Publications by authors named "Michael D Thatcher"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of "Toolkit" consisting of handheld and portable analytical devices for detecting active pharmaceutical ingredients in drug products collected during a simultaneous nation-wide mail blitz.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jun 2;203:114183. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Forensic Chemistry Center, Office of Regulatory Science, Office of Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Food & Drug Administration, Cincinnati, OH, 45237, USA.

A "toolkit" consisting of a handheld Raman spectrometer equipped with a 1064 nm laser, a portable Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and a portable direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometer (DART-MS) was employed in a laboratory setting to examine 82 representative products collected during a nationwide mail blitz for the presence of APIs. These results were compared to those obtained using laboratory-based methods; 8 of the products were not found to contain APIs and 74 of the products were found to contain a total of 88 APIs (65 of the 88 APIs were unique). The individual performance of each device and combined performance of the three-device toolkit were evaluated with regard to true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives. Using this toolkit, 81 (92.0 %) of the APIs were detected by at least one technique and 47 (64.8 %) of the APIs were detected by at least two techniques. Seven false negatives (8.0 %) were encountered and while the toolkit yielded 12 false positives, no false positives were detected by more than one technique. Overall, this study demonstrated that when the toolkit detects an API using two or more devices, the results are as reliable as those generated by a full-service laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114183DOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluation of four field portable devices for the rapid detection of mitragynine in suspected kratom products.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jul 30;201:114104. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Forensic Chemistry Center, 6751 Steger Drive, Cincinnati, OH, 45237, USA. Electronic address:

The development of a method for the rapid screening of food and drug products for constituents such as mitragynine, the most abundant alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) plant leaves, has become increasingly important. The use of kratom is said to produce stimulant or narcotic effects and poses risks of addiction, abuse, and dependence, much like other opioids. Direct Analysis in Real Time with thermal desorption mass spectrometry (DART-TD-MS), hand-held mass spectrometry, portable ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and portable Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were each evaluated as field-deployable screening techniques for the detection of mitragynine in food and drug products. These devices offer the potential for rapid, early detection of mitragynine in suspect products entering the United States through international mail facilities and other ports of entry. Ninety-six kratom products, including capsules, bulk powder, and bulk plant material, were analyzed by either direct sampling of the solid material or by solvent extraction. True and false positive and negative results are reported, based on comparison to results from qualitative screening using gas chromatography with mass spectral detection (GC-MS), liquid chromatography with mass spectral detection (LC-MS), and/or quantitative screening using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV), with a discussion of the assessment of each technique for use in the field. Each device demonstrated attributes that would be favorable for use in screening of suspected mitragynine-containing products at places like ports of entry, and simultaneous deployment of two or more of these devices as part of a workflow would be the most effective for rapid screening of these products. This combination of rapid screening orthogonal techniques suited to a non-laboratory environment will allow onsite destruction of products found to contain mitragynine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114104DOI Listing
July 2021

Detection of Mitragynine in Mitragyna Speciosa (Kratom) Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Handheld Devices.

J Forensic Sci 2020 Sep 26;65(5):1443-1449. Epub 2020 May 26.

Forensic Chemistry Center, Office of Regulatory Science, Office of Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Food & Drug Administration, Cincinnati, OH, 45237.

A simple, quick, selective, sensitive, and effective field-friendly method capable of being used by nonexperts has been developed for detecting mitragynine in Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Over 100 samples and blanks (known to be either positive or negative for the presence of mitragynine) were examined in duplicate using five identical handheld Raman spectrometers, which provided a data set of over 1,000 examinations. Based on the results of these analyses, the method yielded a true-positive rate of 99.3%, a true-negative rate of 97.9%, a false-positive rate of 2.1%, and a false-negative rate of 0.7%. The average minimum detectable concentration (C ) of mitragynine that reproducibly yielded a match for one of the library spectra on all five instruments was determined to be 342 ng/mL (ppb). This C value is a conservative estimate considering that the extraction process was not fully optimized by this study, which was not necessary since the C value achieved was well below typical mitragynine concentrations in kratom (1.3-2.3%). The method is ideal (i) for prioritizing samples for additional testing using other more time-consuming laboratory-based techniques needed to detect and quantify mitragynine and (ii) for field use at international mail facility (IMF) satellite laboratories to help interdict kratom and prevent this dangerous product from reaching the U.S. supply chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14457DOI Listing
September 2020

Evaluation of Suspected Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Tablets Declared to Contain Controlled Substances Using Handheld Raman Spectrometers.

J Forensic Sci 2020 Jul 27;65(4):1274-1279. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Forensic Chemistry Center, Office of Regulatory Science, Office of Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Food & Drug Administration, Cincinnati, OH, 45237.

This study describes the performance of handheld Raman devices for determining whether suspect pharmaceutical tablets declared to contain controlled substances were consistent with authentic (CWA) or not consistent with authentic (NCWA) tablets using a simple, rapid, field-friendly method capable of being used by nonexperts. Twenty-five authentic products and 84 known NCWA tablets were examined using three "parent" devices for a total of 327 analyses. On average, the parent devices yielded a true pass rate of 100%, a true fail rate of 98.4%, a false pass rate of 1.6%, and a false fail rate of 0%. The methods/libraries were then transferred to 13 identical "daughter" devices, which were used to examine 10 suspect finished dosage forms in duplicate (six known NCWA tablets and four authentic tablets) for a total of 260 measurements. On average, the daughter devices had a true pass rate of 100%, a true fail rate of 95.5%, a false pass rate of 4.5%, and a false fail rate of 0.0%. These data demonstrate that the parent-daughter electronic transfer method was successful, which permits the ability to develop methods in the laboratory that can be seamlessly pushed out to field devices. The methods can then be used to (i) prioritize samples for additional testing using other more time-consuming laboratory-based techniques needed to detect and quantify active ingredients and (ii) help support the interdiction of dangerous tablets at ports of entry, thereby preventing them from reaching the supply chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14287DOI Listing
July 2020