient had a positive GNAS mutation score. Two disease control patients had positive ctDNA scores. Low-normal-range digital NGS scores at mutation hotspots were found at similar levels in healthy and disease controls, usually at sites of cytosine deamination, and were likely the result of chemical modification of plasma DNA and NGS error rather than true mutations. Digital NGS detects mutated ctDNA in patients with pancreatic cancer with similar yield to other methods. Detection of low-level, true-positive ctDNA is limited by frequent low-level detection of false-positive mutation calls in plasma DNA from controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2020.02.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338889PMC
June 2020

Assessing aneuploidy with repetitive element sequencing.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 03 19;117(9):4858-4863. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics and Therapeutics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287;

We report a sensitive PCR-based assay called Repetitive Element AneupLoidy Sequencing System (RealSeqS) that can detect aneuploidy in samples containing as little as 3 pg of DNA. Using a single primer pair, we amplified ∼350,000 amplicons distributed throughout the genome. Aneuploidy was detected in 49% of liquid biopsies from a total of 883 nonmetastatic, clinically detected cancers of the colorectum, esophagus, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, breast, or stomach. Combining aneuploidy with somatic mutation detection and eight standard protein biomarkers yielded a median sensitivity of 80% in these eight cancer types, while only 1% of 812 healthy controls scored positive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910041117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060727PMC
March 2020

Generation and characterization of a cell line from an intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas.

Lab Invest 2020 07 31;100(7):1003-1013. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) is a distinct precancerous lesion in the pancreas with unique clinical and molecular features. Although in vitro studies in two-dimensional culture have led to numerous important insights in pancreatic cancer, such models are currently lacking for precancerous lesions. In this study, we report the generation and characterization of a cell line from a human pancreatic ITPN. Neoplastic cells were initially cultured in a three-dimensional organoid system, followed by transfer to two-dimensional culture. RNA sequencing revealed a gene expression profile consistent with pancreatic ductal origin, and whole genome sequencing identified many somatic mutations (including in genes involved in DNA repair and Wnt signaling) and structural rearrangements. In vitro characterization of the tumorigenic potential demonstrated a phenotype between that of normal pancreatic ductal cells and cancer cell lines. This cell line represents a valuable resource for interrogation of unique ITPN biology, as well as precancerous pancreatic lesions more generally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-0372-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316603PMC
July 2020

Recent Trends in the Incidence and Survival of Stage 1A Pancreatic Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 11;112(11):1162-1169

Affiliations of authors: Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Rapid access to pancreatic imaging and regular pancreatic surveillance may help identify stage I pancreatic cancer. We investigated recent trends in the stage of newly diagnosed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDACs), age at diagnosis, and survival.

Methods: Trends in age-adjusted incidence of stage IA PDAC between 2004 and 2016 were determined from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. All tests were two-sided.

Results: The incidence of stage IA PDAC cases diagnosed increased statistically significantly from 2004 to 2016 (annual percent change = 14.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.4 to 17.7; P < .001). During the study period, average age at diagnosis for stage IA and IB casesAQ3 declined by 3.5 years (95% CI = 1.2 to 5.9; P = .004) and 5.5 years (95% CI = 3.4 to 7.6; P < .001), whereas average age increased for higher-stage cases (by 0.6 to 1.4 years). Among stage IA cases, the proportion of blacks was smaller (10.2% vs 12.5%), and the proportion of other non-Caucasians was higher compared with higher-stage cases (11.9% vs 8.4%; P < .001). Stage IA cases were more likely to carry insurance (vs Medicaid or none) than higher-stage cases (cases aged younger than 65 years; odds ratio = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.96 to 3.06; P < .001). The 5-year overall survival for stage IA PDAC improved from 44.7% (95% CI = 31.4 to 63.7) in 2004 to 83.7% (95% CI = 78.6% to 89.2%) in 2012; 10-year survival improved from 36.7% (95% CI = 24.1 to 55.8) in 2004 to 49.0% (95% CI = 37.2% to 64.6%) in 2007.

Conclusions: In recent years, the proportion of patients diagnosed with stage IA PDAC has increased, their average age at diagnosis has decreased, and their overall survival has improved. These trends may be the result of improved early diagnosis and early detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7669234PMC
November 2020

A Transcriptome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Candidate Susceptibility Genes for Pancreatic Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 10;112(10):1003-1012

Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown.

