Publications by authors named "Michael D Jain"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Incidence and Management of Effusions Before and After CD19-Directed Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cell Therapy in Large B Cell Lymphoma.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Mar 27;27(3):242.e1-242.e6. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida; Department of Oncologic Sciences, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. Electronic address:

In patients with lymphoma, third-space fluid accumulations may develop or worsen during cytokine release syndrome (CRS) associated with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. Pre-existing symptomatic pleural effusions were excluded by the ZUMA-1 trial of axicabtagene ciloleucel for large B cell lymphoma (LBCL) and variants. The incidence and management of effusions during CAR T cell therapy for LBCL are unknown. We performed a single-center retrospective study evaluating 148 patients receiving CD19-directed CAR T cell therapy for LBCL between May 2015 and September 2019. We retrospectively identified patients who had radiographic pleural, pericardial, or peritoneal effusions that were present prior to the time of CAR T infusion (pre-CAR T) or that newly developed during the first 30 days after CAR T-cell infusion (post-CAR T). Of 148 patients, 19 patients had a pre-CAR T effusion, 17 patients without pre-existing effusion developed a new infusion after CAR T, and 112 patients had no effusions. Comparing pre-CAR T effusions to new effusions post-CAR T, pre-CAR T effusions were more often malignant (84% versus 12%), persistent beyond 30 days (95% versus 18%), and required interventional drainage after CAR T infusion (79% versus 0%). Compared to patients with no effusion, patients with pre-CAR T therapy effusions had a higher frequency of high-risk baseline characteristics, such as bulky disease and high International Prognostic Index. Similarly, patients with pre-CAR T therapy effusions had a higher rate of toxicity with grade 3 or higher CRS occurring in 32% of patients. On multivariate analysis adjusting for age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status, bulky disease, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase, a pre-CAR T therapy effusion was associated with reduced overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 5.03; P = .03). Moreover, there was higher non-relapse mortality (11% versus 1%; P = .005). Post-CAR T effusions were not associated with significant difference in survival. Effusions commonly complicate CAR T cell therapy for lymphoma. Malignant effusions that occur prior to CAR T therapy are frequently persistent and require therapeutic intervention, and patients have a higher rate of toxicity and death. Effusions that newly occur after CAR T therapy can generally be managed medically and tend not to persist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.12.025DOI Listing
March 2021

Quality of life in caregivers of patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.

Psychooncology 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Health Outcomes and Behavior, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, USA.

Objective: Informal family caregivers provide critical support for patients receiving chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. However, caregivers' experiences are largely unstudied. This study examined quality of life (QOL; physical functioning, pain, fatigue, anxiety, and depression), caregiving burden, and treatment-related distress in caregivers in the first 6 months after CAR T-cell therapy, when caregivers were expected to be most involved in providing care. Relationships between patients' clinical course and caregiver outcomes were also explored.

Methods: Caregivers completed measures examining QOL and burden before patients' CAR T-cell therapy and at days 90 and 180. Treatment-related distress was assessed at days 90 and 180. Patients' clinical variables were extracted from medical charts. Change in outcomes was assessed using means and 99% confidence intervals. Association of change in outcomes with patient clinical variables was assessed with backward elimination analysis.

Results: A total of 99 caregivers (mean age 59, 73% female) provided data. Regarding QOL, pain was significantly higher than population norms at baseline but improved by day 180 (p < .01). Conversely, anxiety worsened over time (p < .01). Caregiver burden and treatment-related distress did not change over time. Worsening caregiver depression by day 180 was associated with lower patient baseline performance status (p < .01). Worse caregiver treatment-related distress at day 180 was associated with lower performance status, intensive care unit admission, and lack of disease response at day 90 (ps < 0.01).

Conclusions: Some CAR T-cell therapy caregivers experience pain, anxiety, and burden, which may be associated patients' health status. Further research is warranted regarding the experience of CAR T-cell therapy caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.5674DOI Listing
March 2021

Acute patient-reported outcomes in B-cell malignancies treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel.

Cancer Med 2021 03 28;10(6):1936-1943. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Health Outcomes and Behavior, Tampa, FL, USA.

Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) has considerably improved survival in adults with relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma. This study reports patient-reported outcomes (PROs) such as quality of life (QOL) and toxicity in the first 90 days after treatment. Hematologic cancer patients treated with axi-cel (N = 103, mean age = 61, 39% female) completed SF-36 or PROMIS-29 QOL questionnaires prior to treatment and 90 days after. PRO-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events toxicity items were completed by patients at baseline and 14, 30, 60, and 90 days after treatment. Mixed models examined change in PROs over time. From preinfusion to 90 days later, patients reported improvements in physical functioning, pain, and fatigue (ps < 0.01), but worsening of anxiety (p = 0.02). Patient-reported toxicities worsened by day 14 with improvement thereafter. The five most severe symptoms at day 14 included fatigue, decreased appetite, dry mouth, diarrhea frequency, and problems with concentration. Results indicate improvement in some domains of QOL over time with transient patient-reported toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957158PMC
March 2021

A phase 2 trial of GVHD prophylaxis with PTCy, sirolimus, and MMF after peripheral blood haploidentical transplantation.

Blood Adv 2021 Mar;5(5):1154-1163

Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, and.

The introduction of posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) made performing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA haplotype-incompatible donors possible. In a setting of PTCy and tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, a peripheral blood (PB) graft source as compared with bone marrow reduces the relapse rate but increases acute GVHD (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). This phase 2 trial assessed sirolimus and MMF efficacy following PTCy as a GVHD prophylaxis after PB haploidentical HCT (haplo-HCT). With 32 evaluable patients (≥18 years) enrolled, this study had 90% power to demonstrate a reduction in 100-day grade II-IV aGVHD to 20% from the historical benchmark of 40% after haplo-HCT using PTCy/tacrolimus/MMF. At a median follow-up of 16.1 months, the primary end point of the trial was met with a day-100 grade II-IV aGVHD cumulative incidence of 18.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5% to 34.0%). There were no graft-failure events and the 1-year probability of National Institutes of Health (NIH) moderate/severe cGVHD was 18.8% (95% CI, 7.4% to 34.0%), nonrelapse mortality was 18.8% (95% CI, 7.4% to 34.0%), relapse was 22.2% (95% CI, 9.6% to 38.2%), disease-free survival was 59.0% (95% CI, 44.1% to 79.0%), GVHD-free relapse-free survival was 49.6% (95% CI, 34.9% to 70.5%), and overall survival was 71.7% (95% CI, 57.7% to 89.2%) for the entire cohort. These data demonstrate that GVHD prophylaxis with sirolimus/MMF following PTCy effectively prevents grade II-IV aGVHD after PB haplo-HCT, warranting prospective comparison of sirolimus vs tacrolimus in combination with MMF following PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis after PB HCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03018223.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948297PMC
March 2021

Tumor interferon signaling and suppressive myeloid cells are associated with CAR T-cell failure in large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood 2021 May;137(19):2621-2633

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy.

Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) is a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy for relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). This study evaluated whether immune dysregulation, present before CAR T-cell therapy, was associated with treatment failure. Tumor expression of interferon (IFN) signaling, high blood levels of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs), and high blood interleukin-6 and ferritin levels were each associated with a lack of durable response. Similar to other cancers, we found that in LBCL tumors, IFN signaling is associated with the expression of multiple checkpoint ligands, including programmed cell death-ligand 1, and these were higher in patients who lacked durable responses to CAR-T therapy. Moreover, tumor IFN signaling and blood M-MDSCs associated with decreased axi-cel expansion. Finally, patients with high tumor burden had higher immune dysregulation with increased serum inflammatory markers and tumor IFN signaling. These data support that immune dysregulation in LBCL promotes axi-cel resistance via multiple mechanistic programs: insufficient axi-cel expansion associated with both circulating M-MDSC and tumor IFN signaling, which also gives rise to expression of immune checkpoint ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020007445DOI Listing
May 2021

High metabolic tumor volume is associated with decreased efficacy of axicabtagene ciloleucel in large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 07;4(14):3268-3276

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, and.

