Publications by authors named "Michael Entezami"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Furcate insertion of the umbilical cord: pathological and clinical characteristics in 132 cases.

J Perinat Med 2020 Oct;48(8):819-824

Department of Obstetrics, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Objectives Furcate cord insertion is a rare abnormality affecting approximately 0.1% of all pregnancies. Macroscopically, the umbilical vessels separate before reaching the placenta, lose their Wharton's jelly, and insert at the placenta centrally, eccentrically, or marginally. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of furcate cord insertion more accurately, the pathological characteristics, and clinical outcomes. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 132 cases of furcate insertion of the umbilical cord using the pathological database of the Charité University Hospital Berlin, Germany, between 1993 and 2016. This included 99 cases, including one termination of pregnancy within our institution and 33 cases from external hospitals. An analysis of the pathological features of the 132 cases and the perinatal outcome of the 98 cases within our institution were performed. Results Furcate cord insertion occurred in 0.16% pregnancies. Of the 132 cases, seven cases of intrauterine fetal deaths were observed. Three of those could be linked to the furcate cord insertion. In two of those cases, single umbilical vessel rupture was identified as the cause of fetal death. Conclusions In most cases of furcate cord insertion, the outcome is good; however, intrauterine fetal death occurs in approximately 1.02% of cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2019-0459DOI Listing
October 2020

Nearly half of all severe fetal anomalies can be detected by first-trimester screening in experts' hands.

J Perinat Med 2019 Aug;47(6):619-624

Klink für Geburtsmedizin, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Objective To evaluate the detection rate of severe fetal anomalies at the first-trimester screening (FTS) and, vice versa, to evaluate the follow-up of pathological results at FTS at the time of mid-trimester screening (MTS) and throughout pregnancy and delivery in a partially selected population of low-risk pregnancies. Methods We conducted a prospective study on the detection of severe fetal anomalies at routine FTS in 9891 pregnant women with 10,294 fetuses between 11 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks of gestation. The findings of FTS were compared to the results of MTS and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Only cases with severe fetal anomalies were taken for statistical analysis in this study. Results There were 232 cases of fetal anomaly altogether. At the time of FTS, sonographic anomalies were diagnosed in 113 cases and further ultrasound controls arranged. In four cases, fetal anomaly was not confirmed by MTS; in the remaining 109 cases, the sonographic anomaly seen at FTS was confirmed at MTS and in the course of pregnancy with a resulting sensitivity for fetal malformation at FTS of 47.8%, a specificity of 99.96%, a positive predictive value of 96.5% and a negative predictive value of 98.8%. Conclusion FTS can detect almost half of all severe fetal anomalies at an early stage of pregnancy with positive predictive values of 90% and more. Sensitivities varied depending on the organ system and reached the highest figures for anomalies of the heart, the abdomen, the spine and the skeletal system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2018-0436DOI Listing
August 2019

Reference Curve for the Mean Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index in Singleton Pregnancies.

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2017 May 24;77(5):516-523. Epub 2017 May 24.

Zentrum für Pränataldiagnostik und Humangenetik, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Doppler sonography of the uterine artery (UA) is done to monitor pregnancies, because the detected flow patterns are useful to draw inferences about possible disorders of trophoblast invasion. Increased resistance in the UA is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and perinatal mortality. In the absence of standardized figures, the normal ranges of the various available reference curves sometimes differ quite substantially from one another. The causes for this are differences in the flow patterns of the UA depending on the position of the pulsed Doppler gates as well as branching of the UA. Because of the discrepancies between the different reference curves and the practical problems this poses for guideline recommendations, we thought it would be useful to create our own reference curves for Doppler measurements of the UA obtained from a singleton cohort under standardized conditions.

