Publications by authors named "Michael Dobrovits"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Auricular acupressure as a treatment for anxiety before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the elderly.

J Urol 2007 Jul 17;178(1):160-4; discussion 164. Epub 2007 May 17.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: Auricular acupuncture at the relaxation point has been shown to be effective treatment for anxiety. We hypothesized that auricular acupressure may decrease anxiety in elderly individuals who are transported by ambulance before receiving ESWL.

Materials And Methods: We enrolled 100 patients with renal calculi who were transported to the local hospital by special ambulance, accompanied by 2 paramedics. Paramedic 1 performed data collection, while paramedic 2 performed auricular acupressure in patients randomly assigned to a relaxation group and a sham treated group. Anxiety was measured using a visual analog scale score on a scale of 0 to 100 mm.

Results: Each group consisted of 50 patients with similar demographic characteristics. The relaxation group had significantly decreased anxiety scores upon arrival at the hospital and lower anticipation of pain scores (mean+/-SD 57.6+/-21.8 to 15.4+/-9.8 and 35.7+/-29.7 to 9.5+/-4.1 mm VAS) than the sham treated group (55.5+/-25.9 to 49.8+/-28.9 and 37.7+/-24.1 to 33.8+/-25.2 mm VAS, respectively, 2-way repeated measure ANOVA each p=0.001). Estimated waiting times for treatment did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (5.0+/-2.5 and 5.5+/-2.95, respectively, repeated measures ANOVA p=0.83). The Post-Intervention Anxiety visual analog scale demonstrated the significant superiority of the true treatment group (19.5+/-5.9 and 66.8+/-27.9 mm VAS, respectively, p=0.001).

Conclusions: Elderly patients who received auricular acupressure at specific relaxation points while being transported to the hospital were less anxious, anticipated less pain and were more optimistic about the outcome of treatment that they will receive than the sham treated group. These data prove that this is an effective treatment for anxiety that improves the patient overall perception of ESWL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2007.03.019DOI Listing
July 2007

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation: an effective treatment for pain caused by renal colic in emergency care.

J Urol 2006 May;175(5):1737-41; discussion 1741

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: Acute renal colic is one of the most anguishing forms of pain in humans. We hypothesized that TENS is an effective pain treatment in patients with acute renal colic.

Materials And Methods: A total of 100 patients with acute flank pain and suspected renal colic consented to participate in our study. Paramedic 1 recorded baseline parameters at the emergency site and at the end of transportation. Paramedic 2 performed TENS in patients randomly assigned to G1 with actual TENS or to G2 with sham TENS. Pain and anxiety were measured using paper based visual analog scales on a scale of 0 to 100 mm.

Results: Of 100 screened patients 73 had renal colic, including 39 in G1 and 34 in G2. There was no significant difference with regard to potentially influencing factors, such as patient age, sex, weight, height, blood pressure and heart rate, pain, nausea and anxiety between the groups before treatment. G1 showed a significant mean pain decrease +/- SD of more than 50% (85.7 +/- 10.5 to 33.3 +/- 16.0 mm, p <0.01). G2 showed no variation in mean pain scores (85.8 +/- 18.0 to 82.6 +/- 14.3 mm). G1 showed changes in the mean anxiety score (69.0 +/- 8.4 to 37.7 +/- 15.1 mm, p <0.01), nausea score (90.7 +/- 9.2 to 44.9 +/- 22.0 mm) and heart rate (92 +/- 10 to 64 +/- 8 bpm), while G2 showed nonsignificant changes.

Conclusions: This trial shows that local TENS is a rapid and effective treatment for renal colic pain. We found TENS to be a good nondrug therapy under the difficult circumstances of out of hospital rescue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00980-8DOI Listing
May 2006

The Vienna nomogram: validation of a novel biopsy strategy defining the optimal number of cores based on patient age and total prostate volume.

J Urol 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1256-60; discussion 1260-1; author reply 1261

Department of Urology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: We conducted a trial in patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels from 2 to 10 ng/ml to validate a newly developed nomogram that defines the optimal number of biopsy cores required for prostate cancer (PCa) detection based on patient age and total prostate volume (Vienna nomogram).

Materials And Methods: A total of 502 patients underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy using the Vienna nomogram. These results were compared with those of a previous group of 1,051 patients who had standard octant biopsies followed by systematic repeat biopsies after 6 to 8 weeks if the initial biopsy result was negative for PCa.

Results: The overall PCa detection rate using the Vienna nomogram was 36.7% compared with 22% on first and 10% on repeat biopsy in the control group. The PCa detection rate using the Vienna nomogram was superior (p=0.002) to the octant biopsy technique, and comparable to a combination of first and repeat biopsy in the control group. Multivariate analysis of the Vienna nomogram showed that only PSA and the number of cores were independent predictors of PCa detection (chi-square = 49, p <0.001). Total prostate volume, transition zone volume and age were not independent predictors of PCa detection.

Conclusions: The Vienna nomogram offers an easy tool to select the optimal number of prostate biopsy cores based on patient age and total prostate volume in PSA range 2 to 10 ng/ml. Cancer detection is significantly improved (66.4%) compared to the control group. The bias factor of larger prostate volume is eliminated by using the Vienna nomogram. Moreover, the Vienna nomogram is advantageous not only in terms of the improved PCa detection rate but also economically makes systematic repeat biopsies unnecessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000173924.83392.ccDOI Listing
October 2005

Can Power Doppler enhanced transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy improve prostate cancer detection on first and repeat prostate biopsy?