High metabolic tumor volume (MTV) predicts worse outcomes in lymphoma treated with chemotherapy. However, it is unknown if this holds for patients treated with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), an anti-CD19 targeted chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between MTV and survival (overall survival [OS] and progression-free survival [PFS]) in patients with relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) treated with axi-cel. Secondary objectives included finding the association of MTV with response rates and toxicity. The MTV values on baseline positron emission tomography of 96 patients were calculated via manual methodology using commercial software. Based on a median MTV cutoff value of 147.5 mL in the first cohort (n = 48), patients were divided into high and low MTV groups. Median follow-up for survivors was 24.98 months (range, 10.59-51.02 months). Patients with low MTV had significantly superior OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10-0.66) and PFS (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.89). Results were successfully validated in a second cohort of 48 patients with a median follow-up for survivors of 12.03 months (range, 0.89-25.74 months). Patients with low MTV were found to have superior OS (HR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.05-0.42) and PFS (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.69). In conclusion, baseline MTV is associated with OS and PFS in axi-cel recipients with LBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391155PMC
July 2020

Standard-of-Care Axicabtagene Ciloleucel for Relapsed or Refractory Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Results From the US Lymphoma CAR T Consortium.

J Clin Oncol 2020 09 13;38(27):3119-3128. Epub 2020 May 13.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL.

Purpose: Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) is an autologous CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy approved for relapsed/refractory large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) on the basis of the single-arm phase II ZUMA-1 trial, which showed best overall and complete response rates in infused patients of 83% and 58%, respectively. We report clinical outcomes with axi-cel in the standard-of-care (SOC) setting for the approved indication.

Patients And Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from all patients with relapsed/refractory LBCL who underwent leukapheresis as of September 30, 2018, at 17 US institutions with the intent to receive SOC axi-cel. Toxicities were graded and managed according to each institution's guidelines. Responses were assessed as per Lugano 2014 classification.

Results: Of 298 patients who underwent leukapheresis, 275 (92%) received axi-cel therapy. Compared with the registrational ZUMA-1 trial, 129 patients (43%) in this SOC study would not have met ZUMA-1 eligibility criteria because of comorbidities at the time of leukapheresis. Among the axi-cel-treated patients, grade ≥ 3 cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity occurred in 7% and 31%, respectively. Nonrelapse mortality was 4.4%. Best overall and complete response rates in infused patients were 82% (95% CI, 77% to 86%) and 64% (95% CI, 58% to 69%), respectively. At a median follow-up of 12.9 months from the time of CAR T-cell infusion, median progression-free survival was 8.3 months (95% CI, 6.0 to15.1 months), and median overall survival was not reached. Patients with poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2-4 and elevated lactate dehydrogenase had shorter progression-free and overall survival on univariable and multivariable analysis.

Conclusion: The safety and efficacy of axi-cel in the SOC setting in patients with relapsed/refractory LBCL was comparable to the registrational ZUMA-1 trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.02104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499611PMC
September 2020

Immune reconstitution and associated infections following axicabtagene ciloleucel in relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma.

Haematologica 2021 Apr 1;106(4):978-986. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Dept. of Blood and Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, USA.

CD19 CAR T-cell therapy with axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) for relapsed or refractory (R/R) large B cell lymphoma (LBCL) may lead to durable remissions, however, prolonged cytopenias and infections may occur. In this single center retrospective study of 85 patients, we characterized immune reconstitution and infections for patients remaining in remission after axi-cel for LBCL. Prolonged cytopenias (those occurring at or after day 30 following infusion) were common with >= grade 3 neutropenia seen in 21/70 (30-0%) patients at day 30 and persisting in 3/31 (9-7%) patients at 1 year. B cells were undetectable in 30/34 (88-2%) patients at day 30, but were detected in 11/19 (57-9%) at 1 year. Median IgG levels reached a nadir at day 180. By contrast, CD4 T cells decreased from baseline and were persistently low with a median CD4 count of 155 cells/μl at 1 year after axi-cel (n=19, range 33 - 269). In total, 23/85 (27-1%) patients received IVIG after axi-cel, and 34/85 (40-0%) received G-CSF. Infections in the first 30 days occurred in 31/85 (36-5%) patients, of which 11/85 (12-9%) required intravenous antibiotics or hospitalization ("severe") and were associated with cytokine release syndrome (CRS), neurotoxicity, tocilizumab use, corticosteroid use, and bridging therapy on univariate analyses. After day 30, 7 severe infections occurred, with no late deaths due to infection. Prolonged cytopenias are common following axi-cel therapy for LBCL and typically recover with time. Most patients experience profound and prolonged CD4 T cell immunosuppression without severe infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.238634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017820PMC
April 2021

Failure of rituximab is associated with a poor outcome in diffuse large B cell lymphoma-type post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

