Publications by authors named "Michael D Bartoschek"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Loss-of-function mutations in the histone methyltransferase EZH2 promote chemotherapy resistance in AML.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 12;11(1):5838. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Medicine III, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Chemotherapy resistance is the main impediment in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Despite rapid advances, the various mechanisms inducing resistance development remain to be defined in detail. Here we report that loss-of-function mutations (LOF) in the histone methyltransferase EZH2 have the potential to confer resistance against the chemotherapeutic agent cytarabine. We identify seven distinct EZH2 mutations leading to loss of H3K27 trimethylation via multiple mechanisms. Analysis of matched diagnosis and relapse samples reveal a heterogenous regulation of EZH2 and a loss of EZH2 in 50% of patients. We confirm that loss of EZH2 induces resistance against cytarabine in the cell lines HEK293T and K562 as well as in a patient-derived xenograft model. Proteomics and transcriptomics analysis reveal that resistance is conferred by upregulation of multiple direct and indirect EZH2 target genes that are involved in apoptosis evasion, augmentation of proliferation and alteration of transmembrane transporter function. Our data indicate that loss of EZH2 results in upregulation of its target genes, providing the cell with a selective growth advantage, which mediates chemotherapy resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84708-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955088PMC
March 2021

Identification of permissive amber suppression sites for efficient non-canonical amino acid incorporation in mammalian cells.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Biology II and Center for Molecular Biosystems (BioSysM), Human Biology and BioImaging, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich 81377, Germany.

The genetic code of mammalian cells can be expanded to allow the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) by suppressing in-frame amber stop codons (UAG) with an orthogonal pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS)/tRNAPylCUA (PylT) pair. However, the feasibility of this approach is substantially hampered by unpredictable variations in incorporation efficiencies at different stop codon positions within target proteins. Here, we apply a proteomics-based approach to quantify ncAA incorporation rates at hundreds of endogenous amber stop codons in mammalian cells. With these data, we compute iPASS (Identification of Permissive Amber Sites for Suppression; available at www.bultmannlab.eu/tools/iPASS), a linear regression model to predict relative ncAA incorporation efficiencies depending on the surrounding sequence context. To verify iPASS, we develop a dual-fluorescence reporter for high-throughput flow-cytometry analysis that reproducibly yields context-specific ncAA incorporation efficiencies. We show that nucleotides up- and downstream of UAG synergistically influence ncAA incorporation efficiency independent of cell line and ncAA identity. Additionally, we demonstrate iPASS-guided optimization of ncAA incorporation rates by synonymous exchange of codons flanking the amber stop codon. This combination of in silico analysis followed by validation in living mammalian cells substantially simplifies identification as well as adaptation of sites within a target protein to confer high ncAA incorporation rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab132DOI Listing
March 2021

Live cell PNA labelling enables erasable fluorescence imaging of membrane proteins.

Nat Chem 2021 01 7;13(1):15-23. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Chemistry, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

DNA nanotechnology is an emerging field that promises fascinating opportunities for the manipulation and imaging of proteins on a cell surface. The key to progress is the ability to create a nucleic acid-protein junction in the context of living cells. Here we report a covalent labelling reaction that installs a biostable peptide nucleic acid (PNA) tag. The reaction proceeds within minutes and is specific for proteins carrying a 2 kDa coiled-coil peptide tag. Once installed, the PNA label serves as a generic landing platform that enables the recruitment of fluorescent dyes via nucleic acid hybridization. We demonstrate the versatility of this approach by recruiting different fluorophores, assembling multiple fluorophores for increased brightness and achieving reversible labelling by way of toehold-mediated strand displacement. Additionally, we show that labelling can be carried out using two different coiled-coil systems, with epidermal growth factor receptor and endothelin receptor type B, on both HEK293 and CHO cells. Finally, we apply the method to monitor internalization of epidermal growth factor receptor on CHO cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41557-020-00584-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Recent evolution of a TET-controlled and DPPA3/STELLA-driven pathway of passive DNA demethylation in mammals.

Nat Commun 2020 11 24;11(1):5972. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Biology II and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Human Biology and BioImaging, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Genome-wide DNA demethylation is a unique feature of mammalian development and naïve pluripotent stem cells. Here, we describe a recently evolved pathway in which global hypomethylation is achieved by the coupling of active and passive demethylation. TET activity is required, albeit indirectly, for global demethylation, which mostly occurs at sites devoid of TET binding. Instead, TET-mediated active demethylation is locus-specific and necessary for activating a subset of genes, including the naïve pluripotency and germline marker Dppa3 (Stella, Pgc7). DPPA3 in turn drives large-scale passive demethylation by directly binding and displacing UHRF1 from chromatin, thereby inhibiting maintenance DNA methylation. Although unique to mammals, we show that DPPA3 alone is capable of inducing global DNA demethylation in non-mammalian species (Xenopus and medaka) despite their evolutionary divergence from mammals more than 300 million years ago. Our findings suggest that the evolution of Dppa3 facilitated the emergence of global DNA demethylation in mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19603-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686362PMC
November 2020

Distinct and stage-specific contributions of TET1 and TET2 to stepwise cytosine oxidation in the transition from naive to primed pluripotency.