Eur Urol 2004 Oct;46(4):451-6

Department of Urology, University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, Austria.

Objective: To determine the utility of Power Doppler enhanced transrectal ultrasound (PD-TRUS) and its guided prostate biopsies in men with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels between 2.5 and 10 ng/ml and to evaluate its impact on prostate cancer (PCa) detection in men undergoing first and repeat biopsies.

Methods: A total of 136 consecutive referred men with serum total PSA (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA) levels between 2.5 and 10 ng/ml (mean age 64 +/- 9 years, range 45-82) and a normal digital rectal examination were included. 101 underwent a first biopsy whereas 35 had repeat biopsy. Gray-scale transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), and PD-TRUS (B&K Medical, Denmark) were performed in lithotomy position before and during the biopsy procedure. Vascularity accumulation and perfusion characteristics were recorded and graded as normal or abnormal in the peripheral zone of the prostate. A Vienna-nomogram based biopsy regime was performed in all patients on first biopsy and a special biopsy regime on repeat biopsy plus additional biopsies from abnormal sites on PD-TRUS.

Results: Overall PCa detection rate was 34.7% and 25.7% and abnormal accumulation on PD-TRUS was identified in 42.3% and 48.6% on first and repeat biopsy, respectively. The PCa detection rate, on first and repeat biopsy in patients with and without PD-TRUS accumulation were 67.4% versus 10.3% (p < 0.001) and 47.05% versus 5.6% (p = 0.0049), respectively. PD-TRUS directed biopsies were positive in 5.7% and 11.1% on first and repeat biopsy whereas PCa detection using the routine prostate biopsy regime was 94.3% and 88.9% on first and repeat biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PD-TRUS signal alone for PCa detection on first biopsy was 82.8%, 78.8%, 87.9% and 89.7%, respectively, and 88.8%, 68.0%, 47.0% and 94.4% on repeat biopsy, respectively. In comparison, the results PD-TRUS guided biopsies were 53.8%, 59.1%, 16.7%, and 89.5%, on first biopsy, respectively, and 20.0%, 13.3%, 23.5%, 11.1% on repeat biopsy, respectively.

Conclusion: Negative PD-TRUS signal is able to exclude most of the patients without PCa in the PSA range of 2.5-10 ng/ml. As an additional tool at TRUS biopsy PD-TRUS has a high negative predictive value and may help to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2004.06.002DOI Listing
October 2004

Local active warming: an effective treatment for pain, anxiety and nausea caused by renal colic.

J Urol 2003 Sep;170(3):741-4

Departments of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, General Hospital, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: Based on previous studies showing that warming decreases trauma pain in emergency care we hypothesized that local active warming of the abdomen and lower back region could decrease pain in acute renal colic cases during emergency transport.

Materials And Methods: After obtaining informed consent 100 patients were divided into 2 groups, including those who received active warming of the abdomen and lower back region (42C) and those who received no warming. Pain, nausea and anxiety were rated by the patients using visual analog scales. Statistical evaluation was performed using the t test with p <0.05 considered significant.

Results: In group 1 a significant pain decrease was recorded in all cases using a visual analog score (VAS) (82.7 +/- 9.5 to 36.3 +/- 16.0 mm VAS, p <0.01). In group 2 patient pain scores remained comparable (81.8 +/- 13.0 to 80.6 +/- 12.3 mm VAS). In group 1 anxiety significantly decreased (79.0 +/- 8.9 and 30.7 +/- 14.1 mm VAS before and after treatment, respectively, p <0.01). In group 2 a nonsignificant change in score was noted (79.7 +/- 20.5 to 75.2 +/- 19.7 mm VAS). In group 1 a significant decrease in nausea was recorded in all cases (85.7 +/- 11.2 to 40.6 +/- 23.0 mm VAS, p <0.01). In group 2 patient nausea scores remained comparable (79.2 +/- 22.0 to 80.3 +/- 22.4 mm VAS, respectively).

Conclusions: Local active warming is an effective and easy to learn pain treatment for patients with acute renal colic in emergency care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000080570.83834.adDOI Listing
September 2003

The value of switching from cyclosporine to tacrolimus in the treatment of refractory acute rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation.

Transpl Int 2002 Jan 18;15(1):24-8. Epub 2002 Jan 18.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Austria.

Standard cyclosporine-based immunosuppression is ineffective in the treatment of refractory acute rejection (RAR) and obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) that follows lung transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of switching from cyclosporine to tacrolimus in the treatment of these situations. Nineteen patients entered the study. The indication for switching was OB in 11 patients and RAR in 8. Mean age was 41.3 +/- 13.1 years. In patients with RAR, the number of acute rejections was 1.5 +/- 0.7 and there were zero episodes per patient per 100 days before and after switching, respectively ( P = 0.02). There was no significant reduction of the decline of forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) within 6 months after switching in patients with OB. We conclude that the conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus was associated with favourable results in the treatment of RAR. Further studies are required to assess the influence of this approach in the treatment of OB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00147-001-0370-0DOI Listing
January 2002