Publications by authors named "Michael Devitt"

9 Publications

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Immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced upper and lower tract urothelial carcinoma: a comparison of outcomes.

BJU Int 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Objectives: To compare clinical outcomes between patients with locally advanced (unresectable) or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (aUC) in the upper and lower urinary tract receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).

Patients And Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study collecting clinicopathological, treatment, and outcome data for patients with aUC receiving ICIs from 2013 to 2020 across 24 institutions. We compared the objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) between patients with upper and lower tract UC (UTUC, LTUC). Uni- and multivariable logistic and Cox regression were used to assess the effect of UTUC on ORR, OS, and PFS. Subgroup analyses were performed stratified based on histology (pure, mixed) and line of treatment (first line, subsequent line).

Results: Out of a total of 746 eligible patients, 707, 717, and 738 were included in the ORR, OS, and PFS analyses, respectively. Our results did not contradict the hypothesis that patients with UTUC and LTUC had similar ORRs (24% vs 28%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-1.24), OS (median 9.8 vs 9.6 months; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.93, 95% CI 0.73-1.19), and PFS (median 4.3 vs 4.1 months; aHR 1.01, 95% CI 0.81-1.27). Patients with mixed-histology UTUC had a significantly lower ORR and shorter PFS vs mixed-histology LTUC (aOR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.91 and aHR 1.66, 95% CI 1.06-2.59), respectively).

Conclusion: Overall, patients with UTUC and LTUC receiving ICIs have comparable treatment response and outcomes. Subgroup analyses based on histology showed that those with mixed-histology UTUC had a lower ORR and shorter PFS compared to mixed-histology LTUC. Further studies and evaluation of molecular biomarkers can help refine patient selection for immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15324DOI Listing
February 2021

A New Prognostic Model in Patients with Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma Treated with First-line Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

Eur Urol Oncol 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: While immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are approved in the first-line (1L) setting for cisplatin-unfit patients with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-high tumors or for platinum (cisplatin/carboplatin)-unfit patients, response rates remain modest and outcomes vary with no clinically useful biomarkers (except for PD-L1).

Objective: We aimed to develop a prognostic model for overall survival (OS) in patients receiving 1L ICIs for advanced urothelial cancer (aUC) in a multicenter cohort study.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Patients treated with 1L ICIs for aUC across 24 institutions and five countries (in the USA and Europe) outside clinical trials were included in this study.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: We used a stepwise, hypothesis-driven approach using clinician-selected covariates to develop a new risk score for patients receiving ICIs in the 1L setting. Demographics, clinicopathologic data, treatment patterns, and OS were collected uniformly. Univariate Cox regression was performed on 18 covariates hypothesized to be associated with OS based on published data. Variables were retained for multivariate analysis (MVA) if they correlated with OS (p < 0.2) and were included in the final model if p < 0.05 on MVA. Retained covariates were assigned points based on the beta coefficient to create a risk score. Stratified median OS and C-statistic were calculated.

Results And Limitations: Among 984 patients, 357 with a mean age of 71 yr were included in the analysis, 27% were female, 68% had pure UC, and 13% had upper tract UC. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2, albumin <3.5 g/dl, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio >5, and liver metastases were significant prognostic factors on MVA and were included in the risk score. C index for new 1L risk score was 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.65-0.71). Limitations include retrospective nature and lack of external validation.

Conclusions: We developed a new 1L ICI risk score for OS based on data from patients with aUC treated with ICIs in the USA and Europe outside of clinical trials. The score components highlight readily available factors related to tumor biology and treatment response. External validation is being pursued.

Patient Summary: With multiple new treatments under development and approved for advanced urothelial carcinoma, it can be difficult to identify the best treatment sequence for each patient. The risk score may help inform treatment discussions and estimate outcomes in patients treated with first-line immune checkpoint inhibitors, while it can also impact clinical trial design and endpoints. TAKE  HOME MESSAGE: A new risk score was developed for advanced urothelial carcinoma treated with first-line immune checkpoint inhibitors. The score assigned Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2, albumin <3.5 g/dl, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio >5, and liver metastases each one point, with a higher score being associated with worse overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2020.12.006DOI Listing
January 2021

Histological Subtypes and Response to PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade in Advanced Urothelial Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