Material And Methods: This retrospective cohort study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics of the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, the Department for Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine of the University Hospital Halle (Saale) and the Center for Prenatal Diagnostics and Human Genetics Kurfürstendamm 199. Available datasets from the three study locations were identified and reference curves were generated using the LMS method. Measured values were correlated with age of gestation, and a cubic model and Box-Cox power transformation (L), the median (M) and the coefficient of variation (S) were used to smooth the curves.

Results: 103 720 Doppler examinations of the UA carried out in singleton pregnancies from the 11th week of gestation (10 + 1 GW) were analyzed. The mean pulsatility index (Mean PI) showed a continuous decline over the course of pregnancy, dropping to a plateau of around 0.84 between the 23rd and 27th GW, after which it decreased again.

Conclusion: Age of gestation, placental position, position of pulsed Doppler gates and branching of the UA can all change the flow pattern. The mean pulsatility index (Mean PI) showed a continuous decrease over time. There were significant differences between our data and alternative reference curves. A system of classifying Doppler studies and a reference curve adapted to the current technology are urgently required to differentiate better between physiological and pathological findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-108764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5444533PMC
May 2017

The effect of intraumbilical fetal nutrition via a subcutaneously implanted port system on amino acid concentration by severe IUGR human fetuses.

J Perinat Med 2017 Feb;45(2):227-236

Objective: To determine if intrauterine intraumbilical supplementation with amino acids (AA) and glucose can improve neonatal outcome of severe growth restricted human fetuses (IUGR).

Methods: Prospective pilot study of intrauterine treatment of severe IUGR fetuses [n=14, 27 weeks of gestation (range 23-31)] with cerebroplacental ratio <1, with long-term intraumbilical AA and glucose supplementation (10% of feto-placental blood volume/day) using a perinatal port system alone (n=5) or combined with hyperbaric oxygenation (n=1, HBO) vs. control group (n=8).

Results: The duration of continuous intraumbilical AA/glucose supplementation was 11 (6-13) days. Daily intravascular fetal nutrition significantly prolonged the brain sparing to delivery interval by 24 (14-33) days vs. 5.6 (2-12) days in controls. Fetal nutrition reduced blood flow resistance in the placental circulation but did not affect the Doppler profile of cerebral arteries. Higher weight gain of 113.5 (36-539) g was observed following supplementation compared to 33.3 (8-98) g in the control group (P<0.05). In spite of this, fetuses below 28 weeks of gestation did not sufficiently benefit from infused commercial AA. We found a reduced fetal plasma concentration of the essential AA histidine, threonine, lysine and arginine, and non-essential AA taurine, in severe IUGR fetuses in both groups. Long-term supplementation with a commercial AA formula led to a slight, but not significant, reduction of histidine, threonine, lysine, arginine, asparagine and glutamine. However, the concentration of tryptophan and glutamic acid slightly increased. HBO can be combined with AA supplementation via a port system. In one case, the port system was also successfully used for fetal blood transfusion.

Conclusions: Intravascular treatment of IUGR with fetal nutrition can prolong pregnancy with severe placental insufficiency and brain sparing for many weeks. However, rather than normalizing AA concentrations, an enhanced AA imbalance was observed in IUGR fetuses following supplementation. These deviations in AA concentrations prevent the recommendation for use of commercial AA solutions for prenatal treatment of extreme preterm IUGR fetuses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2016-0155DOI Listing
February 2017

Widening of the femoral diaphysis-metaphysis angle at 20-24 weeks: a marker for the detection of achondroplasia prior to the onset of skeletal shortening.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2016 Feb 9;214(2):291-292. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

Fetal Medicine Unit, St George's Hospital, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2015.09.089DOI Listing
February 2016

Reversible oligohydramnios in the second trimester of pregnancy in two patients with long-term diclofenac exposure.

Reprod Toxicol 2015 Dec 28;58:61-4. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Institute for Clinical Teratology and Drug Risk Assessment in Pregnancy, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.