Sci Rep 2020 07 21;10(1):12066. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Biology II and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Cytosine DNA bases can be methylated by DNA methyltransferases and subsequently oxidized by TET proteins. The resulting 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) are considered demethylation intermediates as well as stable epigenetic marks. To dissect the contributions of these cytosine modifying enzymes, we generated combinations of Tet knockout (KO) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and systematically measured protein and DNA modification levels at the transition from naive to primed pluripotency. Whereas the increase of genomic 5-methylcytosine (5mC) levels during exit from pluripotency correlated with an upregulation of the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B, the subsequent oxidation steps turned out to be far more complex. The strong increase of oxidized cytosine bases (5hmC, 5fC, and 5caC) was accompanied by a drop in TET2 levels, yet the analysis of KO cells suggested that TET2 is responsible for most 5fC formation. The comparison of modified cytosine and enzyme levels in Tet KO cells revealed distinct and differentiation-dependent contributions of TET1 and TET2 to 5hmC and 5fC formation arguing against a processive mechanism of 5mC oxidation. The apparent independent steps of 5hmC and 5fC formation suggest yet to be identified mechanisms regulating TET activity that may constitute another layer of epigenetic regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68600-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374584PMC
July 2020

Locus-Specific Chromatin Proteome Revealed by Mass Spectrometry-Based CasID.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2175:109-121

Department of Biology II and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Human Biology and BioImaging, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Biotin proximity labeling has largely extended the toolbox of mass spectrometry-based interactomics. To date, BirA, engineered BirA variants, or other biotinylating enzymes have been widely applied to characterize protein interactions. By implementing chromatin purification-based methods the genome-wide interactome of proteins can be defined. However, acquiring a high-resolution interactome of a single genomic locus preferably by multiplexed measurements of several distinct genomic loci in parallel remains challenging. We recently developed CasID, a novel approach where the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) is coupled to the promiscuous biotin ligase BirA (BirA∗). With CasID, first the local proteome at repetitive telomeric, major satellite, and minor satellite regions was determined. With more efficient biotin ligases and sensitive mass spectrometry, others have successfully identified the chromatin composition at even smaller genomic, non-repetitive regions of a few hundred base pairs in length. Here, we summarize the most recent developments towards interactomics at a single genomic locus and provide a step-by-step protocol based on the CasID approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0763-3_9DOI Listing
March 2021

Cathepsin S Alterations Induce a Tumor-Promoting Immune Microenvironment in Follicular Lymphoma.

Cell Rep 2020 05 23;31(5):107522. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Medicine III, Laboratory for Experimental Leukemia and Lymphoma Research (ELLF), Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Munich, Bavaria 81377, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Munich, Bavaria 81377, Germany; German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg 69120, Germany. Electronic address:

Tumor cells orchestrate their microenvironment. Here, we provide biochemical, structural, functional, and clinical evidence that Cathepsin S (CTSS) alterations induce a tumor-promoting immune microenvironment in follicular lymphoma (FL). We found CTSS mutations at Y132 in 6% of FL (19/305). Another 13% (37/286) had CTSS amplification, which was associated with higher CTSS expression. CTSS Y132 mutations lead to accelerated autocatalytic conversion from an enzymatically inactive profrom to active CTSS and increased substrate cleavage, including CD74, which regulates major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II)-restricted antigen presentation. Lymphoma cells with hyperactive CTSS more efficiently activated antigen-specific CD4 T cells in vitro. Tumors with hyperactive CTSS showed increased CD4 T cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine perturbation in a mouse model and in human FLs. In mice, this CTSS-induced immune microenvironment promoted tumor growth. Clinically, patients with CTSS-hyperactive FL had better treatment outcomes with standard immunochemotherapies, indicating that these immunosuppressive regimens target both the lymphoma cells and the tumor-promoting immune microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107522DOI Listing
May 2020

Tunable light and drug induced depletion of target proteins.

Nat Commun 2020 01 16;11(1):304. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Biological processes in development and disease are controlled by the abundance, localization and modification of cellular proteins. We have developed versatile tools based on recombinant E3 ubiquitin ligases that are controlled by light or drug induced heterodimerization for nanobody or DARPin targeted depletion of endogenous proteins in cells and organisms. We use this rapid, tunable and reversible protein depletion for functional studies of essential proteins like PCNA in DNA repair and to investigate the role of CED-3 in apoptosis during Caenorhabditis elegans development. These independent tools can be combined for spatial and temporal depletion of different sets of proteins, can help to distinguish immediate cellular responses from long-term adaptation effects and can facilitate the exploration of complex networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-14160-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6965615PMC
January 2020

Loss of KDM6A confers drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia.

Leukemia 2020 01 14;34(1):50-62. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine III, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematologic neoplasm resulting from the malignant transformation of myeloid progenitors. Despite intensive chemotherapy leading to initial treatment responses, relapse caused by intrinsic or acquired drug resistance represents a major challenge. Here, we report that histone 3 lysine 27 demethylase KDM6A (UTX) is targeted by inactivating mutations and mutation-independent regulation in relapsed AML. Analyses of matched diagnosis and relapse specimens from individuals with KDM6A mutations showed an outgrowth of the KDM6A mutated tumor population at relapse. KDM6A expression is heterogeneously regulated and relapse-specific loss of KDM6A was observed in 45.7% of CN-AML patients. KDM6A-null myeloid leukemia cells were more resistant to treatment with the chemotherapeutic agents cytarabine (AraC) and daunorubicin. Inducible re-expression of KDM6A in KDM6A-null cell lines suppressed proliferation and sensitized cells again to AraC treatment. RNA expression analysis and functional studies revealed that resistance to AraC was conferred by downregulation of the nucleoside membrane transporter ENT1 (SLC29A1) by reduced H3K27 acetylation at the ENT1 locus. Our results show that loss of KDM6A provides cells with a selective advantage during chemotherapy, which ultimately leads to the observed outgrowth of clones with KDM6A mutations or reduced KDM6A expression at relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0497-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214274PMC
January 2020