Publications by authors named "Michael Enders"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Murine Esophagus Expresses Glial-Derived Central Nervous System Antigens.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 22;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been considered to specifically affect the central nervous system (CNS) for a long time. As autonomic dysfunction including dysphagia can occur as accompanying phenomena in patients, the enteric nervous system has been attracting increasing attention over the past years. The aim of this study was to identify glial and myelin markers as potential target structures for autoimmune processes in the esophagus. RT-PCR analysis revealed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), proteolipid protein (PLP), and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression, but an absence of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in the murine esophagus. Selected immunohistochemistry for GFAP, PLP, and MBP including transgenic mice with cell-type specific expression of PLP and GFAP supported these results by detection of (1) GFAP, PLP, and MBP in Schwann cells in skeletal muscle and esophagus; (2) GFAP, PLP, but no MBP in perisynaptic Schwann cells of skeletal and esophageal motor endplates; (3) GFAP and PLP, but no MBP in glial cells surrounding esophageal myenteric neurons; and (4) PLP, but no GFAP and MBP in enteric glial cells forming a network in the esophagus. Our results pave the way for further investigations regarding the involvement of esophageal glial cells in the pathogenesis of dysphagia in MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22063233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004938PMC
March 2021

Bone marrow-derived myeloid progenitors in the leptomeninges of adult mice.

Stem Cells 2021 Feb 11;39(2):227-239. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Although the bone marrow contains most hematopoietic activity during adulthood, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells can be recovered from various extramedullary sites. Cells with hematopoietic progenitor properties have even been reported in the adult brain under steady-state conditions, but their nature and localization remain insufficiently defined. Here, we describe a heterogeneous population of myeloid progenitors in the leptomeninges of adult C57BL/6 mice. This cell pool included common myeloid, granulocyte/macrophage, and megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitors. Accordingly, it gave rise to all major myelo-erythroid lineages in clonogenic culture assays. Brain-associated progenitors persisted after tissue perfusion and were partially inaccessible to intravenous antibodies, suggesting their localization behind continuous blood vessel endothelium such as the blood-arachnoid barrier. Flt3 lineage tracing and bone marrow transplantation showed that the precursors were derived from adult hematopoietic stem cells and were most likely continuously replaced via cell trafficking. Importantly, their occurrence was tied to the immunologic state of the central nervous system (CNS) and was diminished in the context of neuroinflammation and ischemic stroke. Our findings confirm the presence of myeloid progenitors at the meningeal border of the brain and lay the foundation to unravel their possible functions in CNS surveillance and local immune cell production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.3311DOI Listing
February 2021

Strategies for Neuroprotection in Multiple Sclerosis and the Role of Calcium.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 28;21(5). Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Krankenhausstraße 9, D-91054 Erlangen, Germany.

Calcium ions are vital for maintaining the physiological and biochemical processes inside cells. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly dependent on calcium homeostasis and its dysregulation has been associated with several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease (HD), as well as with multiple sclerosis (MS). Hence, the modulation of calcium influx into the cells and the targeting of calcium-mediated signaling pathways may present a promising therapeutic approach for these diseases. This review provides an overview on calcium channels in neurons and glial cells. Special emphasis is put on MS, a chronic autoimmune disease of the CNS. While the initial relapsing-remitting stage of MS can be treated effectively with immune modulatory and immunosuppressive drugs, the subsequent progressive stage has remained largely untreatable. Here we summarize several approaches that have been and are currently being tested for their neuroprotective capacities in MS and we discuss which role calcium could play in this regard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084497PMC
February 2020

Non-invasive real-time characterization of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers using whispering gallery mode spectroscopy.

Opt Express 2019 Oct;27(21):30842-30851

Single-ring hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, consisting of a ring of one or two thin-walled glass capillaries surrounding a central hollow core, hold great promise for use in optical communications and beam delivery, and are already being successfully exploited for extreme pulse compression and efficient wavelength conversion in gases. However, achieving low loss over long (km) lengths requires highly accurate maintenance of the microstructure-a major fabrication challenge. In certain applications, for example adiabatic mode transformers, it is advantageous to taper the fibers, but no technique exists for measuring the delicate and complex microstructure without first cleaving the taper at several positions along its length. In this Letter, we present a simple non-destructive optical method for measuring the diameter of individual capillaries. Based on recording the spectrum scattered from whispering gallery modes excited in the capillary walls, the technique is highly robust, allowing real-time measurement of fiber structure during the draw with sub-micron accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.030842DOI Listing
October 2019

The enteric nervous system is a potential autoimmune target in multiple sclerosis.

Acta Neuropathol 2017 08 15;134(2):281-295. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults that has serious negative socioeconomic effects. In addition to symptoms caused by CNS pathology, the majority of MS patients frequently exhibit gastrointestinal dysfunction, which was previously either explained by the presence of spinal cord lesions or not directly linked to the autoimmune etiology of the disease. Here, we studied the enteric nervous system (ENS) in a B cell- and antibody-dependent mouse model of MS by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy at different stages of the disease. ENS degeneration was evident prior to the development of CNS lesions and the onset of neurological deficits in mice. The pathology was antibody mediated and caused a significant decrease in gastrointestinal motility, which was associated with ENS gliosis and neuronal loss. We identified autoantibodies against four potential target antigens derived from enteric glia and/or neurons by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Antibodies against three of the target antigens were also present in the plasma of MS patients as confirmed by ELISA. The analysis of human colon resectates provided evidence of gliosis and ENS degeneration in MS patients compared to non-MS controls. For the first time, this study establishes a pathomechanistic link between the well-established autoimmune attack on the CNS and ENS pathology in MS, which might provide a paradigm shift in our current understanding of the immunopathogenesis of the disease with broad diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-017-1742-6DOI Listing
August 2017