The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like diclofenac in the third trimester of pregnancy can cause severe side effects, in particular oligohydramnios, premature closure of ductus arteriosus, and fetal kidney damage. However, the treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs until gestational week 28 is accepted as relatively safe. Here we describe two retrospectively reported cases of early-onset oligohydramnios associated with long-term diclofenac exposure of at least 150mg per day. The pathological findings were detected at gestational weeks 22 and 23, respectively. Amniotic fluid turned to normal after discontinuation of diclofenac in both cases, suggesting causality. Although early-onset oligohydramnios is a rare complication, caution for long-term diclofenac use in high doses is recommended even before gestational week 28.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.08.002DOI Listing
December 2015

Detection of Spina Bifida by First Trimester Screening - Results of the Prospective Multicenter Berlin IT-Study.

Ultraschall Med 2017 Apr 14;38(2):151-157. Epub 2015 Apr 14.

Department of Obstetrics, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany.

 To evaluate the potential of routine assessment of intracranial translucency (IT) and other posterior brain parameters in the early detection of open spina bifida during the 11 - 14 weeks screening examination.  This prospective, multicenter longitudinal study was conducted with the participation of 20 certified DEGUM II or III experts in Berlin, Germany, between June 2010 and October 2013. All pregnant women undergoing a first trimester screening were included in the study and in every patient were the IT, brain stem (BS), cisterna magna (CM), BS to occipital bone distance (BSOB) and BS/BSOB ratio measured. All patients with continuing pregnancy underwent a second trimester scan. Our data was used to develop our own reference ranges. The primary outcome parameter was the presence of open spina bifida.  A total of 15 526 women with 16 164 fetuses were examined. Median of the IT was 2.1 mm, of the CM 1.6 mm, of the BS 2.7 mm, of the BSOB 5.5 mm, and of the BS/BSOB ratio 0.49. There were 11 cases with open spina bifida (incidence of 6.8/10 000). The detection rate was 100 % and in all cases of spina bifida, the anomaly was detected either at the first examination (n = 8) or considered suspicious and the lesion then detected a few weeks later (n = 3). Considering individual measurements, however, the detection rate was 18 % with the complete absence of the IT and 45 % with cut-off values. For the CM measurement, the detection rate was 64 % with the absence of the CM and 73 % with cut-off values. The other parameters proved not to be predictive of open spina bifida.  In the hands of an expert, open spina bifida can be reliably diagnosed early in gestation during the 11 - 14 weeks screening. The measurement of different parameters of the posterior brain, especially the CM and the use of cut-off values are of tremendous benefit in achieving a high sensitivity in the detection rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1399483DOI Listing
April 2017

Diagnostic accuracy of random massively parallel sequencing for non-invasive prenatal detection of common autosomal aneuploidies: a collaborative study in Europe.

Prenat Diagn 2014 Feb 12;34(2):185-91. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Zentrum für Pränataldiagnostik und Humangenetik, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: The objective of this study is to validate the diagnostic accuracy of a non-invasive prenatal test for detecting trisomies 13, 18, and 21 for a population in Germany and Switzerland.

Methods: Random massively parallel sequencing was applied using Illumina sequencing platform HiSeq2000. Fetal aneuploidies were identified using a median absolute deviation based z-score equation. A bioinformatics algorithm based on guanine-cytosine normalization was applied after the data were unblinded. Results of massively parallel sequencing and invasive procedures were compared.

Results: Overall, 40/42 samples were correctly classified as trisomy 21-positive, including a translocation trisomy 21 [46,XY,der(13;21),+21] and a structural aberration of chromosome 21 [46,XX,rec(21)dup(21q)inv(21)(p12q21.1)] but not including a low percentage mosaic trisomy 21 [47,XY,+21/46,XY], [sensitivity: 95.2%; one-sided lower confidence limit: 85.8%]; 430/430 samples were correctly classified as trisomy 21-negative (specificity: 100%; one-sided lower CL: 99.3%). Using a new bioinformatics algorithm with guanine-cytosine normalization, detection of trisomy 21 was facilitated, and five of five trisomy 13 cases and eight of eight trisomy 18 cases were correctly identified.