Br J Haematol 2020 04 18;189(1):97-105. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) may arise after solid organ transplantation, and the most common subtype resembles diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In DLBCL-type PTLD, the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab (R) may be combined with chemotherapy (R-CHOP) or use a strategy (R-primary; similar to the PTLD-1 clinical trial) consisting of induction with four weekly doses of R-alone, without any chemotherapy or sequential R-CHOP follow-up. Here we report on a multicentre retrospective cohort of solid organ transplant patients with DLBCL-type PTLD that were treated with R. In 168 adults, two-year overall survival (OS) was 63·7% [95% CI (confidence interval) 56·6-71·7%]. No difference in OS was observed, whether patients were treated with R-CHOP versus the R-primary strategy. In the 109 patients treated with R-primary, multivariate analysis found that baseline IPI score and the response to R-induction predicted OS. Patients who responded to R-induction had durable remissions without the addition of chemotherapy. Conversely, of the 46 patients who had stable or progressive disease after R-induction (R-failure), those who received R-CHOP had an only marginally improved outcome, with a two-year OS of 45% (23·1-65·3%) vs. no R-CHOP at 32% (14·7-49·8%). In real-world patients, R-failure and high IPI scores predict a poor outcome in DLBCL-type PTLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16304DOI Listing
April 2020

Cardiovascular Events Among Adults Treated With Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells (CAR-T).

J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 12;74(25):3099-3108

Cardiovascular Imaging Research Center (CIRC), Department of Radiology and Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Cardio-Oncology Program, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: Chimeric antigen receptors redirect T cells (CAR-T) to target cancer cells. There are limited data characterizing cardiac toxicity and cardiovascular (CV) events among adults treated with CAR-T.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible cardiac toxicities of CAR-T.

Methods: The registry included 137 patients who received CAR-T. Covariates included the occurrence and grade of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and the administration of tocilizumab for CRS. Cardiac toxicity was defined as a decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction or an increase in serum troponin. Cardiovascular events were a composite of arrhythmias, decompensated heart failure, and CV death.

Results: The median age was 62 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 54 to 70 years), 67% were male, 88% had lymphoma, and 8% had myeloma. Approximately 50% were treated with commercial CAR-T (Yescarta or Kymriah), and the remainder received noncommercial products. CRS, occurring a median of 5 days (IQR: 2 to 7 days) after CAR-T, occurred in 59%, and 39% were grade ≥2. Tocilizumab was administered to 56 patients (41%) with CRS, at a median of 27 h (IQR: 16 to 48 h) after onset. An elevated troponin occurred in 29 of 53 tested patients (54%), and a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction in 8 of 29 (28%); each occurred only in patients with grade ≥2 CRS. There were 17 CV events (12%, 6 CV deaths, 6 decompensated heart failure, and 5 arrhythmias; median time to event of 21 days), all occurred with grade ≥2 CRS (31% patients with grade ≥2 CRS), and 95% of events occurred after an elevated troponin. The duration between CRS onset and tocilizumab administration was associated with CV events, where the risk increased 1.7-fold with each 12-h delay to tocilizumab.

Conclusions: Among adults, cardiac injury and CV events are common post-CAR-T. There was a graded relationship among CRS, elevated troponin, and CV events, and a shorter time from CRS onset to tocilizumab was associated with a lower rate of CV events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.10.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938409PMC
December 2019

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis has variable time to onset following CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy.

Br J Haematol 2019 10 13;187(2):e35-e38. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Blood & Marrow Transplant and Cellular Immunotherapy, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16155DOI Listing
October 2019

Cytokine release syndrome and neurologic toxicities associated with chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy: A comprehensive review of emerging grading models.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2020 Mar 10;13(1):1-6. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapies Program, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Advances in the fields of immuno-oncology and T-cell engineering have brought autologous chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CART) therapies from the bench to the bedside. At present, two CART products that target CD19 are commercially available: tisagenlecleucel and axicabtagene ciloleucel. They have demonstrated remarkable efficacy for their particular indications. One challenge is to compare the safety among commercially available and clinical trial CART treatments due to the use of different grading models to assess the severity of cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity. An unmet need exists to harmonize current grading models in order to develop uniform treatment strategies to manage these toxicities. Here, we attempt to summarize the evolution of the various grading systems for cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity and also highlight the major differences among them, whenever applicable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hemonc.2019.05.005DOI Listing
March 2020

Radiation Therapy as a Bridging Strategy for CAR T Cell Therapy With Axicabtagene Ciloleucel in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 12 5;105(5):1012-1021. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida. Electronic address:

Purpose: Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) is a CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy for relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Bridging therapy may be required for lymphoma control during the manufacturing interval between collection of autologous T cells and final CAR T product administration. The optimal bridging therapy is not known and patients are often chemorefractory. We present a case series of patients receiving radiation as a bridge to axi-cel.