J Urol 2020 07 23;204(1):63-70. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Purpose: Urinary tract cancer can be pure urothelial carcinoma, pure nonurothelial carcinoma or variant urothelial carcinoma (defined here as mixed urothelial carcinoma). Little is known regarding outcomes for patients with variant urothelial carcinoma receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors. We hypothesized that variant urothelial carcinoma does not compromise immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study across 18 institutions. Demographic, clinicopathological, treatment and outcomes data were collected for patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma who received immune checkpoint inhibitors. Patients were divided into pure vs variant urothelial carcinoma subgroups, with variant urothelial carcinoma further divided by type of variant (ie squamous, neuroendocrine etc). We compared overall response rate using univariate and multivariate logistic regression and progression-free survival and overall survival using Kaplan-Meier and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards.

Results: Overall 519 patients were identified, with 395, 406 and 403 included in overall response rate, overall survival and progression-free survival analyses, respectively. Overall response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors between patients with pure vs variant urothelial carcinoma was comparable (28% vs 29%, p=0.90) without significant differences for individual subtypes vs pure urothelial carcinoma. Median overall survival for patients with pure urothelial carcinoma was 11.0 months vs 10.1 months for variant urothelial carcinoma (p=0.60), but only 4.6 months for patients with neuroendocrine features (9 patients, HR 2.75, 95% CI 1.40-5.40 vs pure urothelial carcinoma, p=0.003). Median progression-free survival was 4.1 months for pure vs 5.2 months for variant urothelial carcinoma (p=0.43) and 3.7 months for neuroendocrine features (HR 1.87, 95% CI 0.92-3.79 vs pure urothelial carcinoma, p=0.09).

Conclusions: Overall response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors was comparable across histological types. However, overall survival was worse for patients with tumors containing neuroendocrine features. Variant urothelial carcinoma should not exclude patients from receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000000761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289665PMC
July 2020

Impact of performance status on treatment outcomes: A real-world study of advanced urothelial cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Cancer 2020 03 12;126(6):1208-1216. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent an appealing treatment for patients with advanced urothelial cancer (aUC) and a poor performance status (PS). However, the benefit of ICIs for patients with a poor PS remains unknown. It was hypothesized that a poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PS (≥2 vs 0-1) would correlate with shorter overall survival (OS) in patients receiving ICIs.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, clinicopathologic, treatment, and outcome data were collected for patients with aUC who were treated with ICIs at 18 institutions (2013-2019). The overall response rate (ORR) and OS were compared for patients with an ECOG PS of 0 to 1 and patients with an ECOG PS ≥ 2 at ICI initiation. The association between a new ICI in the last 30 and 90 days of life (DOL) and death location was also tested.

Results: Of the 519 patients treated with ICIs, 395 and 384 were included in OS and ORR analyses, respectively, with 26% and 24% having a PS ≥ 2. OS was higher in those with a PS of 0 to 1 than those with a PS ≥ 2 who were treated in the first line (median, 15.2 vs 7.2 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.62; P = .01) but not in subsequent lines (median, 9.8 vs 8.2 months; HR, 0.78; P = .27). ORRs were similar for patients with a PS of 0 to 1 and patients with a PS ≥ 2 in both lines. Of the 288 patients who died, 10% and 32% started ICIs in the last 30 and 90 DOL, respectively. ICI initiation in the last 30 DOL was associated with increased odds of death in a hospital (odds ratio, 2.89; P = .04).

Conclusions: Despite comparable ORRs, ICIs may not overcome the negative prognostic role of a poor PS, particularly in the first-line setting, and the initiation of ICIs in the last 30 DOL was associated with hospital death location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7050422PMC
March 2020

Evolving Role of Genomics in Genitourinary Neoplasms.

Acta Med Acad 2019 Apr;48(1):68-77

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Virginia School of Medicine.