Methods: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study in Europeans using three approaches: FUSION, MetaXcan, and Summary-MulTiXcan. We integrated genome-wide association studies summary statistics from 9040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12 496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics [n = 95] and Genotype-Tissue Expression v7 [n = 174] datasets) and data from 48 different tissues (Genotype-Tissue Expression v7, n = 74-421 samples).

Results: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (false discovery rate < .05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12: PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at six known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1, and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction.

Conclusions: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566474PMC
October 2020

Gene Variants That Affect Levels of Circulating Tumor Markers Increase Identification of Patients With Pancreatic Cancer.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 05 30;18(5):1161-1169.e5. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Pathology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Oncology, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Medicine, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) in blood are used as markers to determine the response of patients with cancer to therapy, but are not used to identify patients with pancreatic cancer.

Methods: We obtained blood samples from 504 patients undergoing pancreatic surveillance from 2002 through 2018 who did not develop pancreatic cancer and measured levels of the tumor markers CA19-9, CEA, CA-125, and thrombospondin-2. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FUT3, FUT2, ABO, and GAL3ST2 that have been associated with levels of tumor markers were used to establish SNP-defined ranges for each tumor marker. We also tested the association between additional SNPs (in FUT6, MUC16, B3GNT3, FAM3B, and THBS2) with levels of tumor markers. To calculate the diagnostic specificity of each SNP-defined range, we assigned the patients under surveillance into training and validation sets. After determining the SNP-defined ranges, we determined the sensitivity of SNP-adjusted tests for the tumor markers, measuring levels in blood samples from 245 patients who underwent resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) from 2010 through 2017.

Results: A level of CA19-9 that identified patients with PDAC with 99% specificity had 52.7% sensitivity. When we set the cut-off levels of CA19-9 based on each SNP, the test for CA19-9 identified patients with PDAC with 60.8% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity. Among patients with FUT3 alleles that encode a functional protein, levels of CA19-9 greater than the SNP-determined cut-off values identified 66.4% of patients with PDAC, with 99.3% specificity. In the validation set, levels of CEA varied among patients with vs without SNP in FUT2, by blood group, and among smokers vs nonsmokers; levels of CA-125 varied among patients with vs without the SNP in GAL3ST2. The use of the SNPs to define the ranges of CEA and CA-125 did not significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy of the assays for these proteins. Combining data on levels of CA19-9 and CEA, CA19-9 and CA-125, or CA19-9 and thrombospondin-2 increased the sensitivity of detection of PDAC, but slightly reduced specificity.

Conclusions: Including information on SNPs associated with levels of CA19-9, CEA, and CA-125 can improve the diagnostic accuracy of assays for these tumor markers in the identification of patients with PDAC. Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT02000089.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2019.10.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166164PMC
May 2020

Management of patients with increased risk for familial pancreatic cancer: updated recommendations from the International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) Consortium.

Gut 2020 01 31;69(1):7-17. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background And Aim: The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening Consortium met in 2018 to update its consensus recommendations for the management of individuals with increased risk of pancreatic cancer based on family history or germline mutation status (high-risk individuals).

Methods: A modified Delphi approach was employed to reach consensus among a multidisciplinary group of experts who voted on consensus statements. Consensus was considered reached if ≥75% agreed or disagreed.

Results: Consensus was reached on 55 statements. The main goals of surveillance (to identify high-grade dysplastic precursor lesions and T1N0M0 pancreatic cancer) remained unchanged. Experts agreed that for those with familial risk, surveillance should start no earlier than age 50 or 10 years earlier than the youngest relative with pancreatic cancer, but were split on whether to start at age 50 or 55. Germline mutation carriers with one affected first-degree relative are now considered eligible for surveillance. Experts agreed that preferred surveillance tests are endoscopic ultrasound and MRI/magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, but no consensus was reached on how to alternate these modalities. Annual surveillance is recommended in the absence of concerning lesions. Main areas of disagreement included if and how surveillance should be performed for hereditary pancreatitis, and the management of indeterminate lesions.

Conclusions: Pancreatic surveillance is recommended for selected high-risk individuals to detect early pancreatic cancer and its high-grade precursors, but should be performed in a research setting by multidisciplinary teams in centres with appropriate expertise. Until more evidence supporting these recommendations is available, the benefits, risks and costs of surveillance of pancreatic surveillance need additional evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-319352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295005PMC
January 2020

Lactate-mediated epigenetic reprogramming regulates formation of human pancreatic cancer-associated fibroblasts.

Elife 2019 11 1;8. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, United States.