Conclusion: Our newly established non-invasive prenatal test allows detection of fetal trisomies 13, 18, and 21 with high accuracy in a population in Germany and Switzerland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.4278DOI Listing
February 2014

Noninvasive prenatal detection of chromosomal aneuploidies using different next generation sequencing strategies and algorithms.

Prenat Diagn 2012 Jun 9;32(6):569-77. Epub 2012 May 9.

Zentrum für Pränataldiagnostik und Humangenetik, Kurfürstendamm 199, 10719, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: Here we describe the successful application of massively parallel sequencing for noninvasive prenatal detection of trisomy 21. In addition, for the detection of a broader spectrum of fetal aneuploidies, a target enrichment approach was successfully tested.

Methods: The circulating cell-free DNA was prepared from 53 maternal blood samples and analysed using Illumina's sequencing systems Genome Analyzer(IIx) and HiSeq2000, respectively. In a first experiment the SureSelect Target Enrichment System was tested.

Results: In our initial study analysing 42 samples on the Genome Analyzer(IIx) , all eight samples from women carrying a trisomy 21 fetus were correctly identified. On the basis of our HiSeq2000 sequence data, we discussed new algorithms for detection of fetal trisomy 21. In addition, we successfully used the combination of a target enrichment system followed by sequencing and were able to identify fetal trisomy 13 and fetal trisomy 21.

Conclusions: Our results confirm previous reports that massively parallel sequencing of cell-free fetal DNA allows the reliably noninvasive detection of trisomy 21 from maternal blood with the potential to enhance test selectivity and specificity by bioinformatic means. According to our preliminary results, targeted sequencing might be an alternative strategy to detect chromosomal aneuploidies besides trisomy 21.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.3862DOI Listing
June 2012

Neonatal outcome using ultrathin fetoscope for laser coagulation in twin-to-twin-transfusion syndrome.

J Perinat Med 2011 11 26;39(6):725-30. Epub 2011 Aug 26.

University Clinic of Obstetrics and Fetal Medicine, University Medical Center Halle (Saale) of Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Germany.

Objective: To improve neonatal outcome using ultrathin fetoscope for laser treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of a series of 80 cases of twin-to-twin-transfusion syndrome prior to 26-weeks' gestation subjected to laser coagulation by means of a 1.0/1.2 mm fiber fetoscope with a sheath sectional area 2.65 mm(2)/3.34 mm(2) (n=27) and a 2.0 mm classic lens fetoscope with a sheath sectional area: 6.63 mm(2)/11.27 mm(2) (n=53).

Results: The survival rates of at least one twin in the compared groups were 94.4% (classic optic) and 100% (ultrathin optic), for both twins: 75.5% and 83.3%, respectively. By decreasing sheath diameter a pregnancy was prolonged by an average of 21.3 days (P=0.0045), with a resulting increase in the recipient's weight of 389 g (P=0.0049) and an increase in the donor's Apgar score. However, the intervention with ultrathin optic took 11 min longer (P=0.031).

Conclusion: The reduction of the iatrogenic damage of the amniotic membrane using ultrathin fetoscope with a small sheath, significantly improves the neonatal outcome after laser treatment of twin-to-twin-transfusion syndrome. The operator should only commence working with the 1 mm fetoscope after the learning curve has been accomplished.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm.2011.091DOI Listing
November 2011

Fetal 46,XX/69,XXY mixoploidy: origin and confirmation by analysis of fetal urine cells.

Prenat Diagn 2009 Mar;29(3):287-9

Center for Prenatal Diagnosis, Kurfürstendamm 199, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.2213DOI Listing
March 2009

Prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 6 mosaicism and phenotype of the affected newborn.