The aim of this article is to review the current role of genomic testing in the risk, prognosis, and treatment of genitourinary malignancies. The authors selected guidelines, publications, and abstracts relevant to the current and emerging role of genomics in genitourinary cancers. The risk of developing genitourinary cancer can be stratified based on genomic data. Prostate cancer has the strongest degree of heritability, with BRCA1/2 and HOXB13 mutations playing a role in familial disease. Genomic data is on the verge of informing treatment decisions across genitourinary cancers. mCRPC has diverse genomic alterations that represent potential therapeutic targets, including alterations in the AR pathway, DNA damage and repair pathways, cell cycle pathways, PI3K pathway, and Wnt signaling. Genomic alterations in clear cell renal cell carcinoma can inform prognosis and mutations in mTOR pathways predict response to mTOR inhibitors. Urothelial carcinoma can be classified into different subtypes based on gene expression profiling, which provides prognostic information and predicts response to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Specific mutations have been identified that predict response to therapy including ERCC2 mutations and cisplatin, DNA damage and repair mutations and checkpoint inhibitors, and FGFR3 mutations and FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as erdafitinib. CONCLUSION: Genitourinary malignancies have not felt the impact of genomic data as greatly as other cancer types. The majority of benefit lies in identifying patients at high risk of genitourinary cancer. Fortunately, breakthroughs are on the horizon that will result in a greater incorporation of genomic information into treatment decisions for patients with genitourinary cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5644/ama2006-124.243DOI Listing
April 2019

Historical biological essentialism.

Authors:
Michael Devitt

Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci 2018 10 10;71:1-7. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Graduate Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.shpsc.2018.05.004DOI Listing
October 2018

Risk of Major Bleeding with Ibrutinib.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2018 11 1;18(11):755-761. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA.

Background: The Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ibrutinib, is an effective therapy against mature B-cell malignancies. Although generally well tolerated, serious bleeding emerged during developmental clinical trials as an unexpected, although uncommon, adverse event. As the use of ibrutinib increases outside of the clinical trial setting and in patients with more comorbidities, the rate of major bleeding could be greater.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis the data from all patients at our center and its regional clinics who had been prescribed ibrutinib from January 2012 to May 2016 were reviewed for demographic data, comorbid illnesses, bleeding events, and concurrent medications.

Results: We identified 70 patients. Bleeding of any grade occurred in 56% of patients, mostly grade 1 to 2 bruising and epistaxis. Major bleeding, defined as grade ≥ 3, occurred in 19% of patients, greater than previously reported. Anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/dL; hazard ratio [HR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-18.2; P = .02) and an elevated international normalized ratio (> 1.5; HR, 9.5; 95% CI, 2.7-33.5; P < .01) at ibrutinib initiation were associated with an increased risk of major bleeding. Of those with major bleeding, most patients were also taking an antiplatelet agent (70%), an anticoagulant (17%), or a CYP 3A4 inhibitor (7%), with 13% taking both antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications. The use of both antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy significantly increased the risk of a major bleed event (HR, 19.2; 95% CI, 2.3-166.7; P < .01).

Conclusion: The results of the present study have demonstrated a greater rate of major bleeding with ibrutinib use in a standard clinical setting than previously reported. Patients with anemia or an elevated international normalized ratio or requiring anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet medications during ibrutinib therapy have a significantly increased risk of major bleeding. Careful consideration of the risks and benefits for this population is needed. The combination of antiplatelet and anticoagulation medications with ibrutinib therapy is of particular concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2018.07.287DOI Listing
November 2018

The Reference of Proper Names: Testing Usage and Intuitions.

Cogn Sci 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Philosophy Program, Graduate Center, City University of New York.

Experiments on theories of reference have mostly tested referential intuitions. We think that experiments should rather be testing linguistic usage. Substantive Aim (I): to test classical description theories of proper names against usage by "elicited production." Our results count decisively against those theories. Methodological Aim (I): Machery, Olivola, and de Blanc () claim that truth-value judgment experiments test usage. Martí () disagrees. We argue that Machery et al. are right and offer some results that are consistent with that conclusion. Substantive Aim (II): Machery et al. provide evidence that the usage of a name varies, being sometimes descriptive, sometimes not. In seven out of eight tests of usage, we did not replicate this variation. Methodological Aim (II): to test the reliability of referential intuitions by comparing them with linguistic usage. Earlier studies led us to predict that we would find those intuitions unreliable, but we did not. Our results add to evidence that tests of referential intuition are susceptible to unpredictable wording effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12609DOI Listing
April 2018

PIDS and IDSA issue management guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia in infants and young children.

Authors:
Michael Devitt

Am Fam Physician 2012 Jul;86(2):196-202

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July 2012