Methods And Materials: Between December 2017 and October 2018, 12 patients were intended to receive bridging radiation before axi-cel. The group was characterized by highly aggressive disease including 6 of 12 with "double hit" lymphoma and 6 of 12 with disease ≥10 cm in diameter. All patients received 2 to 4 Gy/fraction to a median dose of 20 Gy (range, 6-36.5 Gy). Half of patients received either 30 Gy in 10 fractions or 20 Gy in 5 fractions. Seven patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Eleven patients underwent axi-cel infusion and one did not. Median follow-up was 3.3 months (range, 1.1-12.0 months).

Results: No significant toxicities were identified during bridging radiation, and no patient experienced in-field progression of disease before axi-cel infusion. One patient experienced abdominal pain, which resolved after dose reduction. Two patients had out-of-field progression of disease during the bridging period. After axi-cel infusion, 3 of 11 patients (27%) experienced severe cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity. At 30 days, the objective response rate was 81.8% (11 of 12 evaluable; 1 stable disease, 1 out-of-field progression), with complete response in 27% (3 of 11). At last follow-up, the best objective response rate was 81.8%, with a complete response attained in 45% (5 of 11). Lymphocyte counts decreased slightly in 10 of 12 patients during radiation (median, 0.25 k/uL).

Conclusions: Radiation (with or without concurrent chemotherapy) can be safely administered as a bridge to axi-cel in high-risk lymphoma. Caution should be taken if irradiation is started before apheresis, and lymphocyte counts should be monitored closely throughout. Future investigation is warranted to optimize the use of bridging radiation before CAR T therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.05.065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872916PMC
December 2019

Advances in aggressive lymphoma from the 2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting: commentary.

Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 2018 Aug;16 Suppl 14(8):20-23

Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida.

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August 2018

Axicabtagene ciloleucel (KTE-C19), an anti-CD19 CAR T therapy for the treatment of relapsed/refractory aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2018 31;14:1007-1017. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Oncologic Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Adoptive T-cell immunotherapy is a rapidly growing field and is shifting the paradigm of clinical cancer treatment. Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) is an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy that was initially developed at the National Cancer Institute and has recently been commercially approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and its variants. The ZUMA-1 Phase I and II clinical trials formed the basis of the US Food and Drug Administration approval of this product, and we discuss the particulars of the clinical trials and the pharmacology of axi-cel. In addition, we review the CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-specific toxicities of cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity, which remain the challenges to the safe delivery of this important therapy for aggressive B-cell lymphomas with poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S145039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5987753PMC
May 2018

Concise Review: Emerging Principles from the Clinical Application of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapies for B Cell Malignancies.

Stem Cells 2018 01 25;36(1):36-44. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Department of Blood and Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Immunotherapy, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, USA.

Gene-engineered T cell therapies are soon to be United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for at least two types of B cell malignancies in pediatric and adult patients, in the form of CD19 targeted chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cell therapy. This represents a triumph of a true bench to bedside clinical translation of a therapy that was conceived of in the early 1990s. Clinical results have demonstrated efficacious responses in patients with the CD19 positive diseases B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. However, significant challenges have emerged, including worrisome immune-related toxicities, therapy resistance, and understanding how to administer CD19 CAR T cells in clinical practice. Although much remains to be learned, pioneering clinical trials have led to foundational insights about the clinical translation of this novel therapy. Here, we review the "lessons learned" from the pre-clinical and human experience with CAR T cell therapy. Stem Cells 2018;36:36-44.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.2715DOI Listing
January 2018

Anti-PD-1 Antibodies as a Therapeutic Strategy in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Drugs 2017 Oct;77(15):1645-1655

Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 6-424 700 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 2M9, Canada.

Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is defined by malignant Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells that recruit non-malignant immune cells into a supportive tumour microenvironment. In cHL, this is driven, in part, by genomic alterations of the 9p24.1 locus encoding the immune checkpoint ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. Therapeutic anti-PD-1 antibodies have been developed that competitively inhibit the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands. Clinical trials of anti-PD-1 antibodies in cHL demonstrate high overall response rates but relapses still occur and new clinical challenges exist for toxicity management and response assessment. This review discusses the biological and clinical features of anti-PD-1 antibody therapy in cHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40265-017-0796-zDOI Listing
October 2017

Workplace-Based Assessment of Internal Medicine Resident Diagnostic Accuracy.

J Grad Med Educ 2014 Sep;6(3):532-5

Background: Making an accurate diagnosis is a core skill residents must develop. Assessments of this skill and decisions to grant residents clinical independence often are based on global impressions. A workplace-based assessment of diagnostic accuracy could be a useful part of a competency-based assessment program and could inform decisions about granting residents independence.

Innovation: We developed a method for measuring diagnostic accuracy that was integrated into the workflow of internal medicine residents and attending physicians.

Methods: Four senior medical residents and 6 attending physicians working in the internal medicine clinical teaching unit of a tertiary hospital participated in this study. To determine their diagnostic accuracy, residents documented a leading diagnosis for each patient they evaluated in the emergency department. After reviewing each case with the resident and after examining the patient, the resident's attending physician documented the diagnosis. Discharge diagnosis was determined by retrospective chart review to allow determination of resident and attending physician diagnostic accuracy. Data were collected for 240 consecutive patients referred for a medicine consultation.

Results: Resident diagnostic accuracy was 66% (95% CI 60-72), whereas attending physician accuracy was significantly higher at 79% (95% CI 74-84, P < .001). By logistic regression, the accuracy of the attending physician was found to be influenced by the accuracy of the resident. Participants felt this process motivated them to improve their clinical reasoning.

Conclusions: Measuring resident diagnostic accuracy provides information that could be used in a competency-based assessment program to provide feedback and motivation to stimulate performance improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-13-00431.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4535220PMC
September 2014

Seek and you shall find--but then what do you do? Cold agglutinins in cardiopulmonary bypass and a single-center experience with cold agglutinin screening before cardiac surgery.

Transfus Med Rev 2013 Apr 1;27(2):65-73. Epub 2013 Feb 1.

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery can involve deliberate hypothermia of the systemic (22-36 °C) and coronary circulations (as low as 8-12 °C). Adverse sequelae of cold-active antibodies have been feared and reported under such conditions, and some centers thus elect to screen for cold agglutinins before CPB. We reviewed the literature on cold agglutinins in cardiac surgery and described the yields and effects of cold agglutinin screening (CAS) in 14,900 cardiac surgery patients undergoing CPB over 8 years at a single institution. Cold agglutinin screening was positive in 47 cases (0.3%), at an annual testing cost of $17,000 CAD. The response of the surgical team to the preoperative discovery of a cold agglutinin was variable, with CPB modified to avoid hypothermia in approximately one-third of cases. In patients discovered to have a positive CAS, postoperative intensive care unit and hospital length of stay were marginally increased (54.6 vs. 42.8 hours, P = .02; 7 [6-14] vs. 7 [5-9] days, P = .04). However, the composite of mortality or severe morbidity (stroke, myocardial infarction, dialysis, low output syndrome, sepsis, and deep vein thrombosis) was not significantly different (14.9% vs. 9.2%, P = .2). Antibody verification found that only 43% of positive CAS patients had true cold agglutinins (20 patients). Furthermore, the rate of adverse events was low in both CAS-positive and true-positive cold agglutinin patients undergoing CPB and cardiac surgery. Finally, modification of CPB to attenuate hypothermia did not decrease adverse events. Based upon historical and local data, preclinical CAS is cost-substantial and nonspecific. Cold agglutinin screening does not promote an algorithm of care that meaningfully improves patient CPB outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2012.12.001DOI Listing
April 2013

High-resolution mapping of the Gli3 mutation extra-toes reveals a 51.5-kb deletion.

Mamm Genome 2002 Jan;13(1):58-61

Department of Cell and Molecular Physiology, UNC Neuroscience Center, CB#7545, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-001-2115-xDOI Listing
January 2002