Am J Med Genet A 2004 Jan;124A(1):85-8

Institute of Human Genetics, Humboldt University Berlin, Campus Virchow, Kurfürstendamm 199, D-10719 Berlin, Germany.

The first case of a fetal trisomy 6 mosaicism proven at 25 weeks of gestation by analysis of fetal urine cells is described. Chromosomal analysis was indicated by an ultrasonographically diagnosed heart defect at 21 weeks of gestation. The chromosomal aberration was detected in amniotic fluid cells while fetal blood cells showed a normal chromosome set. At term a boy with normal growth parameter was born. In addition to the expected heart defect, malformations of hands and feet were present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.20407DOI Listing
January 2004

Chorioangioma--new insights into a well-known problem. I. Results of a clinical and morphological study of 136 cases.

J Perinat Med 2003 ;31(2):163-9

Department of Pediatric Pathology and Placentology, Charité, Campus-Virchow-Klinikum, Medical Faculty of Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Aims: Chorioangiomas are rare hamartomatous lesions. Possible correlations between their occurrence and the progression of a pregnancy have been objects of discussions for quite some time.

Methods: In a retrospective study 22439 unselected placentas were examined for incidences of chorioangiomas, morphological features and accompanying clinical characteristics.

Results: Chorioangiomas occur in 0.61% of pregnancies, they are mainly microscopically small, and 55% of them are localized subchorial. The rate of their occurrence rises almost linearly with maternal age; chorioangiomas are found most often in women who are over 30 years old. Hypertension and diabetes are found more often in combination with chorioangiomas than they are in otherwise normal pregnancies. In 72% of all cases girls were born; in 33% we also observed malfunctions in the maturation processes of the placental parenchyma, in particular arrested and delayed maturation of the villi. Premature births occur approximately three times more often in chorioangioma pregnancies than in normal ones. Chorioangiomas are often found in primipara and twin pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/JPM.2003.022DOI Listing
September 2003

Doppler sonography of uterine arteries at 20-23 weeks: risk assessment of adverse pregnancy outcome by quantification of impedance and notch.

J Perinat Med 2002 ;30(5):388-94

Free University of Berlin, Klinikum Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography of the uterine arteries (DSUA) at 20-23 gestational weeks as screening procedure in a low risk population.

Patients And Methods: The study group consisted of 7508 singleton low-risk pregnancies. Doppler sonography of both uterine arteries was performed as routine part of anomaly scan. Impedance of both uterine arteries was registered using the mean PI of the two uterine arteries. In case of notch, "Notch-Index" was defined as (C-D)/C with D = post-systolic nadir and C = following zenith of the waveform. Outcome variables were placental abruption, pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, intrauterine/neonatal death and preterm delivery before 32 completed gestational weeks. To discriminate normal and pathological waveform, incidence of adverse pregnancy outcome was related to four different definitions of pathological waveform. To describe the severity of impairment of perfusion, the frequency of adverse pregnancy outcome was related to different classes of impedance.

Results: To find a simple discrimination between normal and pathological uterine perfusion, best diagnostic performance was reached by a definition using a combination of high impedance and notch (no notch and mean PI > P'95 or unilateral notch and mean PI > P'90 or bilateral notch and mean PI > P'50). The prevalence of notch in nulliparae (8.5%) was higher than in parae (4.7%) and decreased with increasing gestational age (20 weeks: 8.6%-23 weeks: 5.4%). We found a clear relation between elevation of impedance, depth of notch and frequency of adverse pregnancy outcome with a frequency of complications varying from 3.2% (mean PI < or = 0.8, mean NI = 0.1) to 38.4% (mean PI > 2.0, mean NI > 0.1).

Conclusion: Doppler sonography of the uterine arteries at 20-23 weeks has the capacity to predict at least a part of severe forms of adverse pregnancy outcome and to assess the probability of complications by quantification of the impairment of the uterine blood flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/JPM.2002.060DOI Listing
March 2003