Even though pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with fibrotic stroma, the molecular pathways regulating the formation of cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are not well elucidated. An epigenomic analysis of patient-derived and de-novo generated CAFs demonstrated widespread loss of cytosine methylation that was associated with overexpression of various inflammatory transcripts including . Co-culture of neoplastic cells with CAFs led to increased invasiveness that was abrogated by inhibition of CX. Metabolite tracing revealed that lactate produced by neoplastic cells leads to increased production of alpha-ketoglutarate (aKG) within mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In turn, aKG mediated activation of the demethylase TET enzyme led to decreased cytosine methylation and increased hydroxymethylation during de novo differentiation of MSCs to CAF. Co-injection of neoplastic cells with TET-deficient MSCs inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Thus, in PDAC, a tumor-mediated lactate flux is associated with widespread epigenomic reprogramming that is seen during CAF formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.50663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874475PMC
November 2019

Hyaluronan activated-metabolism phenotype (HAMP) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Oncotarget 2019 Sep 24;10(54):5592-5604. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Surgery 1, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.

The aggressiveness of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is enhanced by its interactions with stromal extracellular matrix, notably with hyaluronan (HA). Our previous studies have demonstrated increased expression of genes involved in HA synthesis and degradation in PDAC, suggesting the presence of an autocrine mechanism which accelerates the production of low-molecular-weight HA. A subset of PDAC (20% of cell lines and 25% of tissues) showed overexpression of multiple genes encoding both HA-synthesizing and HA-degrading enzymes, displaying a phenotype defined as an HA activated-metabolism phenotype (HAMP). Interestingly, HAMP+ cells were more susceptible to the treatment with an HA synthesis inhibitor and HA degradation inhibitor than HAMP- cells. Patients with HAMP+ tumors were significantly associated with shorter survival than those with HAMP- tumors (P = 0.049). We investigated transcriptional profiling of genes involved in HA synthesis (including and ) and degradation (including and ) in a panel of PDAC cell lines and primary tissues. Response of PDAC cells to treatment with an HA synthesis inhibitor (4-methylumbelliferone) or HA degradation inhibitor (dextran sulfate) was examined by cell migration assay. Survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier curve and compared by log-rank test. The present study identified a novel phenotype, HAMP, characterized by activation of HA metabolism pathways, in PDAC. HAMP should be further investigated as a prognostic marker as well as a target for personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6771457PMC
September 2019

High prevalence of abnormalities on chest radiography in rheumatoid arthritis.

Clin Rheumatol 2019 Dec 8;38(12):3375-3380. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Department of Rheumatology, St. James's Hospital, James's Street, Dublin 8, Ireland.

Introduction: Chest radiography (CXR) is commonly performed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly for the diagnosis of pulmonary disease. However, other structures are visible on CXR, abnormalities of which may contribute to morbidity and early mortality. This study was undertaken to evaluate the extent of CXR abnormalities in RA patients.

Methods: Consecutive out-patients meeting the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for RA were included. The most recent CXR was assessed by two independent reviewers. Abnormalities identified were recorded and compared to the formal CXR report. Predictors of abnormalities on CXR were assessed using chi-squared tests. SPSS 18.0 was used for statistical analysis.

Results: One hundred and ninety-eight patients were included. Mean age was 62 years (range 18-90). One hundred and nine (55.1%) were current or ex-smokers. One hundred and fifty-six (79%) patients were seropositive and 123 (62.1%) had joint erosions. A recent CXR was available in 163 (82%) cases. Abnormalities were identified in 129 (79.1%). Ninety-seven (60%) had bony abnormalities. Seventy-one (43.6%) had pulmonary abnormalities; old tuberculosis in 34 (20.9%), hyperinflation in 24 (14.7%), interstitial changes in 20 (13.3%), nodules in 4 (2.4%), consolidation in 2 (1.2%), and pneumothorax in 1 (0.6%). Cardiomegaly was identified in 37 (22.7%) and aortic calcification in 24 (14.7%). Age (p = 0.001), male gender (p = 0.01), and seropositivity (p = 0.04) were significantly associated with lung abnormalities. Cardiomegaly was associated with hypertension (p = 0.012) and ischaemic heart disease (p = 0.018).

Conclusion: Abnormalities were identified in 79% of chest radiographs in RA patients. Sixty-six percent of these were not reported. Clinicians need to be aware of the need to check for abnormalities.Key Points• RA patients have a high prevalence of CXR abnormalities.• Many of these are of clinical significance.• Age, being male, and seropositivity were associated with lung abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04717-9DOI Listing
December 2019